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Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. Read more about the journalMore

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi

Current Issue

Environmental Chemistry

Volume 13 Number 5 2016

EN15115Addressing the Anthropocene

A. D. Anbar, S. J. Romaniello, B. R. Allenby and W. S. Broecker
pp. 777-783

Environmental context. We are entering an epoch – the Anthropocene – in which human activity is changing the face of the planet. To stabilise climate, we may consider deliberate intervention into Earth’s systems, on a global scale. Responsible stewardship requires that we develop a safe, economic and environmentally acceptable means of sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere.

Environmental context. The nitrate oxygen isotope anomaly has been suggested as a tool for quantifying the atmospheric input of this essential nutrient to terrestrial environments. However, it is calculated that the most important transport process in minerals, diffusion, may also be responsible for measurable anomalies. The signal in Chilean nitrate minerals could be associated with diffusion during crystal growth so the belief that the nitrate is of atmospheric origin is therefore questioned.

EN15192Integrated 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis of earthworm responses to sub-lethal Pb exposure

Ting Chen, Yan Liu, Ming-Hui Li, Hua-Dong Xu, Ji-Yang Sheng, Li Zhang and Jun-Song Wang
pp. 792-803

Heavy metals are non-degradable and are therefore a severe and persistent environmental menace. The toxic effects of Pb were investigated using NMR to determine the metabolic changes in earthworms exposed to Pb. The approach using 1H NMR to analyse earthworm metabolomics demonstrated great potential as a reliable, rapid and convenient tool to assess the toxicity of heavy metals and could be used to identify warning signs of heavy metal contamination of soil.

EN15065Characterisation of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River: insights into analogue selection

Danielle L. Slomberg, Patrick Ollivier, Olivier Radakovitch, Nicole Baran, Nicole Sani-Kast, Hélène Miche, Daniel Borschneck, Olivier Grauby, Auguste Bruchet, Martin Scheringer and Jérôme Labille
pp. 804-815

Environmental context. The fate and behaviour of pollutants such as pesticides, metals and nanoparticles in natural waters will influence their effects on the environment and human health. Owing to the complexity of natural waters and suspended particulate matter (SPM) that can interact with pollutants, as well as low pollutant concentrations, determination of pollutant fate and transport is non-trivial. Herein, we report a characterisation of the Rhone River chemistry to provide insight into selecting SPM analogues for experimental and modelling approaches.

EN15091Organic sulfur and organic matter redox processes contribute to electron flow in anoxic incubations of peat

Zhi-Guo Yu, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger and Klaus-Holger Knorr
pp. 816-825

Environmental context. The extent to which organic matter decomposition generates carbon dioxide or methane in anaerobic ecosystems is determined by the presence or absence of particular electron acceptors. Evaluating carbon dioxide and methane production in anaerobic incubation of peat, we found that organic matter predominated as an electron acceptor over considered inorganic electron acceptors. We also observed changes in organic sulfur speciation suggesting a contribution of organic sulfur species to the electron-accepting capacity of organic matter.

Environmental context. At sediment surfaces, the availability of oxygen is controlled by its downward transport from the water surface and its consumption in microbial metabolism. Microorganisms can also consume substances other than oxygen to dispose of the surplus charge that is generated during microbial metabolism. We investigate the complex dynamics of these other substances when the oxygen availability fluctuates, and thereby contribute to the mechanistic understanding of oxygen-consuming processes in aquatic environments.

EN15154Arsenic adsorption onto aluminium-substituted goethite

Ana E. Tufo, María dos Santos Afonso and Elsa E. Sileo
pp. 838-848

Environmental context. Goethite, commonly found in soils, is often partially substituted by Al and strongly influences the mobility of arsenic in the environment. The adsorption of AsV onto goethites with increasing Al substitution was explored, finding that Al incorporation decreases AsV sorption per gram of adsorbent, and that a low level of Al incorporation enhances the adsorption per unit area. Structures of the complexes formed between AsV and the oxy(hydr)oxide surface, at different pH values, are proposed by studying the changes in the surface charges of the adsorbed and non-adsorbed substituted and non-substituted goethites.

