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  Ecology, Management and Conservation in Natural and Modified Habitats
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Wildlife Research covers all major aspects of the ecology, management and conservation of wild animals in natural and modified habitats. More

Editors: Stan Boutin, Andrea Taylor and Piran White


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Published online 31 August 2015
Population regulation of African buffalo in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem 
Holly T. Dublin and Joseph O. Ogutu

Understanding the processes that regulate animal populations is a central theme in ecology. We test predictions of hypotheses concerning food limitation, competition, predation, disease and land use changes on buffalo population dynamics in an African savanna – the Mara–Serengeti Ecosystem. Buffalo population growth is apparently regulated by density-dependent food limitation and interspecific completion. The effects of density-dependent food limitation, interspecific competition, predation and land use changes on the Mara–Serengeti buffalo population are amplified by recurrent El Niño droughts, thus prolonging the recovery times and threatening the persistence of buffalo populations. Photograph by Reto Buehler.

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Published online 26 August 2015
Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis of bobcat (Lynx rufus) density: implications for mesocarnivore monitoring 
Daniel H. Thornton and Charles E. Pekins

Density estimates for carnivores (number of individuals per unit area) are fundamental to successful conservation and management, yet remain challenging to obtain for many species. We used camera trapping and recently developed statistical methods to generate precise density estimates of a common carnivore, the bobcat, in Texas. Our results highlight the utility of this method for density estimation of small carnivores, and also indicate that if such methods are combined across multiple studies, inference about regional variability in density is achievable.

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Published online 26 August 2015
Assessing capture and tagging methods for brolgas, Antigone rubicunda (Gruidae) 
Inka Veltheim, Felipe Chavez-Ramirez, Richard Hill and Simon Cook

Researchers have an ethical responsibility to use, and report on, methods that minimise death and injury to study animals. We developed safe capture and tagging methods for an Australian crane, the brolga, after published methods proved ineffective or posed a welfare risk for this species. Use of call playback and taxidermy decoys with our noose trap design can reduce capture-related deaths and injuries to brolgas, and other crane species with similar behaviour. Photograph by Inka Veltheim.

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Published online 03 August 2015
The fancy city life: Kuhl's pipistrelle, Pipistrellus kuhlii, benefits from urbanisation 
Leonardo Ancillotto, Alessandra Tomassini and Danilo Russo

Understanding why some species benefit from urbanisation is central for appropriate wildlife management in human-dominated ecosystems. We found that the bat Pipistrellus kuhlii, increasing its range across Europe, obtains major reproductive advantages in urban areas. Although this fitness advantage may help explain the observed increase in geographical distribution, a positive effect of climate change on this warm-adapted bat cannot be ruled out. Photograph by Jens Rydell.

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Published online 03 August 2015
A cross-continental look at the patterns of avian species diversity and composition across an urbanisation gradient 
Barbara Clucas and John M. Marzluff

As the world becomes more urban, the importance of protecting wildlife in urban areas increases. We found that certain bird species do better in human-dominated areas, in particular those that use bird feeders. In order to conserve the greatest bird diversity in urban areas, urban planners and residents should provide a variety of habitats, supplemental natural foods and nesting places for birds. Photograph by Jacob Clifford.

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Published online 17 July 2015
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) concentrate around urban waste dumps across Tigray, northern Ethiopia 
Gidey Yirga, Herwig Leirs, Hans H. De Iongh, Tsehaye Asmelash, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Jozef Deckers and Hans Bauer

The spotted hyena lives in remarkably close proximity to humans in the degraded and prey-depleted landscapes in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We sought to provide an estimate of hyena abundance at garbage dumps and open agricultural areas. A very large hyena population persists in unprotected areas of Tigray, where they concentrate around urban waste dumps at night for scavengeable food resources. Photograph by Gidey Yirga.

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Published online 01 July 2015
Human–wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities 
Carl D. Soulsbury and Piran C. L. White

There is a pressing need to understand the type and nature of human–wildlife interactions within urban environments, to help manage, mitigate or even promote these interactions. There is an inherent bias in the literature towards quantifying and assessing human–wildlife conflict, whereas the benefit wildlife brings to urban areas is poorly characterised, but includes benefits such as ecosystem services and through to health and wellbeing. Research is critically needed to improve our understanding in this area, requiring wildlife biologists to work with other research disciplines.

