Emu Emu Society
Journal of BirdLife Australia
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Continental-scale decreases in shorebird populations in Australia

Robert S. Clemens A S , Danny I. Rogers B , Birgita D. Hansen C , Ken Gosbell D , Clive D. T. Minton D , Phil Straw E , Mike Bamford F , Eric J. Woehler G H , David A. Milton I J , Michael A. Weston K , Bill Venables A , Dan Weller L , Chris Hassell M , Bill Rutherford N , Kimberly Onton O P , Ashley Herrod Q , Colin E. Studds A , Chi-Yeung Choi A , Kiran L. Dhanjal-Adams A , Nicholas J. Murray R , Gregory A. Skilleter A and Richard A. Fuller A
+ Author Affliations
- Author Affliations

A Environmental Decisions Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.

B Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, PO Box 137, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia.

C Centre for eResearch and Digital Innovation, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Ballarat, Vic. 3353, Australia.

D Victorian Wader Study Group, 165 Dalgetty Road, Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia.

E Avifauna Research and Services Pty Ltd, PO Box 2006, Rockdale, NSW 2216, Australia.

F Bamford Consulting Ecologists, 23 Plover Way, Kingsley, WA 6026, Australia.

G BirdLife Tasmania, GPO Box 68, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

H Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

I Queensland Wader Study Group, 336 Prout Road, Burbank, Qld 4156, Australia.

J Present address: CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, PO Box 2583, Brisbane, Qld 4001, Australia.

K Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and the Built Environment, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Vic. 3125, Australia.

L BirdLife Australia, Suite 2-05, 60 Leicester Street, Carlton, Vic. 3053, Australia.

M Global Flyway Network, PO Box 3089, WA 6725, Australia.

N Ornithological Technical Services, Unit 11, 15 Profit Pass, Wangara, WA 6065, Australia.

O BirdLife Western Australia, 167 Perry Lakes Drive, Floreat, WA 6014, Australia.

P Department of Parks and Wildlife, PO Box 835, Karratha, WA 6714, Australia.

Q School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Vic. 3800, Australia.

R Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

S Corresponding author. Email: r.clemens@uq.edu.au

Emu 116(2) 119-135 https://doi.org/10.1071/MU15056
Submitted: 27 May 2015  Accepted: 18 November 2015   Published: 7 March 2016

Abstract

Decreases in shorebird populations are increasingly evident worldwide, especially in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway (EAAF). To arrest these declines, it is important to understand the scale of both the problem and the solutions. We analysed an expansive Australian citizen-science dataset, spanning the period 1973 to 2014, to explore factors related to differences in trends among shorebird populations in wetlands throughout Australia. Of seven resident Australian shorebird species, the four inland species exhibited continental decreases, whereas the three coastal species did not. Decreases in inland resident shorebirds were related to changes in availability of water at non-tidal wetlands, suggesting that degradation of wetlands in Australia’s interior is playing a role in these declines. For migratory shorebirds, the analyses revealed continental decreases in abundance in 12 of 19 species, and decreases in 17 of 19 in the southern half of Australia over the past 15 years. Many trends were strongly associated with continental gradients in latitude or longitude, suggesting some large-scale patterns in the decreases, with steeper declines often evident in southern Australia. After accounting for this effect, local variables did not explain variation in migratory shorebird trends between sites. Our results are consistent with other studies indicating that decreases in migratory shorebird populations in the EAAF are most likely being driven primarily by factors outside Australia. This reinforces the need for urgent overseas conservation actions. However, substantially heterogeneous trends within Australia, combined with declines of inland resident shorebirds indicate effective management of Australian shorebird habitat remains important.


References

Aharon-Rotman, Y., Soloviev, M., Minton, C., Tomkovich, P., Hassell, C., and Klaassen, M. (2015). Loss of periodocity in breeding success of waders links to changes in lemming cycles in Arctic ecosystems. Oikos 124, 861–870.
Loss of periodocity in breeding success of waders links to changes in lemming cycles in Arctic ecosystems.CrossRef | open url image1

Alves, J. A., Gunnarsson, T. G., Hayhow, D. B., Appleton, G. F., Potts, P. M., Sutherland, W. J., and Gill, J. A. (2013). Costs, benefits, and fitness consequences of different migratory strategies. Ecology 94, 11–17.
Costs, benefits, and fitness consequences of different migratory strategies.CrossRef | 23600235PubMed | open url image1

