Changes in habitat use and distribution of mouflon in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National ParkBronson Palupe A , Christina R. Leopold B , Steven C. Hess C E , Jonathan K. Faford D , Dexter Pacheco D and Seth W. Judge B
A Pacific Internship Programs for Exploring Science, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, 200 W. Kāwili St, Hilo, HI 96720, USA.
B Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, PO Box 44, Kīlauea Field Station, Hawai‘i National Park, HI 96718, USA.
C US Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, PO Box 44, Kīlauea Field Station, Hawai‘i National Park, HI 96718, USA.
D National Park Service, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Resources Management Division, PO Box 52, Hawai‘i National Park, HI 96718, USA.
E Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Pacific Conservation Biology - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PC15039
Submitted: 6 November 2015 Accepted: 4 April 2016 Published online: 24 June 2016
European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) were introduced to Kahuku Ranch on Hawai‘i Island in 1968 and 1974 for trophy hunting and have been detrimental to the native ecosystem by trampling, bark stripping, and browsing vegetation. In 2003, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park acquired Kahuku Ranch and managers began removing mouflon. The objective of this project was to determine whether hunting has changed the distribution of mouflon in Kahuku, to better understand mouflon behaviour and to expedite eradication efforts. Locations from hunting and GPS telemetry data during 2007–14 were used to determine the effect of hunting on mouflon distribution by examining distance to roads and habitat use. Mouflon seemed to avoid roads after hunting pressure increased and their distribution within vegetation types changed over time. Mouflon without hunting pressure were detected in native shrub habitat in 68% of all observations. Hunted mouflon were encountered less in native shrub habitat and more in other habitats including open forest, closed forest, and areas with no vegetation. These changes suggest that hunting has influenced the distribution of mouflon over time away from native shrub and into other vegetation types where they may be more difficult to control.
Additional keywords: eradication, European mouflon sheep, Ovis gmelini musimon
ReferencesBanko, P. C., Hess, S. C., Scowcroft, P. G., Farmer, C., Jacobi, J. D., Stephens, R. M., Camp, R. J., Leonard, D. L., Brinck, K. W., Juvik, J. O., and Juvik, S. P. (2014). Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its critical habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 46, 871–889.
| Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its critical habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i.CrossRef |
Benitez, D., Belfield, T., Loh, R., Pratt, L., and Christie, A. D. (2008). Inventory of vascular plants of the Kahuku addition, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Technical Report 157, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai‘i, Honolulu, HI.
Chapuis, J. L., Boussès, P., and Barnaud, G. (1994). Alien mammals, impact and management in the French sub-Antarctic islands. Biological Conservation 67, 97–104.
| Alien mammals, impact and management in the French sub-Antarctic islands.CrossRef |
Côté, I. M., Darling, E. S., Malpica-Cruz, L., Smith, N. S., Green, S. J., Curtis-Quick, J., and Layman, C. (2014). What doesn’t kill you makes you wary? Effect of repeated culling on the behaviour of an invasive predator. PLoS One 9, e94248.
| What doesn’t kill you makes you wary? Effect of repeated culling on the behaviour of an invasive predator.CrossRef | 24705447PubMed |
Giffin, J. G. (1979). Biology of the mouflon sheep on Mauna Kea. State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife.
Hawai‘i Gap Analysis Program (2006). A gap analysis of Hawaii February 2006 final report. US Geological Survey, National Gap Analysis Program. Available at: http://gapanalysis.usgs.gov/index.php [accessed 15 July 2015].
Hess, S. C. (2008). Wild sheep and deer in Hawai‘i – a threat to fragile ecosystems. USGS Fact Sheet FS 2008-3102.
Hess, S., Kawakami, B., Okita, D., and Medeiros, K. (2006). A preliminary assessment of mouflon abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. US Geological Survey Open File Report OF 2006-1193.
Judge, S. W., Hess, S. C., Faford, J. K., Pacheco, D., Leopold, C. R., Cole, C., and DeGuzman, V. (2016). Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations. Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-069.
Leopold, C. R., and Hess, S. C. (2013). Multi-scale habitat selection of the endangered Hawaiian goose. The Condor 115, 17–27.
| Multi-scale habitat selection of the endangered Hawaiian goose.CrossRef |
Mungall, E. C. (2007). ‘Exotic Animal Field Guide: Nonnative Hoofed Mammals in the United States.’ (Texas A&M University Press.)
Nogales, M., Rodríguez-Luengo, J. L., and Marrero, P. (2006). Ecological effects and distribution of invasive nonnative mammals on the Canary Islands. Mammal Review 36, 49–65.
| Ecological effects and distribution of invasive nonnative mammals on the Canary Islands.CrossRef |
Stephens, R. M., Hess, S. C., and Kawakami, B. (2008). Controlling mouflon sheep at the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23, 304–309.
Tomich, P. Q. (1986). ‘Mammals in Hawaii.’ 2nd edn. (Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu.)
Ziegler, A. C. (2002). ‘Hawaiian Natural History, Ecology, and Evolution.’ (University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu.)