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Table of Contents
Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 12 Number 6 2015


Non-traditional settings offer an opportunity to increase access to sexually transmissible infection testing for at-risk populations, but they have not yet proven to be an efficient option and current models are unlikely to be effective if scaled up.

SH15031Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

Melissa A. Habel, Roberta Scheinmann, Elizabeth Verdesoto, Charlotte Gaydos, Maggie Bertisch and Mary Ann Chiasson
pp. 472-479

This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users in New York State. The two phased study offered STI testing to EC users in the retail pharmacy clinic setting and through home-based STI kits ordered online. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings.

SH15004Demographic and behavioural correlates of six sexting behaviours among Australian secondary school students

Kent Patrick, Wendy Heywood, Marian K. Pitts and Anne Mitchell
pp. 480-487

We report the rates of sexting in a sample of Australian students in years 10, 11 and 12. The associations between six sexting behaviours and demographic and behavioural characteristics are also examined. The findings showed that sexting was relatively common, particularly among older students, those who are sexually active, and those who use recreational substances.


The current available sources of sexual health information for young men are failing to meet their needs. Results identify potential improvements to school-based sexual education and online resources, and describe a need for innovative technology-based sources of sexual health education.


This study of men who have sex with men (MSM) investigated event-level correlates of sexual and drug use behaviours at group sex events (GSEs) to better inform prevention activities. More than one-third of MSM had participated in a GSE in the prior year, and attendance at a GSE was significantly associated with older age, full/part time employment, and being HIV-positive. MSM who indicated drug use at the last GSE had significantly higher odds of having insertive and receptive condomless anal sex (CAS). More research is needed to determine patterns of condom use at these events and whether seroadaptive behaviours are driving CAS.


This survey was undertaken to determine the frequency of problematic drug and/or alcohol use in males (387 men who have sex with men (MSM) and 478 non-MSM) attending two sexual health clinics in central London and the engagement of those with problematic use with drug treatment services. MSM had a significantly higher life-time use of any recreational drug (80.6%) compared to non-MSM (62.5%, P < 0.0001). Thirty-five (4.7%; 22 MSM, 13 non-MSM P = 0.08) self identified that they had problematic use of drugs and/or alcohol. Of these 35, 15 (42.9%) had never previously sought help for their problematic use. The use of appropriately designed screening tools would identify problematic users not engaged with treatment services and referral pathways could be designed to enablement engagement of these individuals into drug treatment services.

SH15043Treatment and outcomes of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed early syphilis

Phillip J. Read, Rebecca Guy, Neisha Jeoffreys, David Baker, Matthew Shields and Basil Donovan
pp. 506-511

An analysis of serological and treatment outcomes of 220 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases of early syphilis. PCR aids early diagnosis, and may be positive prior to seroconversion. Neither HIV status nor type of treatment impacted on treatment outcomes. Ten percent of patients were reinfected during follow-up.


An analysis of routinely collected data from 15- to 24-year-old women tested for chlamydia in family planning clinics in the Pacific Northwest in the US between 2003 and 2010 is presented. Trends in test positivity varied by state and were dependent on changes in test technology over time. While trends in chlamydia positivity may be a useful metric for monitoring chlamydia burden, it is important to consider changes in test type when interpreting these data.


Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown, in the international literature, to be an effective way of preventing a large proportion of cervical cancer. This paper shows that an HPV vaccination program, combined with a cervical screening program, is a cost-effective way to prevent cervical cancer in Japan. Its results also suggest that Japan may pay a high price in foregone quality-adjusted life-years, as a result of recent controversy there about the HPV Japan, and the government’s decision to suspend the recommendation for women to be vaccinated against HPV.


A total of 103 women from slum and lower-income areas around Delhi, India, participated in focus group discussions on vaginal ring product perceptions and preferences between December 2012 and January 2013. The results of this hypothetical acceptability study indicate that these low-income women in Delhi are: willing to try vaginal rings; unconcerned about wearing them during sex; very interested in protection from infections and unintended pregnancy; indifferent about colour of new rings; emphatic about being told that rings may change colour from menstrual blood staining; comfortable with thinner rings; willing to try thicker rings once familiar with thinner rings; in favour of starting with 1-month rings and then transitioning to longer-term rings; and in favour of first accessing rings at a facility and then managing resupply independently.

SH14009Factors associated with women’s entry into the sex industry: findings from interviews conducted with female sex workers in Chinese detention centres

Xiaohu Zhang, Limin Mao, Peter Aggleton, Jun Zhang, Jun Jing, Jia Cui, Rui Zhao, Jiehui Ren and John de Wit
pp. 541-545

The reasons for and factors associated with voluntary entry into the sex industry were explored through in-depth interviews conducted with 38 Chinese women who were held in detention centres for selling sex. Findings highlight the complex interactions between individual and contextual factors in relation to women’s entry into sex work. In a rapidly developing country such as China, entry into sex work may appeal to women of low socioeconomic status, particularly young women who have recently migrated to urban areas. For members of this mobile and relatively disadvantaged population, comprehensive social services and support are urgently needed.

SH14243Incidence and correlates of HIV and syphilis in a prospective cohort of men who have sex with men in Mianyang, China, over a 36-month period

Yi Wang, Yuling Huang, Huailiang Chen, Liulin Li, Jie Xu, Zhijun Li, Guanggui Zhang, Jing Fan, Xihe Zhao and Shuguang Jia
pp. 546-555

High incidence of HIV and syphilis were found in Mianyang City. Increased attention should be given to this serious epidemic and appropriate interventions should be implemented to address specific issues for men who have sex with men in order to prevent HIV and syphilis infection in China.


Genotypic testing for antiretroviral drug resistance is recommended for all patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection. In this study we investigated the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naïve HIV patients in New Zealand. The prevalence of significant resistance mutations was 10%. This is consistent with rates reported internationally and supports universal resistance testing for newly diagnosed HIV patients in New Zealand.


Group sex participation among heterosexual men and women was associated with heroin and injection drug use, trading or selling sex, and sex while high, compared with no group sex participation. Moreover, among men, group sex was associated with buying sex and sex with an injection drug user; among women, group sex was associated with substance dependence, a history of sexually transmissible infections and crack cocaine use, compared with no group sex participation.

SH15085Anal intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-positive men who have sex with men

José A. Mata-Marín, Jorge Hernández-Figueroa, Gloria Huerta-García, Jorge Sandoval-Ramírez, Miguel Pichardo-Farfán, Bulmaro Manjarrez-Tellez, Pablo Ramírez-Mendoza and Jesús Gaytan-Martínez
pp. 563-564

The prevalence of anal cancer among HIV-infected patients has continued to increase. We screened 94 HIV-infected men who have sex with men. The calculated prevalence of HSIL was 6.38% (95% CI 2.9–13.2). The study and implementation of screening programs for high-risk groups is a priority.

SH15109Determinants of recent HIV testing among male sex workers and other men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China: a cross-sectional study

Rui Cai, Wende Cai, Jin Zhao, Lin Chen, Zhengrong Yang, Wei Tan, Chenli Zhang, Yongxia Gan, Yan Zhang, Jingguang Tan, Jan Hendrik Richards and Sake J. De Vlas
pp. 565-567

The most important determinant of testing among MBs was having multiple anal sex partners; among other MSM, the most important determinants were having a homosexual orientation and having a history of sexually transmissible infection. For MBs, education programs are needed to increase their awareness of actual HIV risk. For other MSM, destigmatising programs are needed.

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