Amano, T., Szekely, T., Koyama, K., Amano, H., and Sutherland, W. J. (2010). A framework for monitoring the status of populations: an example from wader populations in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Biological Conservation 143, 2238–2247.
A framework for monitoring the status of populations: an example from wader populations in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.CrossRef | open url image1

Atkinson, P. W., Austin, G. E., Rehfisch, M. M., Baker, H., Cranswick, P., Kershaw, M., Robinson, J., Langston, R. H. W., Stroud, D. A., Van Turnhout, C., and Maclean, I. M. D. (2006). Identifying declines in waterbirds: the effects of missing data, population variability and count period on the interpretation of long-term survey data. Biological Conservation 130, 549–559.
Identifying declines in waterbirds: the effects of missing data, population variability and count period on the interpretation of long-term survey data.CrossRef | open url image1

Baker, A. J., Gonzalez, P. M., Piersma, T., Niles, L. J., do Nascimento, I. D. S., Atkinson, P. W., Clark, N. A., Minton, C. D. T., Peck, M. K., and Aarts, G. (2004). Rapid population decline in Red Knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271, 875–882.
Rapid population decline in Red Knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.CrossRef | 15255108PubMed | open url image1

Bamford, M., Watkins, D., Bancroft, W., Tischler, G., and Wahl, J. (2008). Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: population estimates and important sites. Wetlands International – Oceania, Canberra, ACT. Available at https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/782ebed5-6bdd-4a41-9759-b60273b52021/files/shorebirds-east-asia.pdf [Verified 7 December 2015].

Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Cunningham, R., and Poulter, R. (2002). Comparison of Atlas 1 (1977–1981) and Atlas 2 (1998–2001): Supplementary Report No. 1. Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Bart, J., and Johnston, V. (2012). ‘Arctic Shorebirds in North America: A Decade of Monitoring.’ (University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.)

Barter, M. (1992). Changing wader numbers in Swan Bay, Victoria – a cause for concern? Stilt 21, 8–12. open url image1

Barter, M. (1993). Population monitoring of waders in Australia: why is it so important, how is it best done and what can we do? Stilt 22, 13–15. open url image1

Barter, M., and Riegen, A. (2004). Northward shorebird migration through Yalu Jiang National Nature Reserve. Stilt 46, 9–14. open url image1

Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., and Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67, 1–48.
Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4.CrossRef | open url image1

Battley, P. F., Warnock, N., Tibbitts, T. L., Gill, R. E., Piersma, T., Hassell, C. J., Douglas, D. C., Mulcahy, D. M., Gartrell, B. D., and Schuckard, R. (2012). Contrasting extreme long-distance migration patterns in Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica. Journal of Avian Biology 43, 21–32.
Contrasting extreme long-distance migration patterns in Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica.CrossRef | open url image1

Bull, J. W., Suttle, K. B., Singh, N. J., and Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2013). Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, 203–210.
Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets.CrossRef | open url image1

Burton, N. H. K., Rehfisch, M. M., Clark, N. A., and Dodd, S. G. (2006). Impacts of sudden winter habitat loss on the body condition and survival of Redshank Tringa totanus. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 464–473.
Impacts of sudden winter habitat loss on the body condition and survival of Redshank Tringa totanus.CrossRef | open url image1

Carlisle, J. D., Skagen, S. K., Kus, B. E., van Riper, C., Paxton, K. L., and Kelly, J. F. (2009). Landbird migration in the American west: recent progress and future research directions. Condor 111, 211–225.
Landbird migration in the American west: recent progress and future research directions.CrossRef | open url image1

Choi, C.-Y., Battley, P. F., Potter, M. A., Rogers, K. G., and Ma, Z. (2015). The importance of Yalu Jiang coastal wetland in the north Yellow Sea to Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris during northward migration. Bird Conservation International 25, 53–70.
The importance of Yalu Jiang coastal wetland in the north Yellow Sea to Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris during northward migration.CrossRef | open url image1

Clemens, R. S., Weston, M. A., Haslem, A., Silcocks, A., and Ferris, J. (2010). Identification of significant shorebird areas: thresholds and criteria. Diversity & Distributions 16, 229–242.
Identification of significant shorebird areas: thresholds and criteria.CrossRef | open url image1

Clemens, R. S., Kendall, B. E., Guillet, J., and Fuller, R. A. (2012). The sub-set of Australian shorebird count data to be of immediate use for comprehensive trend analysis. Stilt 62, 3–17. open url image1

Clemens, R. S., Herrod, A., and Weston, M. A. (2014). Lines in the mud; revisiting the boundaries of important shorebird areas. Journal for Nature Conservation 22, 59–67.
Lines in the mud; revisiting the boundaries of important shorebird areas.CrossRef | open url image1

Close, D. H. (2008). Changes in wader numbers in the Gulf St Vincent, South Australia, 1979–2008. Stilt 54, 24–27. open url image1

Colwell, M. A. (2010). ‘Shorebird Ecology, Conservation, and Management.’ (University of California Press: Berkeley CA.)

