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Table of Contents
Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 14 Number 6 2017

SH17013Estimating the burden of genital warts in Taiwan

Tsen-Fang Tsai, Smita Kothari-Talwar, Karen Yee, Amit Kulkarni, Nuria Lara, Montserrat Roset, Anna R. Giuliano and Suzanne M. Garland
pp. 485-491

The genital wart burden in Taiwan was previously unavailable. In this study, the estimated prevalence of genital warts was 1.13%; the highest estimated prevalence was among female patients aged 18–24 years and male patients aged 25–29 years. Median GW costs were substantial, being estimated at US$213.8 for male and US$351.8 for female patients. Our study results provide evidence-based data that will allow for the implementation of measures to reduce genital wart prevalence and psychosocial impact on patients.

SH16240Prospective cohort study of childhood behaviour problems and adolescent sexual risk-taking: gender matters

S. Rachel Skinner, Jennifer Marino, Susan L. Rosenthal, Jeffrey Cannon, Dorota A. Doherty and Martha Hickey
pp. 492-501

Externalising (delinquent, aggressive) and internalising (anxious/depressed, withdrawn) behaviour problems are common in childhood. In a population-based birth cohort (the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study), this study sought to determine relationships, by gender, between childhood behaviour problems and adolescent risky sexual behaviours and substance use. Externalising behaviour problems from as early as 5 years old in boys and 8 years old in girls predict a range of risky sexual behaviours in adolescence.

SH16117UriSwab: an effective transport medium for nucleic acid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Anna-Maria G. Costa, Suzanne M. Garland, Rebecca Guy, Handan Wand and Sepehr N. Tabrizi
pp. 502-506

Mailing of self-collected specimens for detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is being used increasingly in Australia. However, postal regulations in Australia do not allow liquids such as urine to be sent in the post. The suitability of UriSwab for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium by polymerase chain reaction, compared with neat urine and a flocked swab dipped in urine, as well as its performance at high and prolonged temperatures to mimic potential harsh transport conditions were evaluated.

SH16146Testing for chlamydial infection: are we meeting clinical guidelines? Evidence from a state-level laboratory data linkage analysis for 15- to 29-year-olds

Nicola Stephens, David Coleman, Kelly Shaw, Maree O' Sullivan, Alistair McGregor, Louise Cooley, Hassan Vally and Alison Venn
pp. 507-513

This data linkage study of all chlamydia tests conducted in 15-29 year olds at a state population level over a 2-year period, enables population rates of testing and test positivity to be reported. Results are compared to clinical guidelines and to the estimated testing levels required to reduce chlamydia prevalence. Chlamydia testing rates are lower than recommended levels in both males and females. This study provides a robust methodology that can meet the requirements of the Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy by monitoring testing coverage and providing evidence to evaluate prevention and control programs.

SH17016Effect of attitudes towards patients on sexual history taking: a survey of Iranian–American physicians in California, USA

Mitra Rashidian, Victor Minichiello, Synnove F. Knutsen and Mark Ghamsary
pp. 514-522

This is the first descriptive cross-sectional survey of Iranian–American physicians, a subpopulation of physicians, as providers of sexual health care practicing in California, USA (n = 354). The experience of dual process of cultural influences (i.e. both home and the main stream cultures) are important factors affecting these physicians’ involvement in sexual history taking. This is a significant neglected area in sexual health care which highlights the need to have a greater understanding of influential factors regarding physicians who share similar conservative cultural backgrounds. These findings support the need for development of new strategies that reflect on physicians’ attitude as providers of sexual health care.


Regular sexual partnerships among gay and bisexual men who practice condomless anal intercourse have not been well characterised in terms of partnership type, HIV seroconcordance and risk of HIV transmission. Primarily sexual regular partnerships (i.e. ‘fuckbuddies’) are common among gay men, but have largely been ignored in research and HIV prevention. Condomless sex is more common among regular sexual partnerships considered to be of a romantic, committed nature. However, factors associated with such romantic or committed partnerships can also protect against HIV transmission risk. Partnerships where one or both partners’ serostatus is unknown present the greatest transmission risk, especially those of a primarily sexual nature.


