Wildlife Research Wildlife Research Society
Ecology, management and conservation in natural and modified habitats

The usefulness of field data and hunting statistics in the assessment of wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) conservation status in Portugal

Catarina Ferreira A B D , Joana Paupério A and Paulo Célio Alves A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal.

B Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCLM), Ronda de Toledo, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, España.

C Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4050 Porto, Portugal.

D Corresponding author. Email: catferreira@gmail.com

Wildlife Research 37(3) 223-229 https://doi.org/10.1071/WR09137
Submitted: 14 October 2009  Accepted: 26 March 2010   Published: 18 May 2010


Context. The wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a keystone species from the Iberian Peninsula that has suffered a strong decline in Spain during the past decades. Data on historical and current population trends in Portugal are virtually non-existent.

Aims. To investigate changes in rabbit abundance at the national level so as to inform conservation status assessments, and to evaluate the usefulness of hunting bags as a rabbit abundance index.

Methods. Field surveys based on latrine counts in linear transects were performed in two periods (1995 and 2002) to assess variation in population abundance. Hunting bags were also analysed for the same period to verify whether these data showed the same trends. General trends of rabbit abundance were estimated using TRIM software.

Key results. Field data revealed that most of the sampling units across Portugal have low abundances, despite the observation of local high-density spots. A population reduction of 27% was estimated. Although some fluctuations were observed in hunting bags, global results obtained from these data suggest a slightly increasing trend in rabbit abundance.

Conclusions. A discrepancy between field data and hunting statistics was observed. Because hunting bags may be influenced by sporadic management operations undertaken by hunters and the lack of systematic procedures in data collection, we believe that hunting statistics are not representative of real changes in rabbit populations. Thus, observed reduction in rabbit abundance estimated by field data, combined with the high initial morbidity due to rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) after 1988 and the potential for continuing decline in population trends because of other factors, led to an inference of a reduction of >30% in rabbit abundance in Portugal during the past decade.

Implications. Taking into account the estimated reduction, the species’ biology and socioeconomic implications, wild rabbit in Portugal was listed in 2005 in the Near Threatened category under IUCN criteria. Because of its ecological and economic importance, this classification prompted the definition of several conservation actions aimed at the recovery of the species in Portugal.

Additional keywords: conservation status, hunting statistics, IUCN Red List, Portugal, wild rabbit.


Funding was provided by the Project ‘Documentos Estruturantes da Conservação da Natureza e da Biodiversidade, ICN 2001–2004. Linha de Acção 3, Determinação da abundância relativa das populações de coelho-bravo (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) em Portugal Continental’, of the EU Operational Environmental Program. The authors thank all collaborators for their support during the field work and the Portuguese Ministry of Agriculture for providing hunting data. Thanks go to Rafael Villafuerte and Miguel Delibes-Mateos for helpful comments and suggestions on a previous version of this manuscript, and to Arco van Strien for support with TRIM analysis.


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