Conklin, J. R., Battley, P. F., Potter, M. A., and Fox, J. W. (2010). Breeding latitude drives individual schedules in a trans-hemispheric migrant bird. Nature Communications 1, 67.
Breeding latitude drives individual schedules in a trans-hemispheric migrant bird.CrossRef | 20842198PubMed | open url image1

Creed, K., and Bailey, M. (2009). Continuing decline in wader populations at Pelican Point, Western Australia, since 1971. Stilt 56, 10–14. open url image1

Cresswell, W. (2014). Migratory connectivity of Palaearctic–African migratory birds and their responses to environmental change: the serial residency hypothesis. Ibis 156, 493–510.
Migratory connectivity of Palaearctic–African migratory birds and their responses to environmental change: the serial residency hypothesis.CrossRef | open url image1

Davis, J., and Brock, M. (2008). Detecting unacceptable change in the ecological character of Ramsar wetlands. Ecological Management & Restoration 9, 26–32.
Detecting unacceptable change in the ecological character of Ramsar wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

DEWHA (2009). Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebird species. Migratory species. EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21. Draft. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Arts, Canberra, ACT.

ESRI (2011). ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Redlands, CA.

Faaborg, J., Holmes, R. T., Anders, A. D., Bildstein, K. L., Dugger, K. M., Gauthreaux, S. A., Heglund, P., Hobson, K. A., Jahn, A. E., Johnson, D. H., Latta, S. C., Levey, D. J., Marra, P. P., Merkord, C. L., Nol, E., Rothstein, S. I., Sherry, T. W., Sillett, T. S., Thompson, F. R., and Warnock, N. (2010). Recent advances in understanding migration systems of New World land birds. Ecological Monographs 80, 3–48.
Recent advances in understanding migration systems of New World land birds.CrossRef | open url image1

Finlayson, C. M. (2013). Climate change and the wise use of wetlands: information from Australian wetlands. Hydrobiologia 708, 145–152.
Climate change and the wise use of wetlands: information from Australian wetlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXls1eis7c%3D&md5=91c8bdc830e707b9fc5b7fafda40d426CAS | open url image1

Finlayson, C. M., Davis, J. A., Gell, P. A., Kingsford, R. T., and Parton, K. A. (2013). The status of wetlands and the predicted effects of global climate change: the situation in Australia. Aquatic Sciences 75, 73–93.
The status of wetlands and the predicted effects of global climate change: the situation in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Folmer, E. O., Olff, H., and Piersma, T. (2010). How well do food distributions predict spatial distributions of shorebirds with different degrees of self-organization? Journal of Animal Ecology 79, 747–756.
| 20337758PubMed | open url image1

Gelman, A., and Hill, J. (2007). ‘Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Gelman, A., Yu-Sung, S., Yajima, M., Hill, J., Pittau, M. G., Kerman, J., and Zheng, T. (2012). arm: data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. R package version 1.5–08. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=arm [Verified 4 January 2015].

Gosbell, K., and Clemens, R. (2006). Population monitoring in Australia: some insights after 25 years and future directions. Stilt 50, 162–175. open url image1

Hansen, B. D., Menkhorst, P., Moloney, P., and Loyn, R. H. (2015). Long-term declines in multiple waterbird species in a tidal embayment, south-east Australia. Austral Ecology 40, 515–527.
Long-term declines in multiple waterbird species in a tidal embayment, south-east Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Herrod, A. (2010). Migratory shorebird population monitoring within the Port Phillip Bay (western shoreline) and Bellarine Peninsula Ramsar Site. Birds Australia Report, Melbourne, Vic.

Higgins, P. J., and Davies, S. J. J. F. (Eds) (1996). ‘Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol. 3: Snipe to Pigeons.’ (Oxford University Press: Melbourne, Vic.)

