Volume 9 Number 3 2012
Sexual concurrency is widely held to be a driving force in the spread of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections. Because we lack adequate observational data on sexual concurrency as a relational characteristic of populations, we must rely on mathematical models to assess its importance – a reality that makes some uncomfortable. The present study documents different motivations for multiple sexual partnerships in a number of different sites in the US and offers additional insights into the complexity of sexual concurrency and further underlines the inadequacy of our understanding of concurrency as a collective social practice.
SH11074The impact of sexually transmissible infection programs in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia: a systematic review
This systematic review describes four distinct STI programs in remote communities and their impact on STI prevalence. The programs were in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) lands of northern South Australia, Tiwi Islands of Northern Territory (NT), Ngaanyatjarra Lands of Western Australia, and central Australian region of NT. In three of the four programs, there was some evidence that clinical best practice and well coordinated sexual health programs can reduce STI prevalence in remote Aboriginal communities.
SH10148An economic case for providing free access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive people in South Australia
Gonorrhoea is a significant public health problem in China, with 100 000–200 000 cases reported annually. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we carried out a spatial analysis of gonorrhoea cases in entire mainland China from 2004 to 2009. We found three spatial clusters of high gonorrhoea risk. Allocating more resources to such areas may effectively reduce gonorrhoea incidence.
SH11050Preferences for condom placement in stores among young Dutch men and women: relationships with embarrassment and motives for having sex
It was examined if products surrounding condoms in stores play a role in preferences where to buy condoms. One hundred and eighty young men and women completed an online questionnaire on their preferences for seven different types of condom placement, associated embarrassment with these placements, and motives for having sex. The findings suggest that using multiple and alternative placements for condoms in stores will encourage condom purchasing behaviour among young people.
SH10098Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment
Gender differences in sexual behaviours and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among adolescents in mental health treatment were examined. Females were more likely to be STI-positive and report inconsistent condom use, whereas males were less likely to obtain HIV testing, receive their test results, refuse and avoid sex, and more likely to have a casual partner. Mental health care for adolescents should include assessment of sexual risk and gender-specific HIV/STI prevention strategies are necessary.
SH11019Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a primary care sentinel surveillance network
Correlates of chlamydia infection were determined within a primary care sentinel surveillance network in Victoria, Australia. Among women, correlates were: younger age, being born overseas, multiple sex partners, and inconsistent condom use. Among heterosexual men, correlates were: younger age, being born overseas, symptoms, and multiple sex partners. Among men who have sex with men, correlates were: being born overseas, being HIV-positive, and higher numbers of anal sex partners.
SH11029Risk of depression and multiple sexual risk-taking behaviours in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada
No previous study has examined relationships of symptoms of depression to multiple sexual risk-taking in adolescents. This study examines such associations while controlling for other known risk factors and measures of social capital. A consistent and independent association of risk of depression with multiple risk behaviours is seen, which should lead health-care workers dealing with adolescents to inquire about sexual risk behaviours in patients who have symptoms of depression.
SH11104Modelling the epidemiological impact of scaling up HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment in China
In response to an increasing HIV epidemic in China, a 5-year action plan has prioritised the scale-up of HIV testing and treatment. We use a mathematical model to investigate ‘test and treat’ strategies in China and find that a four-fold increase in testing may avert more than 42 000 HIV infections and a 10-fold increase in treatment rates could decrease HIV incidence by one-quarter over the next 5 years.
A retrospective case series of anal cancers in a regional Australian population reveals a predominance of women and minimal representation of traditionally high-risk groups. The majority of cases also involved the anal canal rather than the anal margin, which ostensibly led to later presentation and worse outcomes.
SH11047Risk behaviours by type of concurrency among young people in three STI clinics in the United States
Concurrency has been associated with the transmission of sexually transmittable infections. However, different types of concurrency may be associated with varying levels of risk. This study considered four types of concurrency and found that each was associated with a varying set of predictors. Two types, experimental and reactive, were associated with other high-risk behaviours.
SH11099Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study
We conducted qualitative interviews among heterosexual African American women to examine the social, structural, and behavioural factors influencing sexual concurrency. We found trust of partners, social normalisation of concurrency, marital status, economic dependence on partners, partners’ incarceration, and substance use strongly influenced concurrent sexual partnerships. HIV prevention interventions should address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks as well as traditional HIV risk-taking behaviours.
Provision of Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) is an ideal opportunity for offering Chlamydia screening (CS) to sexually active young women. We audited 3 months of CS activity in community pharmacies. This identified low rates of offers and uptake of CS in community pharmacies providing EHC to young women. This highlights the potential for significant improvement in CS uptake among this at-risk group in the pharmacy setting.