EN16027Tissue-specific uptake of the benzodiazepine oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)

Martina Heynen, Tomas Brodin, Jonatan Klaminder, Micael Jonsson and Jerker Fick
pp. 849-853

Environmental context. Although pharmaceuticals are found in wild fish, there is no consensus as to which fish tissue to use when measuring the pharmaceutical concentrations. Using the psychiatric pharmaceutical oxazepam in Eurasian perch as an example, we found that oxazepam was distributed in the perch tissues in the following order of concentration: muscle < liver = brain < blood plasma. These results help to interpret and compare previous studies, and provide guidance for future studies.

EN16001Biochar amendment altered the molecular-level composition of native soil organic matter in a temperate forest soil

Perry J. Mitchell, André J. Simpson, Ronald Soong and Myrna J. Simpson
pp. 854-866

Environmental context. Biochar amendment in soil can sequester carbon but may also stimulate microbial activity, potentially enhancing soil organic matter degradation. We incubated biochar in a temperate forest soil and characterised the soil organic matter composition using molecular-level biomarker and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Biochar amendment altered the native soil organic matter composition and decreased the concentration of easily degradable soil organic matter components.

EN16056An integrated study of the chemical composition of Antarctic aerosol to investigate natural and anthropogenic sources

E. Barbaro, R. Zangrando, T. Kirchgeorg, A. Bazzano, S. Illuminati, A. Annibaldi, S. Rella, C. Truzzi, M. Grotti, A. Ceccarini, C. Malitesta, G. Scarponi and A. Gambaro
pp. 867-876

Environmental context. Owing to its remoteness, Antarctica is an excellent natural laboratory for conducting studies on the behavior of marine aerosols and for monitoring the impact of global human activities. The aim of this study is to provide an extensive chemical characterization of Antarctic aerosol and to investigate its sources. A distinction among anthropogenic, crustal, and biogenic sources was defined using several chemical markers.

EN16005Proteins are a major component of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) leached from terrestrially aged Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves

Clayton W. Harris, Ewen Silvester, Gavin N. Rees, John Pengelly and Ljiljana Puskar
pp. 877-887

Environmental context. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) often constitutes the largest portion of the dissolved nitrogen pool, yet is a commonly overlooked nutrient source in aquatic systems. Terrestrially aged Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a common Australian lowland leaf-litter species, rapidly released proteinaceous DON during the first 24 h of leaching. The results indicate that terrestrial leaf litter may play an important role in satisfying nutrient demand within aquatic systems through both direct deposition and floodplain interactions.

EN15230Molecular composition of urban organic aerosols on clear and hazy days in Beijing: a comparative study using FT-ICR MS

Bin Jiang, Bin Yu Kuang, Yongmei Liang, Jingyi Zhang, X. H. Hilda Huang, Chunming Xu, Jian Zhen Yu and Quan Shi
pp. 888-901

Environmental context. China has been experiencing severe particulate pollution and frequent haze episodes in recent years. We compare the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols on clear and hazy days in Beijing by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The comparative study shows that oxidation, sulfation and nitrification processes actively involve precursors of anthropogenic origin in the Beijing polluted urban atmosphere.

Environmental context. Iron, a limiting nutrient of plankton in the ocean, is deposited to the sea from atmospheric aerosols. In particular, atmospheric acidic conditions promote dissolution of iron from fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants. Here, we report that the iron leached from fly ash depends on its source region, and that the type of combustion process may influence the iron species mobilized.

Online Early

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue

Environmental context. Terrestrial environments receiving trace metal contaminants are often impacted by more than one metal. This study demonstrates the adaptation of an ion-exchange technique to simultaneously obtain Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ activities in soil extracts. These measurements can be used to better understand and predict the behaviour and bioavailability of soil metals in metal–mixture contamination scenarios.