Hijmans, R. J. (2014). raster: geographic data analysis and modeling. R package version 2.3–12. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=raster [Verified 4 January 2015].

Iwamura, T., Possingham, H., Minton, C., Rogers, D., Chades, I., Treml, E., Murray, N., and Fuller, R. (2013). Migratory connectivity magnifies the impact of habitat loss on shorebird populations Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280, .
Migratory connectivity magnifies the impact of habitat loss on shorebird populationsCrossRef | 23760637PubMed | open url image1

Kleijn, D., Cherkaoui, I., Goedhart, P. W., van der Hout, J., and Lammertsma, D. (2014). Waterbirds increase more rapidly in Ramsar-designated wetlands than in unprotected wetlands. Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 289–298.
Waterbirds increase more rapidly in Ramsar-designated wetlands than in unprotected wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., and Christensen, R. H. B. (2014). lmerTest: tests in linear mixed effects models. R package version 2.0–20. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmerTest [Verified 4 January 2015].

Lane, B. A. (1987). ‘Shorebirds in Australia.’ (Nelson Publishers: Melbourne.)

Ma, Z., Wang, Y., Gan, X., Li, B., Cai, Y., and Chen, J. (2009). Waterbird population changes in the wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Environmental Management 43, 1187–1200.
Waterbird population changes in the wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China.CrossRef | 19139954PubMed | open url image1

Ma, Z., Melville, D. S., Liu, J., Chen, Y., Yang, H., Ren, W., Zhang, Z., Piersma, T., and Li, B. (2014). Rethinking China’s new great wall. Science 346, 912–914.
Rethinking China’s new great wall.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitVGksLjJ&md5=ff5275b11d758a245ac641fe4961c5e3CAS | 25414287PubMed | open url image1

Mace, G. M., Collar, N. J., Gaston, K. J., Hilton-Taylor, C., Akçakaya, H. R., Leader-Williams, N., Milner-Gulland, E. J., and Stuart, S. N. (2008). Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology 22, 1424–1442.
Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species.CrossRef | 18847444PubMed | open url image1

MacKinnon, J., Verkuil, Y. I., and Murray, N. J. (2012). IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea). Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 47. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.

Marchant, S., and Higgins, P. J. (Eds) (1993). ‘Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol. 2: Raptors to Lapwings.’ (Oxford University Press: Melbourne.)

Minton, C., Wahl, J., Jessop, R., Hassell, C., Collins, P., and Gibbs, H. (2006). Migration routes of waders which spend the non-breeding season in Australia. Stilt 50, 135–157. open url image1

Minton, C., Gosbell, K., Johns, P., Christie, M., Klaassen, M., Hassell, C., Boyle, A., Jessop, R., and Fox, J. (2011a). Geolocator studies on Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres and Greater Sandplovers Charadrius leschenaultii in the East Asian–Australasia Flyway reveal widely different migration strategies. Wader Study Group Bulletin 118, 87–96. open url image1

Minton, C., Wahl, J., Gibbs, H., Jessop, R., Hassell, C., and Boyle, A. (2011b). Recoveries and flag sightings of waders which spend the non-breeding season in Australia. Stilt 59, 17–43. open url image1

Minton, C., Dann, P., Ewing, A., Taylor, S., Jessop, R., Anton, P., and Clemens, R. (2012). Trends of shorebirds in Corner Inlet, Victoria, 1982–2011. Stilt 61, 3–18. open url image1

Moores, N. (2012). The distribution, abundance and conservation of avian biodiversity in Yellow Sea habitats in the Republic of Korea. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

Moores, N., Rogers, D., Koh, C. H., Ju, Y. K., Kim, R. H., and Park, M. N. (2008). The 2006–2008 Saemangeum shorebird monitoring program report. Birds Korea, Busan, South Korea.

Murray, N. J., Clemens, R. S., Phinn, S. R., Possingham, H. P., and Fuller, R. A. (2014). Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12, 267–272.
Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea.CrossRef | open url image1

Murray, N. J., Clemens, R. S., Phinn, S. R., Possingham, H. P., and Fuller, R. A. (2015). Threats to the Yellow Sea’s tidal wetlands. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 96, 346–348.
Threats to the Yellow Sea’s tidal wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Nebel, S., Porter, J. L., and Kingsford, R. T. (2008). Long-term trends of shorebird populations in eastern Australia and impacts of freshwater extraction. Biological Conservation 141, 971–980.
Long-term trends of shorebird populations in eastern Australia and impacts of freshwater extraction.CrossRef | open url image1

Newton, I. (1998). ‘Population Limitation in Birds.’ (Academic Press: San Diego, CA.)

