The Biology and Ecology of Heliothis-Armigera (Hubner) and Heliothis-Punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Australia - What Do We Know
MP Zalucki, G Daglish, S Firempong and P Twine
Australian Journal of Zoology
34(6) 779 - 814
The taxonomy and identification of Heliothis armigera and H. punctigera, their distribution and host plants in Australia, the effect of host plant on reproduction and on the development and survival of immature stages, their movements, population biology and dynamics, and their control, are reviewed. Areas where further study is desirable include: the nature of host plant selection and host species preference; adaptability to new cultivars; effects of host plant on development; detailed life-table studies on different host plants; the contribution of predation, parasitism and disease to mortality; factors responsible for fluctuations in populations between years, including the origins of outbreak populations; and control strategies other than insecticide treatment.
Full text doi:10.1071/ZO9860779
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