Sexual Health Sexual Health Society
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Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 10 Number 3 2013

SH12157Engaging nonHIV specialist general practitioners with new priorities in HIV prevention and treatment: qualitative insights from those working in the field

Christy E. Newman, Michael R. Kidd, Susan C. Kippax, Robert H. Reynolds, Peter G. Canavan and John B.F. de Wit
pp. 193-198

Calls to intensify HIV testing and treatment, including for prevention, have considerable implications for health and medical practitioners working in the community. This paper shares new insights from clinicians and key informants who are engaged with HIV medicine regarding the workforce issues that will shape the engagement of non-HIV specialist general practitioners with these new priorities in HIV treatment and prevention, particularly increased testing and timely commencement of treatment.

SH12092Anatomic distribution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections in men who have sex with men

N. Reinton, H. Moi, A. O. Olsen, N. Zarabyan, J. Bjerner, T. M. Tønseth and A. Moghaddam
pp. 199-198

In a study of 2289 men who have sex with men (MSM), prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis and M. genitalium was 6%, 10% and 5.1%, respectively. Over 70% of these sexually transmissible infections (STIs) were identified by testing specimens taken from the anorectum or the oropharynx. The data shows that testing anatomic sites other than urogenitals will identifiy a higher percentage of MSM that are infected with STIs.


This article reports the correlates of young women’s sexual efficacy. Results showed that efficacy is enhanced when women report more open communication and warmth and less rejection and coercion in their couple relationships. Young women are also higher in efficacy when they report more personal autonomy. The findings support sexual health programs’ focus on personal decision-making but also identify partners’ behaviours and dyadic communication strategies as important.

SH12093Trends in HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in China 2003–09: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Xiaojun Meng, Huachun Zou, Jack Beck, Yan Xu, Xuan Zhang, Xiaolan Miao and Fanfan Xu
pp. 211-219

We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed published studies on HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China 2003–2009. The pooled HIV prevalence among MSM in China increased from 0.6% (95%CI: 0.0%–2.1%) in 2003 to 7.4% (95%CI: 5.7%–9.2%) in 2009, with a yearly increase of 1.1% (95% CI 0.5–1.5%, P < 0.001). HIV is highly prevalent and increasing among Chinese MSM. Effective strategies are required to prevent the epidemic from continuing to spread.

SH12184Anal cancers attributed to human papillomavirus are more common in areas in Victoria, Australia, with higher HIV notifications

Lenka A. Vodstrcil, Jane Hocking, Tim R. H. Read, Andrew E. Grulich and Christopher K. Fairley
pp. 220-223

The association between anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and HIV notifications in Victorian men was investigated. There was a significant positive correlation between the age-standardised rate of anal SCC and the rate of HIV notifications, but no correlation between the age-standardised rate of colon or brain cancers and HIV rates. About one in five cases of anal SCCs in men are explained by the rate of HIV notifications.

SH12198Attitudes to chlamydia screening elicited using the social networking site Facebook for subject recruitment

Navera Ahmed, Yasmin Jayasinghe, John D. Wark, Yeshe Fenner, Elya E. Moore, Sepehr N. Tabrizi, Ashley Fletcher and Suzanne M. Garland
pp. 224-228

Using Facebook to recruit participants, we examined the attitudes of young Victorian women to chlamydia screening. The study demonstrated willingness to participate in screening for chlamydia, and a strong acceptance of self-collected sampling and combined chlamydia and cervical cytology screening. Facebook may therefore be a feasible way for improving screening coverage at a population level.

SH12069Chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies: a systematic review

Sajni Gudka, Folasade E. Afuwape, Bessie Wong, Xuan Li Yow, Claire Anderson and Rhonda M. Clifford
pp. 229-239

A systematic review to determine the types of pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions, their screening uptake rates, and issues around acceptability and barriers to testing was conducted. Nine different pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions were identified. Community pharmacies were considered to be highly accessible, convenient and alternative venue to get a chlamydia test. Pharmacists were seen as professional and competent when offering a chlamydia test.

SH12211The seventh (and last?) International Microbicides Conference: from discovery to delivery

Skye McGregor, Gilda Tachedjian, Bridget G. Haire and John M. Kaldor
pp. 240-245

Microbicides are products designed to be applied vaginally or rectally to prevent acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections. Oral prevention drugs are a more recent development with great potential. The 2012 Microbicides Conference, held in Sydney, in April 2012, documented the transition from the discovery phase to considerations of implementation. This conference report summarises recent developments and ongoing challenges in the field.