Nielsen, D. L., Podnar, K., Watts, R. J., and Wilson, A. L. (2013). Empirical evidence linking increased hydrologic stability with decreased biotic diversity within wetlands. Hydrobiologia 708, 81–96.
Empirical evidence linking increased hydrologic stability with decreased biotic diversity within wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Norris, D. R. (2005). Carry-over effects and habitat quality in migratory populations. Oikos 109, 178–186.
Carry-over effects and habitat quality in migratory populations.CrossRef | open url image1

Norris, D. R., Marra, P. P., Kyser, T. K., Sherry, T. W., and Ratcliffe, L. M. (2004). Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271, 59–64.
Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird.CrossRef | 15002772PubMed | open url image1

Oldland, J. M., Clemens, R. S., Haslem, A., Shelley, L. D., and Kearney, B. D. (2008). Final report: Shorebirds 2020: Migratory Shorebird Population Monitoring Project. Birds Australia report. The Australian Government’s Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT.

Paton, D. C., and Bailey, C. P. (2012). Condition monitoring of the Lower Lakes, Coorong and Murray mouth icon site: waterbirds using the Coorong and Murray Estuary 2012. Report to the South Australia Murray-Darling Basin Natural Resources Management Board, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA.

Paton, D. C., Rogers, D. J., Hill, B. M., Bailey, C. P., and Ziembicki, M. (2009). Temporal changes to spatially stratified waterbird communities of the Coorong, South Australia: implications for the management of heterogenous wetlands. Animal Conservation 12, 408–417.
Temporal changes to spatially stratified waterbird communities of the Coorong, South Australia: implications for the management of heterogenous wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Pegler, J. (1997). Intertidal waders at Botany Bay – a fifty year retrospective. Wetlands 16, 25–32. open url image1

Piersma, T., Lok, T., Chen, Y., Hassell, C. J., Yang, H.-Y., Boyle, A., Slaymaker, M., Chan, Y.-C., Melville, D. S., Zhang, Z.-W., and Ma, Z. (2015). Simultaneous declines in summer survival of three shorebird species signals a flyway at risk. Journal of Applied Ecology , .
Simultaneous declines in summer survival of three shorebird species signals a flyway at risk.CrossRef | open url image1

R Development Core Team (2014). ‘R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.’ (R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria.) Available at http://www.R-project.org/ [Verified 17 December 2015].

Reid, T., and Park, P. (2003). Continuing decline of Eastern Curlew, Numenius madagascariensis, in Tasmania. Emu 103, 279–283.
Continuing decline of Eastern Curlew, Numenius madagascariensis, in Tasmania.CrossRef | open url image1

Riegen, A., Vaughan, G., Woodley, K., Postill, B., Guangming, Z., Tao, W., and Dongyu, S. (2006). The fourth full shorebird survey of Yalu Jiang National Nature Reserve. 13 – 23 April 2006. Stilt 50, 47–53. open url image1

Rogers, D. I., Moores, N., and Battley, P. F. (2006a). Northwards migration of shorebirds through Saemangeum, the Geum Estuary and Gomso Bay, South Korea in 2006. Stilt 50, 73–89. open url image1

Rogers, D. I., Piersma, T., and Hassell, C. J. (2006b). Roost availability may constrain shorebird distribution: exploring the energetic costs of roosting and disturbance around a tropical bay. Biological Conservation 133, 225–235.
Roost availability may constrain shorebird distribution: exploring the energetic costs of roosting and disturbance around a tropical bay.CrossRef | open url image1

Rogers, D., Rogers, K., Gosbell, K., and Hassell, C. (2007). Causes of variation in population monitoring surveys: insights from non-breeding counts in north-western Australia. Stilt 50, 176–193. open url image1

Rogers, D., Hassell, C., Oldland, J., Clemens, R., Boyle, A., and Rogers, K. (2009). Monitoring Yellow Sea migrants in Australia (MYSMA): north-western Australian shorebird surveys and workshops, December 2008. Arthur Rylah Institute, Heidelberg, Victoria.