This research analysed 2438 responses from men using an online dating site on contraceptive, knowledge attitudes and beliefs. We found high contraceptive use, especially vasectomy, and a desire to be part of the decision making, especially in long term relationships. However there was low awareness of some of the more effective methods and misperceptions about method safety, especially the emergency contraceptive pill.

SH16164Attitudes to sexual health in the United States: results from a national survey of youth aged 15–25 years

Matthew Hogben, Christopher Harper, Melissa A. Habel, Kathryn Brookmeyer and Allison Friedman
pp. 540-547

Data from a large panel survey show that American youths’ attitudes to sexual health fit well with global sexual health definitions. Survey respondents believed dimensions of sexual health such as emotional fulfilment, pleasure, and mutual benefits in relationships were important components of overall sexual health. Increasing belief in the importance of sexual health was associated with sexual activity and also condom use and health care use.


School sex education supports the development of positive adolescent sexual health, but it can be difficult to accommodate gender and age needs in group settings. To understand these needs better, a theory based survey (extended Theory of Planned Behaviour) was administered to 1378 12-16 year olds, focused on adolescents’ intentions to use condoms, the pill and emergency contraception. Results showed different influences on intentions towards each form of contraception, higher motivation in girls, and that year 10 is a crucial stage for intention formation. This study suggests there is clear scope to support adolescent sexual health and wellbeing by modifying school sex education accordingly

SH16190Analysis of transmitted HIV drug resistance from 2005 to 2015 in Victoria, Australia: a comparison of the old and the new

Jodie D'Costa, Megan Gooey, Nicole Richards, Rizmina Sameer, Elaine Lee and Doris Chibo
pp. 558-565

This study outlines HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance to HIV-1 protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors in Melbourne, Victoria from 2005 to 2015. During this time, there was a statistically significant decline in the prevalence of mutations at codons M41, K103 and T215 in the reverse transcriptase gene, but none for the protease. The presence of integrase inhibitor resistance mutations was assessed from 2010 to 2015 and found to be negligible.

SH17004Abortion: findings from women and men participating in the Understanding Fertility Management in contemporary Australia national survey

Heather Rowe, Sara Holton, Maggie Kirkman, Christine Bayly, Lynne Jordan, Kathleen McNamee, John McBain, Vikki Sinnott and Jane Fisher
pp. 566-573

This study of a population sample of women and men in Australia aged 18–50 years revealed that experience of abortion is common: one in six women and one in 10 men reported experiencing or being a partner in an abortion. Women who were socially disadvantaged, reported not being comfortable negotiating contraceptive use, and men who lived in a metropolitan area were more likely to report having experienced, or being a partner in, an abortion. Reporting past experiences of sexual coercion increased the likelihood of reporting abortion among both women and men.

SH16207Trends in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing and positivity in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women 2001–2013: a population-based cohort study

Joanne Reekie, Basil Donovan, Rebecca Guy, Jane S. Hocking, John M. Kaldor, Donna B. Mak, Sallie Pearson, David Preen, Handan Wand, James Ward, Bette Liu and on behalf of the Chlamydia and Reproductive Health Outcome Investigators
pp. 574-580

This large data-linkage study of Western Australian women found significant increases in both chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing using nucleic acid amplification tests between 2001 and 2013. During this same period, chlamydia positivity remained highest in young Aboriginal women, at around 15%, with little change observed between overtime and despite increases in positivity in young non-Aboriginal women. Further gonorrhoea positivity was at least 10 times greater in young Aboriginal women than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. More effective prevention strategies and continued surveillance of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing, positivity by age and risk groups are needed to address these disparities.

SH16179Pregnant young women’s attitudes about microbicides: the anticipated influence of the grandmother and father of the baby on microbicide use

Jenny K. R. Francis, Lauren Dapena Fraiz, Marina Catallozzi, Ariel M. deRoche, Christine Mauro and Susan L. Rosenthal
pp. 581-583

Pregnant young women’s attitudes about their grandmother and father-of-the-baby’s role in decision-making and involvement in microbicide use were assessed. Greater grandmother involvement in microbicide use was significantly associated with being younger, having no reproductive tract infection or contraceptive-ring-use history. Greater father involvement in use was associated with being in a relationship with him. Strategies for engaging grandmothers and fathers in microbicide use should be developed.


This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing unlicensed driving (UD) offenders and non-UD offenders. Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report additional sexual risk behaviours. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.

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