Published online 22 September 2016

EN16072Release of reactive phosphorus from sediments in Dongting Lake linked with the Yangtze River

Tao Liang, Yali Tong, Xiahui Wang and Lingqing Wang

Environmental context. Eutrophication caused by excessive inputs of phosphorus is a prevalent global environmental problem. Reactive phosphorus released from sediments was measured by two new in situ passive sampling techniques capable of high-resolution measurements of phosphorus concentration. The methods provide the scientific evidence for solving the problems associated with deteriorating surface water quality.

Published online 12 September 2016

EN16112Vermiculite as efficient sorbent of CeIII and CeIV

Zdeněk Klika, Jana Seidlerová, Ivan Kolomazník and Marianna Hundáková

Environmental context. Cerium, a Technology Critical Element with many technical, agricultural, and medicinal applications, is increasingly being discharged to the environment. One of the best ways to remove cerium from wastes is its fixation into inexpensive bulk material such as vermiculite. This paper investigates the mechanism of CeIII and CeIV uptake and capture by vermiculite in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions.

Published online 05 September 2016

EN16039PEST-ORCHESTRA, a tool for optimising advanced ion-binding model parameters: derivation of NICA-Donnan model parameters for humic substances reactivity

Noémie Janot, José Paulo Pinheiro, Wander Gustavo Botero, Johannes C. L. Meeussen and Jan E. Groenenberg

Environmental context. The environmental behaviour of trace metals in soils and waters largely depends on the chemical form (speciation) of the metals. Speciation software programs combining models for the binding of metals to soil and sediment constituents are powerful tools in environmental risk assessment. This paper describes a new combination of speciation software with a fitting program to optimise geochemical model parameters that describes proton and metal binding to humic substances.

Published online 29 August 2016

EN16028Analysis of antimony species – lessons learnt from more than two decades of environmental research

Birgit Daus and Helle Rüsz Hansen

Environmental context. The environmental behaviour and toxicological effects of antimony depend strongly on the specific form of the element, and thus methods have been developed for measuring the various forms of antimony. These methods, applicable to quite clean samples, often fail when applied to more complex environmental samples. We discuss some of the pitfalls in determining environmental antimony forms and the resulting risk of getting the bigger picture wrong regarding antimony pollution.

Published online 24 August 2016

EN16078A BUKI (Building up Knowledge Initiative) focussed on antimony

Montserrat Filella

Environmental context. Scientific knowledge is continuously built up based on research results, and relies on their efficient and accurate dissemination. Using antimony as an example, a system is proposed that combines ease of access with focussed reviews while keeping track of all published work. This system, termed BUKI (Building Up Knowledge Initiative) is a collaborative approach based on the combination of a web-based platform and the elaboration of systematic reviews.

Published online 22 August 2016

EN16080Theoretical study of the hydrolysis of HOSO+NO2 as a source of atmospheric HONO: effects of H2O or NH3

Yan-Qiu Sun, Xu Wang, Feng-Yang Bai and Xiu-Mei Pan

Environmental context. Nitrous acid (HONO) has long been recognized as an important atmospheric pollutant, with the reaction of HOSO + NO2 being a source of HONO. We explore the effects of an additional water or ammonia molecule on this reaction. Calculations show that the ammonia molecule has a more effective role than the water molecule in assisting the reaction.

Environmental context. Antimony is a toxic metalloid that is used in a wide range of modern technology applications and in medical treatments. The accelerating needs for antimony in various industrial applications has led to concerns about increased human and environmental exposure. This review provides a brief summary of the biological properties of antimony and its mechanisms of actions in cells.

Published online 15 August 2016

EN16070Heteroagglomeration of nanosilver with colloidal SiO2 and clay

Sébastien Maillette, Caroline Peyrot, Tapas Purkait, Muhammad Iqbal, Jonathan G. C. Veinot and Kevin J. Wilkinson

Environmental context. The fate of nanomaterials in the environment is related to their colloidal stability. Although numerous studies have examined their homoagglomeration, their low concentration and the presence of high concentrations of natural particles implies that heteroagglomeration rather than homoagglomeration is likely to occur under natural conditions. In this paper, two state-of-the art analytical techniques were used to identify the conditions under which nanosilver was most likely to form heteroagglomerates in natural waters.