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Published online 10 June 2015
Good neighbours: distribution of black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in an urban environment 
Bruno Teixeira, Andre Hirsch, Vinicius D. L. R. Goulart, Luiza Passos, Camila P. Teixeira, Philip James and Robert Young

The increasing growth of human urban populations leads to complex alterations of landscapes, the effects of which on wildlife are not fully understood. The way wildlife responds to such impacts is an important aspect to be considered in urban planning and management. We found that marmoset groups were found in green areas surrounded by highly populated areas; however, socioeconomical factors were significantly related to the occurrence of primate groups.

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Published online 11 March 2015
Boldness and urban dwelling in little ravens 
Aaron Vines and Alan Lill

To successfully inhabit cities, birds must be inherently able or learn to cope with high volumes of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. This study showed that urban little ravens were much more tolerant of approaches by pedestrians than their exurban counterparts, but urban individuals living in high- and low-volume traffic areas varied little in their tolerance of human proximity and a simulated vehicle sound. A high level of boldness appears to be important in facilitating urban-living by native little ravens and may be genetically and/or learning-based.

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Volume 42 Number 4 2015

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How many are there? Multiple-covariate distance sampling for monitoring pampas deer in Corrientes, Argentina 
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Talía Zamboni , Alicia Delgado , Ignacio Jiménez-Pérez and Carlos De Angelo
pp. 291-301

Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, is an endangered species in Argentina, where scarce information exists about one of the four remaining populations. Deer density estimated using a Multiple-covariate Distance Sampling engine determined a larger population than previous studies. Our estimates and methods can be used as a baseline for future population monitoring, considering covariate distance sampling can provide more realistic population estimates, also suggesting the inclusion of additional variables for future analysis. Photograph by Talía Zamboni.


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Fauna and vegetation responses to fire and invasion by toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) in an obligate seeder-dominated tropical savanna in the Kimberley, northern Australia 
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Ian J. Radford and Richard Fairman
pp. 302-314

Little is known about fire- or cane toad invasion-responses of biota within fire-sensitive non-riparian savanna vegetation types. This study tested whether fire- and cane toad invasion-responses were greater and lesser respectively in Kimberley pindan woodlands than in savannas generally. Fire management of pindan woodlands needs to reduce frequency of high intensity fires to less than one in five years based on fire-responses; low cane toad impacts to pindan biota suggest non-riparian savannas may provide partial invasion refuge for fauna.

   |        Open Access Article

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Performance of GPS collars on free-ranging bison (Bison bison) in north-western Canada 
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Thomas S. Jung and Kazuhisa Kuba
pp. 315-323

Assessments of GPS collar performance are needed to ensure that reliable information is obtained and resources are wisely allocated. GPS collars affixed to bison often failed due to animal behaviour, with those on males performing particularly poorly; however, undamaged collars provided high data acquistion rates that was largely free from temporal biases. Our data highlight that researchers should plan for catastrophic failures in their GPS collar-based studies. Photograph by T. S. Jung.


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The influence of urban encroachment on squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis): effects of road density, light and noise pollution 
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Mitchell J. Francis , Peter G. Spooner and Alison Matthews
pp. 324-333

Urban development is a key threat to the squirrel glider because its distribution coincides with where many people live. Using camera trapping methods, we investigated glider use of large, hollow-bearing trees in a typical urban–rural matrix, and found that tree height, road density, noise and light pollution affected their activity and occupancy. Squirrel gliders will tolerate human disturbances to a certain extent; however, novel solutions are required to lessen these impacts where native vegetation is retained in urban areas for conservation purposes.

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Risks in extrapolating habitat preferences over the geographical range of threatened taxa: a case study of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) in the southern forests of Western Australia 
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Karlene Bain , Adrian Wayne and Roberta Bencini
pp. 334-342

We investigated the risks associated with geographical extrapolation of ecological information, using the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) as a case study. We found that extrapolation of knowledge between ecologically diverse regions resulted in significant sources of error and consequently an inappropriate management of habitat and an increased risk of local extinctions. Where such extrapolation is necessary, actions should be implemented in a management framework that can detect adverse effects, allow for inclusion of new ecological information, and explicitly consider the limitations and assumptions of the approach. Photograph by K. Bain.


