Pacific Conservation Biology
Volume 23 Number 4 2017
This is a review of ‘The Australian Bird Guide’ by Menkorst et al. (2017). It is also an essay that considers the impact of nomenclatural changes of Australian bird names on the communication of ornithological research and the conservation of birds.
PC17012The sharks and rays of the Solomon Islands: a synthesis of their biological diversity, values and conservation status
Sharks and rays are facing increasing anthropogenic pressure globally; however, data on their status and biodiversity are lacking for many Pacific Large Ocean Island States. This study aimed to construct a species checklist for the sharks and rays occurring in the Solomon Islands, review the human interactions with these species, and present a synthesis of their conservation status.
PC17017Utilising aversive conditioning to manage the behaviour of K’gari (Fraser Island) dingoes (Canis dingo)
Aversive conditioning offers a potential avenue to circumventing the lethal control of dingoes on K’gari (Fraser Island) otherwise deemed to represent an unacceptable risk to human safety. We reviewed the literature on aversive conditioning of predators and determined that certain measures relating to dingo exclusion, personal protection and remedial aversive conditioning could help to bolster the management of negative human-dingo interactions.
It is important to understand the value of revegetation on farms for native bird species. The aim was to determine any changes in bird diversity and abundance in habitat plantings; over 10 years, bird communities in younger plantings converged with those in older plantings and remnant woodland. The results reaffirm that replanting native trees and shrubs on open farmland benefits woodland birds, and that many of the species benefitting are those of conservation concern in the temperate grassy woodlands.
PC17024Variation in bird assemblages and their invertebrate prey in eucalypt formations across a rainfall gradient in south-west Australia
Following a 25-year collaboration between entomologists and vertebrate ecologists, results have been brought together which indicate that avifauna abundance/diversity is influenced by invertebrate food resources at the landscape scale. Contrary to expectations, both invertebrate and bird abundance/diversity are higher in the lower rainfall Western Australian woodlands than in the moister jarrah forest. This may be associated with physiological adaptations of eucalypts to lower rainfall, which result in higher nitrogen levels per unit area of foliage, in turn favouring the build-up of an abundant arboreal invertebrate fauna.
Studies across large oceanic archipelagos provide an opportunity for testing different processes driving patterns of species richness. This study used modelling to determine important ecological and biogeographic factors affecting the species richness of frogs at multiple locations on major islands across the Solomon Islands archipelago.
PC17016Implications of floristic patterns, and changes in stand structure following a large-scale, intense fire across forested ecosystems in south-western Australia
Four community groups differed in composition, species density, fire trait syndrome and structural responses 18 months after high-intensity fire near Northcliffe, south-western Australia. Height and biomass recovery takes longer than intense fire-return times requiring tall forest protection, and mosaic regimes to minimise impacts under warming and drying in the region.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
Koa (Acacia koa) reforestation areas (KRAs) on Hawaii Island are structurally similar to nearby intact forests in some cases, though species composition differs. Koa reforestation areas may provide a conservation benefit by re-establishing forest structure on degraded pasture. Some KRAs harbour understorey species as well.
This paper describes diets and dietary overlap in four apex predators in Hawai‘i: pueo, barn owl, cat and mongoose, based on analysis of the contents of owl pellets and cat and mongoose scats, which were collected from eight different areas on five of the Main Hawaiian Islands.
This research note documents an observation of a wild western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) feeding on a dead silver gull (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae). We consider why the kangaroo may be feeding on the dead gull and possible implications for conservation programs relying on poison meat baits to control introduced species.
The endangered Blue Mountains water skink is restricted to highland peat swamps in eastern Australia. We show that Eulamprus leuraensis were found at sites with higher soil moisture, more burrows and live vegetation and a denser understorey. We developed a quick field detection method to assess the likely presence of the species, and mapped its known and predicted habitat using GIS.
Conservation scientists need to be public advocates for creating economies that are ecologically sustainable. In addition, they must assume a role of leadership in the development of global environmental policies and the creation of a world where all species share the Earth’s resources. At present that world does not exist.
This opinion piece explains the importance of taxonomy and why it is critical to actually identify species. However, the ability to be able to do this is declining here in Australia and we desperately need to rectify this situation. We taxonomists need to become better advocates for our discipline and better explain to our colleagues and the general public why taxonomy is useful. We need to develop illustrated guides and develop online guides, with websites that are widely marketed and can be useful for other scientists as well as the general public.
