Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
REVIEW

Arsenic metabolism in cyanobacteria

Shin-ichi Miyashita A D , Chisato Murota B , Keisuke Kondo B , Shoko Fujiwara B D and Mikio Tsuzuki B C

A Environmental Standards Group, Research Institute for Materials and Chemical Measurement, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563, Japan.

B School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1, Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

C JST, CREST, 5, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan.

D Corresponding authors. Emails: shinichi-miyashita@aist.go.jp; fujiwara@toyaku.ac.jp




Shin-ichi Miyashita is a researcher at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). He is an analytical chemist holding a Ph.D. in Life Sciences from the Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (TUPLS) in Tokyo, Japan. His current research focuses on the development of matrix certified reference materials for determination and speciation of elements in environmental and food matrices, and development of high-throughput technologies for single-cell elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma spectrometries.



Chisato Murota received a Masters degree in Life Sciences from TUPLS in 2010 and has worked in the Japan Environmental Measurement and Chemical Analysis Association (JEMCA) since 2011. She has been enrolled in a doctoral course of the same university since 2014. She has studied the function and the gene expression of phosphate transporters of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria in phosphate and arsenate uptake.



Keisuke Kondo received a Masters degree in Life Sciences from TUPLS in 2012 and now works in a company for extracorporeal diagnostics medicines. In TUPLS, he studied the mechanisms of arsenic uptake and metabolism and the mitigation strategies in green algae and cyanobacteria.



Shoko Fujiwara is an Associate Professor in the School of Life Sciences of TUPLS. She is a plant physiologist and her research focuses on the carbon fixation of photosynthetic microorganisms (microalgae and cyanobacteria) and the effects of arsenic on their growth. She has been studying the arsenic resistance mechanisms of microorganisms for more than 10 years.



Mikio Tsuzuki is a Professor in the School of Life Sciences at TUPLS. His major interest is in algal and cyanobacterial physiology, focussing on photosynthetic carbon fixation. Arsenate tolerance observed in photosynthetic microorganisms is one of his subjects on environmental stresses in photosynthesis.

Environmental Chemistry 13(4) 577-589 https://doi.org/10.1071/EN15071
Submitted: 28 July 2014  Accepted: 4 September 2015   Published: 16 November 2015

Environmental context. Cyanobacteria are ecologically important, photosynthetic organisms that are widely distributed throughout the environment. They play a central role in arsenic transformations in terms of both mineralisation and formation of organoarsenic species as the primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. In this review, arsenic resistance, transport and biotransformation in cyanobacteria are reviewed and compared with those in other organisms.

Abstract. Arsenic is a toxic element that is widely distributed in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Some species of cyanobacteria can grow in high concentrations of arsenate (pentavalent inorganic arsenic compound) (100 mM) and in low-millimolar concentrations of arsenite (trivalent inorganic arsenic compound). Arsenate, which is a molecular analogue of phosphate, is taken up by cells through phosphate transporters, and inhibits oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Arsenite, which enters the cell through a concentration gradient, shows higher toxicity than arsenate by binding to sulfhydryl groups and impairing the functions of many proteins. Detoxification mechanisms for arsenic in cyanobacterial cells include efflux of intracellular inorganic arsenic compounds, and biosynthesis of methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid through methylation of intracellular inorganic arsenic compounds. In some cyanobacteria, ars genes coding for an arsenate reductase (arsC), a membrane-bound protein involved in arsenic efflux (arsB) and an arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (arsM) have been found. Furthermore, cyanobacteria can produce more complex arsenic species such as arsenosugars. In this review, arsenic metabolism in cyanobacteria is reviewed, compared with that in other organisms. Knowledge gaps remain regarding both arsenic transport (e.g. uptake of methylated arsenicals and excretion of arsenate) and biotransformation (especially production of lipid-soluble arsenicals). Further studies in these areas are required, not only for a better understanding of the role of cyanobacteria in the circulation of arsenic in aquatic environments, but also for their application to arsenic bioremediation.


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