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Feral cat diet and predation on endangered endemic mammals on a biodiversity hot spot (Amami–Ohshima Island, Japan) 
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Kazumi Shionosaki , Fumio Yamada , Takuya Ishikawa and Shozo Shibata
pp. 343-352

Amami-Ohshima Island, Japan is one of the islands where feral cat predations on endemic species have been seriously concerned but not studied. We conducted scat analysis to reveal the feral cat diet and founded three IUCN Red List species were among the main prey species. The feral cat managements should be considered to prevent another extinction of endemic species. Photograph by Amami Wildlife Conservation Center.


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Ecological effects of game management: does supplemental feeding affect herbivory pressure on native vegetation? 
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María Miranda , Ignacio Cristóbal , Leticia Díaz , Marisa Sicilia , Eduarda Molina-Alcaide , Jordi Bartolomé , Yolanda Fierro and Jorge Cassinello
pp. 353-361

Supplemental food may be used to increase game populations and trophy sizes, but could influence the effects herbivores have on plants. We investigated how supplemental feeding of Iberian red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus influenced their effects on Mediterranean woody plants. Since browsing was higher on plants with complementary nutrients to the supplied food, we recommend the nutrients in supplemental food to be adjusted to local plant communities. Photograph by Research Group on Behavioural Ecology and Conservation Biology of Ungulates, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC), CSIC-UCLM-JCCM.


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Pindone residues in rabbit tissues: implications for secondary hazard and risk to non-target wildlife 
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Penny Fisher , Samantha Brown and Jane Arrow
pp. 362-370

Continued use of pindone, an anticoagulant poison, for rabbit management requires improved understanding of the secondary risk presented to predatory and scavenging wildlife. We generated new data on residual concentrations of pindone in the tissues of poisoned rabbits using laboratory and field-based testing. Concentrations of residual pindone in fat and liver of poisoned rabbits suggest that secondary poisoning hazard to some non-target predators and scavengers is high and this should be further evaluated in field-based assessments of the non-target impact. Photograph by Donna Falconer, Eastern Falcon Conservation Trust, New Zealand.


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Corrigendum to: Estimates of abundance and apparent survival of coastal dolphins in Port Essington harbour, Northern Territory, Australia 
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Carol Palmer , Lyndon Brooks , Guido J. Parra , Tracey Rogers , Debra Glasgow and John C. Z. Woinarski
pp. 371-371
 |    Corrigendum PDF (514 KB) - $25.00  

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WR15020  Accepted 15 August 2015
    Space use by resident and transient coyotes in an urban-rural landscape mosaic
    Numi Mitchell, Michael Strohbach, Ralph Pratt, Wendy Finn, Eric Strauss

    WR15064  Accepted 05 August 2015
    Mixed stock analysis of a resident green turtle, Chelonia mydas, population in New Caledonia links rookeries in the South Pacific
    Tyffen Read, Nancy FitzSimmons, Laurent Wantiez, Michael Jensen, Florent Keller, Olivier Chateau, Richard Farman, Jonathan Werry, Kenneth MacKay, George Petro, Col Limpus

    WR15054  Accepted 04 August 2015
    The effectiveness and cost of camera traps for surveying small reptiles and critical weight range mammals: A comparison with labour-intensive complimentary methods
    Dustin Welbourne, Christopher MacGregor, David Paull, David Lindenmayer

    WR14233  Accepted 29 July 2015
    The role of the bandwidth matrix in influencing kernel home range estimates for snakes using VHF telemetry data
    Javan Bauder, David Breininger, M. Bolt, Mike Legare, Christopher Jenkins, Kevin McGarigal

    WR14199  Accepted 29 July 2015
    Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates
    Michael Casazza, Peter Coates, Cory Overton, Kristy Howe

    WR15009  Accepted 08 July 2015
    The preference for yew (Taxus baccata) by a red (Sciurus vulgaris) squirrel population in a mixed woodland.
    Amy Haigh, Ruth O'Riordan, Fidelma Butler

    WR14183  Accepted 06 July 2015
    Using Site Occupancy Models to Prepare for the Spread of Chytridiomyosis and Identify Factors Affecting Detectability of a Cryptic Susceptible Species, the Tasmanian Tree Frog
    Scott Cashins, Annie Philips, Lee Skerratt