Rogers, D. I., Yang, H.-Y., Hassell, C. J., Boyle, A. N., Rogers, K. G., Chen, B., Zhang, Z.-W., and Piersma, T. (2010). Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay, China. Emu 110, 307–315.
Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay, China.CrossRef | open url image1

Rogers, D. I., Loyn, R. H., and Greer, D. (2013). Factors influencing shorebird use of tidal flats adjacent to the Western Treatment Plant. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.

Sanderson, F. J., Donald, P. F., Pain, D. J., Burfield, I. J., and van Bommel, F. P. J. (2006). Long-term population declines in Afro-Palearctic migrant birds. Biological Conservation 131, 93–105.
Long-term population declines in Afro-Palearctic migrant birds.CrossRef | open url image1

Taffs, K. H. (2001). The role of surface water drainage in environmental change: a case example of the upper south east of South Australia; an historical review. Australian Geographical Studies 39, 279–301.
The role of surface water drainage in environmental change: a case example of the upper south east of South Australia; an historical review.CrossRef | open url image1

van de Kam, J., Ens, B., Piersma, T., and Zwarts, L. (Eds) (2004). ‘Shorebirds: An Illustrated Behavioural Ecology.’ (KNNV Publishers: Utrecht, The Netherlands.)

van Dijk, A., Beck, H. E., and Crosbie, R. S. (2013). The Millennium Drought in southeast Australia (2001–2009): natural and human causes and implications for water resources, ecosystems, economy, and society Water Resources 49, 1040–1057. open url image1

Venables, B. (2013). SOAR: memory management in R by delayed assignments. R package version 0.99–11. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=SOAR [Verified 4 January 2015]

Venables, B. (2014). ‘Working with R: A CARM workshop on advanced R.’ (CSIRO/Digital Productivity: Dutton Park, Qld)

Wainwright, P., and Christie, M. (2008). Wader surveys at the Coorong and S.E. coastal lakes, South Australia, February 2008. Stilt 54, 31–47. open url image1

Weston, M. A., McLeod, E. M., Blumstein, D. T., and Guay, P.-J. (2012). A review of flight-initiation distances and their application to managing disturbance to Australian birds. Emu 112, 269–286.
A review of flight-initiation distances and their application to managing disturbance to Australian birds.CrossRef | open url image1

Wickham, H., and Francois, R. (2014). dplyr: a grammar of data manipulation. R package version 0.3.0.2. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=dplyr [Verified 4 January 2015]

Wilcove, D. S., and Wikelski, M. (2008). Going, going, gone: is animal migration disappearing. PLoS Biology 6, e188.
Going, going, gone: is animal migration disappearing.CrossRef | 18666834PubMed | open url image1

Wilson, J. R. (2001). The Australasian Wader Studies Group Population Monitoring Project: where to now? Perspectives from the Chair. Stilt 39, 13–26. open url image1

Wilson, J. R., Nebel, S., and Minton, C. D. T. (2007). Migration ecology and morphometrics of two Bar-tailed Godwit populations in Australia. Emu 107, 262–274.
Migration ecology and morphometrics of two Bar-tailed Godwit populations in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Wilson, H. B., Kendall, B. E., Fuller, R. A., Milton, D. A., and Possingham, H. P. (2011a). Analyzing variability and the rate of decline of migratory shorebirds in Moreton Bay, Australia. Conservation Biology 25, 758–766.
Analyzing variability and the rate of decline of migratory shorebirds in Moreton Bay, Australia.CrossRef | 21480993PubMed | open url image1

Wilson, H. B., Kendall, B. E., and Possingham, H. P. (2011b). Variability in population abundance and the classification of extinction risk. Conservation Biology 25, 747–757.
Variability in population abundance and the classification of extinction risk.CrossRef | 21480994PubMed | open url image1

Yang, H.-Y., Chen, B., Barter, M., Piersma, T., Zhou, C.-F., Li, F.-S., and Zhang, Z.-W. (2011). Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites. Bird Conservation International 21, 241–259.
Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites.CrossRef | open url image1

Zeileis, A., and Grothendieck, G. (2005). zoo: S3 infrastructure for regular and irregular time series. Journal of Statistical Software 14, 1–27.
zoo: S3 infrastructure for regular and irregular time series.CrossRef | open url image1

Zuur, A. F., Leno, E. N., Walker, N. J., Saveliev, A. A., and Smith, G. M. (2009). ‘Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R.’ (Springer: New York, NY.)


Export Citation Cited By (13)