Published online 08 August 2016

EN16054Homogeneous oxidation of SbIII by aqueous O2: the effect of ionic strength, Pb2+ and EDTA

A. G. Ilgen and T. P. Trainor

Environmental context. Why does antimony become mobile faster in shooting range soils than in laboratory settings? We used controlled experiments and found that increased salinity and the presence of lead (which occurs with antimony at shooting ranges because they are both used in bullets) accelerate the change of antimony to a form that moves more easily through the watershed. This work helps explain the behaviour of this important pollutant – antimony – in the environment.

Published online 01 August 2016

EN16018A novel method to determine trimethylantimony concentrations in plant tissue

Adrien Mestrot, Ying Ji, Susan Tandy and Wolfgang Wilcke

Environmental context. Antimony enters the soil mostly through mining and shooting activities and can thereafter be taken up by plants. In the soil, antimony may undergo several transformations such as biomethylation, leading to the formation of trimethylantimony. Here, we measured for the first time the uptake and translocation of trimethylantimony in a plant using a new extraction and analysis method.

Published online 27 July 2016

EN16029Role of microbial reducing activity in antimony and arsenic release from an unpolluted wetland soil: a lab scale study using sodium azide as a microbial inhibiting agent

Asmaa Rouwane, Marion Rabiet, Isabelle Bourven, Malgorzata Grybos, Lucie Mallet and Gilles Guibaud

Environmental context. Antimony and arsenic are toxic elements occurring naturally in the environment. We found that arsenic release to water from an unpolluted wetland soil is related to microbial reducing activity only, whereas antimony can still be released when this activity is inhibited, suggesting the involvement of additional processes. The findings show that microbial/non-microbial mechanisms control arsenic and antimony release and can thereby impact water quality at wetland outlets.

Published online 27 July 2016

EN16049Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in decaying wood: paleoenvironmental implications

Romain Tramoy, Mathieu Sebilo, Thanh Thuy Nguyen Tu and Johann Schnyder

Environmental context. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial organic matter are widely used for reconstructing past environments, but organic matter is exposed to degradation as soon as it is deposited during what is called early diagenesis. This study explores the effects of this process on organic carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and concludes that it homogenises an environmental signal by integrating all their components. Thus, early diagenesis may not preclude paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

Published online 13 July 2016

EN16038Insights into natural organic matter and pesticide characterisation and distribution in the Rhone River

Danielle L. Slomberg, Patrick Ollivier, Olivier Radakovitch, Nicole Baran, Nicole Sani-Kast, Auguste Bruchet, Martin Scheringer and Jérôme Labille

Environmental context. Natural organic matter in surface waters is a transport vector for environmental pollutants with both its concentration and composition influencing pollutant fate. Characterisation of organic matter in surface waters, crucial to understanding pollutant transport, should also account for spatial variation along the water source. The present work characterises the natural organic matter in the Rhone River and describes the distributions of various pesticides and metabolites along the river.

Environmental context. Antimony enters the environment from tailings and mines but there are widely divergent statements about its mobility in the environment. This work addresses the question of mobility of Sb by a combination of mineralogical and geochemical studies.

Published online 26 April 2016

EN16019Parallel responses of human epidermal keratinocytes to inorganic SbIII and AsIII

Marjorie A. Phillips, Angela Cánovas, Pei-Wen Wu, Alma Islas-Trejo, Juan F. Medrano and Robert H. Rice

Environmental context. Increasing commercial use of antimony is raising its environmental presence and thus possible effects on humans and ecosystems. An important uncertainty is the risk that exposure poses for biological systems. The present work explores the similarity in response of human epidermal keratinocytes, a known target cell type, to antimony and arsenic, where deleterious consequences of exposure to the latter are better known.

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