    WR13220  Accepted 24 February 2014
    Information on population trends and biological constraints from bat counts in roost cavities: a twenty two-year case study of an hibernaculum of Pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Schreber).
    Christian Kerbiriou, Jean François Julien, Sophie Monsarrat, Philippe Lustrat, Alexandre Haquart, Alexandre Robert


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 20 February 2015
Effects of low-level culling of feral cats in open populations: a case study from the forests of southern Tasmania

Billie T. Lazenby, Nicholas J. Mooney and Christopher R. Dickman

2. Published 6 October 2014
Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

Roger Kirkwood, Duncan R. Sutherland, Stuart Murphy and Peter Dann

3. Published 20 February 2015
A critical review of habitat use by feral cats and key directions for future research and management

Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen and Robert A. Davis

4. Published 6 October 2014
Interactions between the superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae) and fire in south-eastern Australia

Daniel T. Nugent, Steven W. J. Leonard and Michael F. Clarke

5. Published 4 March 2015
How many are there? The use and misuse of continental-scale wildlife abundance estimates

Jim Hone and Tony Buckmaster

6. Published 6 October 2014
Effects of coordinated poison-baiting programs on survival and abundance in two red fox populations

Andrew Bengsen

7. Published 22 May 2015
How to snap your cat: optimum lures and their placement for attracting mammalian predators in arid Australia

J. L. Read, A. J. Bengsen, P. D. Meek and K. E. Moseby

8. Published 15 July 2015
Density and home range of feral cats in north-western Australia

Hugh W. McGregor, Sarah Legge, Joanne Potts, Menna E. Jones and Christopher N. Johnson

9. Published 17 April 2015
How guardian dogs protect livestock from predators: territorial enforcement by Maremma sheepdogs

Linda van Bommel and Chris N. Johnson

10. Published 6 October 2014
At home in a new range: wild red deer in south-eastern Queensland

Matt Amos, Greg Baxter, Neal Finch and Peter Murray

11. Published 15 July 2015
Is fire a threatening process for Liopholis kintorei, a nationally listed threatened skink?

Danae Moore, Michael Ray Kearney, Rachel Paltridge, Steve McAlpin and Adam Stow

12. Published 6 October 2014
Effects of a GnRH vaccine on the movement and activity of free-living wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Roger J. Quy, Giovanna Massei, Mark S. Lambert, Julia Coats, Lowell A. Miller and David P. Cowan

13. Published 17 April 2015
Seasonal and individual variation in selection by feral cats for areas with widespread primary prey and localised alternative prey

Jennyffer Cruz, Chris Woolmore, M. Cecilia Latham, A. David M. Latham, Roger P. Pech and Dean P. Anderson

14. Published 17 April 2015
Predicting the future range and abundance of fallow deer in Tasmania, Australia

J. M. Potts, N. J. Beeton, D. M. J. S. Bowman, G. J. Williamson, E. C. Lefroy and C. N. Johnson

15. Published 18 December 2014
Testing the regional genetic representativeness of captive koala populations in South-East Queensland

Jennifer M. Seddon, Kristen E. Lee, Stephen D. Johnston, Vere N. Nicolson, Michael Pyne, Frank N. Carrick and William A. H. Ellis

16. Published 17 April 2015
Remote sensing can locate and assess the changing abundance of hollow-bearing trees for wildlife in Australian native forests

Christopher J. Owers, Rodney P. Kavanagh and Eleanor Bruce

17. Published 15 July 2015
What drives cat-owner behaviour? First steps towards limiting domestic-cat impacts on native wildlife

Edith MacDonald, Taciano Milfont and Michael Gavin

18. Published 6 October 2014
Use by small mammals of a chronosequence of tropical rainforest revegetation

Tegan Whitehead, Miriam Goosem and Noel D. Preece

19. Published 20 February 2015
Habitat use and behaviour of birds in areas invaded by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and in restored habitat

Lauren Young and Christine Schlesinger

20. Published 20 March 2015
Population recovery of the yellow-footed rock-wallaby following fox control in New South Wales and South Australia

Andy Sharp, Melinda Norton, Chris Havelberg, Wendy Cliff and Adam Marks

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