This paper uses longitudinal data with repeated concurrency measures to examine the prevalence of individual and perceived partner concurrency in 2005 and 2009 among young adult men and women from different population groups in Cape Town, South Africa. Large differences in concurrency were observed across population groups and gender. The prevalence of individual concurrency increased among Black men, remained constant among Black women, decreased among Coloured (mixed-race) men and remained low among Coloured women.


AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are often considered detrimental to HIV preventive activities, yet not many studies have examined what influences these stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviors and attitudes in subSaharan Africa, and Ghana in particular. Using data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this study examined the determinants of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Ghana. Results indicate that psychosocial and socio-economic variables are significant predictors of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination.


A high prevalence of M. genitalium was found in this study population. However, despite the strong association between cervical contact bleeding and M. genitalium, the poor positive predictive values for the findings of microscopic and clinically diagnosed cervicitis, in conjunction with the lack of agreement in the international literature, support the conclusion that cervcitis has poor clinical utility as an indicator for the presence of M. genitalium infection.


The study focused on hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge, HCV testing, sexual practices, and attitudes towards people with HCV, among 590 Australian gay and bisexual men. Findings suggest the attitudes of this sample towards drug use are negative, mirroring those of the broader society. These attitudes coupled with a lack of knowledge of the risk of sexual transmission of HCV among gay men, especially those HIV-positive, may prevent routine HCV testing among some at risk of acquiring HCV.

SH12187The great medical imitator: a case of syphilitic osteitis in the setting of HIV infection

Janine M. Trevillyan, Kenneth S. Yap and Jennifer Hoy
pp. 275-278

A 44-year-old man with well-controlled HIV presented with low grade fever, pharyngitis, frontal headache, abdominal and shin pain and abnormal liver function tests. Initially misdiagnosed as an abacavir reaction, he was subsequently found to have syphilitic osteitis with positive syphilis serology and bone scan which responded to treatment. While syphilitic osteitis is rare, this case emphasizes the importance of considering syphilis when HIV-infected patients present with unusual symptoms.

SH12176African-American men’s exposure to music videos and their sexual attitudes and risk behaviour

Ralph J. DiClemente, Adannaa O. Alexander, Nikia D. Braxton, JaNelle M. Ricks and Puja Seth
pp. 279-281

This study examined 80 African-American men’s media exposure and their sexual attitudes and behaviour towards women. Findings indicated that men influenced by music videos reported more sexual adventurism, more condom barriers, more lifetime sexual partners, more condom request refusals, substance abuse and a history of incarceration. Further longitudinal research is needed to better understand this relationship and to address the role of media in HIV and sexually transmissible infection prevention interventions.

SH12181Awareness and knowledge of syphilis among different populations in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China

Liu Ying, Tang Shaokai, Ye Xingdong, He Wanping, Li Jinliang, Yang Qian and Gao Kexian
pp. 282-283

This study investigated the awareness of different populations about syphilis in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and awareness rates of different groups calculated. The results suggested that the awareness rates of syphilis knowledge in the surveyed subjects were low, and targeted health education and health promotion should be strengthened.

SH12086Relational correlates of unprotected oral and vaginal sex and among African-American adolescent females

Richard A. Crosby, Dexter R. Voisin, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Laura F. Salazar, Sara Head, Eve Rose and Jessica McDermott-Sales
pp. 284-286

This study aimed to identify relational correlates of unprotected oral sex and vaginal intercourse among African-American females. Participants reporting low sexual communication self efficacy were more likely to report unprotected oral sex and unprotected vaginal intercourse. Additionally, participants who reported fear of condom negotiation were more likely to report unprotected vaginal intercourse. Interventions promoting stronger sexual communication self efficacy may be a protective factor against having unprotected oral sex and vaginal intercours among African-American females.

SH12183The origins of the condom

Ismael Maatouk and Roy Moutran
pp. 287-287

We know little about the origins of one of the oldest forms of contraception in medicine, the condom. Condoms were initially recognised as being useful for the prevention of sexually transmissible infections. Later on, they were used as contraceptives. We present here a short presentation of the condom’s history.

SH12190Counselling improves follow-up HIV testing at Week 6 for HIV postexposure prophylaxis recipients

Bianca Farrugia Parsons, Kate Fisher, Damien Cordery and Deborah Couldwell
pp. 288-289

Of the 96 clients that attended Western Sydney Sexual Health Clinic after nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis between 2009 and 2011, only 44 received counselling with a social worker in addition to their consultation with medical or nursing staff; this group was significantly more likely to attend for follow-up serology testing at Week 6. No other patient characteristics were associated with completion of follow-up.

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