PC17010Herbicidal control of bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) in an ecologically sensitive environment
Many terrestrial orchid populations in southern Australia are threatened by the noxious environmental weed Asparagus asparagoides. This paper describes a safe method of applying herbicides to control this weed in populations of the threatened terrestrial orchid Pterostylis arenicola. The technique of weed wiping is particularly suitable for use in areas of high conservation concern.
Some scientists who engage in public advocacy come under attack. It is worthwhile preparing by learning about the risks, increasing financial security and building networks for personal support. When under attack, it is important to document actions, seek advice and mobilise support. Supporting outspoken scientists protects scientific freedom for all.
PC17014The reverse precautionary principle: science, the environment and the salmon aquaculture industry in Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania, Australia
Benthic waters of Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania de-oxygenated as fish production grew. The reverse precautionary response was to undertake further research because the causes of the changes were not fully understood. To help avoid such a response, research on the environmental impacts of an industry needs to be undertaken by scientists in secure positions funded independently of industry and government.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Quantifying trends and predictors of decline in eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) populations in a rapidly urbanising landscape
Forest connectivity important for sustaining Admiralty cuscus (Spilocuscus kraemeri) in traditional terrestrial no-take areas on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea
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Utilising aversive conditioning to manage the behaviour of K’gari (Fraser Island) dingoes (Canis dingo)Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)Rob Appleby, Bradley Smith, Lilia Bernede, Darryl Jones
The sharks and rays of the Solomon Islands: a synthesis of their biological diversity, values and conservation statusPacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)S. Hylton, W. T. White, A. Chin
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)April E. Reside, Jutta Beher, Anita J. Cosgrove, Megan C. Evans, Leonie Seabrook, Jennifer L. Silcock, Amelia S. Wenger, Martine Maron
Reduced efficacy of baiting programs for invasive species: some mechanisms and management implicationsPacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)Sinéad E. Allsop, Shannon J. Dundas, Peter J. Adams, Tracey L. Kreplins, Philip W. Bateman, Patricia A. Fleming
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)Harry F. Recher
Implications of floristic patterns, and changes in stand structure following a large-scale, intense fire across forested ecosystems in south-western AustraliaPacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)Grant Wardell-Johnson, Sarah Luxton, Kaylene Craig, Vanessa Brown, Natalee Evans, Serene Kennedy
Pacific Conservation Biology (Online Early)Pat Hutchings
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)S. J. S. Debus, W. K. Martin, J. M. Lemon
Pacific Conservation Biology (Online Early)Michael Hughes, Valériane Bérengier
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)Patrick Pikacha, Clare Morrison, Chris Filardi, Luke Leung
The reverse precautionary principle: science, the environment and the salmon aquaculture industry in Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania, AustraliaPacific Conservation Biology (Online Early)Jamie B. Kirkpatrick, Lorne K. Kriwoken, Jennifer Styger
Variation in bird assemblages and their invertebrate prey in eucalypt formations across a rainfall gradient in south-west AustraliaPacific Conservation Biology 23 (4)Jonathan D. Majer, Harry F. Recher, Christopher Norwood, Brian E. Heterick
The remaining koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) of the Pilliga forests, north-west New South Wales: refugial persistence or a population on the road to extinction?Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)Daniel Lunney, Martin Predavec, Indrie Sonawane, Rodney Kavanagh, George Barrott-Brown, Stephen Phillips, John Callaghan, Dave Mitchell, Harry Parnaby, David C. Paull, Ian Shannon, Murray Ellis, Owen Price, David Milledge
Can ecological thinning deliver conservation outcomes in high-density river red gum forests? Establishing an adaptive management experimentPacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)E. J. Gorrod, P. Childs, D. A. Keith, S. Bowen, M. Pennay, T. O'Kelly, R. Woodward, A. Haywood, J. P. Pigott, C. McCormack
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)Rob Appleby, Bradley Smith, Jess Mackie, Lilia Bernede, Darryl Jones
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (2)Carlo Pacioni, Matthew R. Williams, Robert C. Lacy, Peter B. S. Spencer, Adrian F. Wayne
Pacific Conservation Biology (Online Early)Sarsha Gorissen, Ian R. C. Baird, Matthew Greenlees, Ahamad N. Sherieff, Richard Shine
Histological analysis of hatchlings of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, from water impoundments reveals fundamental flaws in developmentPacific Conservation Biology 23 (2)Anne Kemp
Pacific Conservation Biology 23 (3)Paul D. Meek, Jason Wishart
Ecologists, economics and politics: problems and contradictions in applying neoliberal ideology to nature conservation in AustraliaPacific Conservation Biology 23 (2)Paul I. Boon, Vishnu Prahalad