CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Wildlife Research   
Wildlife Research
Journal Banner
  Ecology, Management and Conservation in Natural and Modified Habitats
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 41(1)

Extinction in Eden: identifying the role of climate change in the decline of the koala in south-eastern NSW

Daniel Lunney A B F , Eleanor Stalenberg A C , Truly Santika D E and Jonathan R. Rhodes D E

A Office of Environment and Heritage NSW, PO Box 1967, Hurstville, NSW 2220, Australia.
B Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia.
C Australian National University, Division of Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
D The University of Queensland, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
E NERP Environmental Decisions Hub, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
F Corresponding author. Email: dan.lunney@environment.nsw.gov.au

Wildlife Research 41(1) 22-34 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR13054
Submitted: 22 March 2013  Accepted: 4 December 2013   Published: 10 April 2014


 
PDF (883 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Context: Reviews of climate change in Australia have identified that it is imposing additional stresses on biodiversity, which is already under threat from multiple human impacts.

Aims: The present study aimed to determine the contributions of several factors to the demise of the koala in the Eden region in south-eastern New South Wales and, in particular, to establish to what extent climate change may have exacerbated the decline.

Methods: The study built on several community-based koala surveys in the Eden region since 1986, verified through interviews with survey respondents. Historical records as far back as the late 19th century, wildlife databases and field-based surveys were used to independently validate the community survey data and form a reliable picture of changes in the Eden koala population. Analysis of the community survey data used a logistic model to assess the contribution of known threats to koalas, including habitat loss measured as changes in foliage projective cover, fire, increases in the human population and climate change in the form of changes in temperature and rainfall, to the regional decline of this species.

Key results: We found a marked, long-term shrinkage in the distribution of the koala across the Eden region. Our modelling demonstrated that a succession of multiple threats to koalas from land use (human population growth and habitat loss) and environmental change (temperature increase and drought) were significant contributors to this decline.

Conclusions: Climate change, particularly drought and rising temperatures, has been a hitherto hidden factor that has been a major driver of the decline of the koala in the Eden region.

Implications: Development of strategies to help fauna adapt to the changing climate is of paramount importance, particularly at a local scale.

Additional keywords: community survey, drought, fire, hunting, land-use change, logging, Phascolarctos cinereus, temperature.


References

Adams-Hosking, C., Grantham, H. S., Rhodes, J. R., McAlpine, C., and Moss, P. T. (2011). Modelling climate-change-induced shifts in the distribution of the koala. Wildlife Research 38, 122–130.
CrossRef |

Adams-Hosking, C., McAlpine, C., Rhodes, J. R., Grantham, H. S., and Moss, P. T. (2012). Modelling changes in the distribution of the critical food resources of a specialist folivore in response to climate change. Diversity and Distributions 18, 847–860.

Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 19, 716–723.

Allen, C. D. (1992). Koala habitat survey of the Devils Creek Catchment. Unpublished report to the Australian Heritage Commission. Canberra, ACT and Tantawangalo Catchment Protection Association, Bega, NSW.

Allen, C. (2003). Koala survey in the Mt McNally and Mt Clifford reserves. Internal report. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

Allen, C. (2004). Information on koalas in the far south coast region of NSW. Internal report. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

Allen, C. (2010a). Koala survey in escarpment and hinterland forest to the south west of Bega 2009–10. Internal report. NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, Sydney.

Allen, C. (2010b). Estimating koala numbers and assessing population trends in south eastern NSW. Information prepared for the Threatened Species Scientific Committee to assist its assessment on the listing of the Koala as a threatened species under the EPBC Act. Draft internal report. NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, Sydney. Available at http://bertramr.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/estimating-koala-populations-and-trends-in-sensw_100203.pdf [verified 14 April 2012].

Anselin, L. (2002). Under the hood issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models. Agricultural Economics 27, 247–267.
CrossRef |

Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2011). ‘Historical Maximum Temperature Data and Mean Annual Rainfall Data.’ (Australian Government: Canberra). Available at http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/data [verified 11 July 2011].

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011). ‘Australian Population Statistics for 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006.’ (Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra.) Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ [verified 11 July 2011].

Barbet-Massin, M., Jiguet, F., Albert, C. H., and Thuiller, W. (2012). Selecting pseudo-absences for species distribution models: how, where and how many? Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 327–338.
CrossRef |

Barton, C. V. M., Ellsworth, D. S., Medlyn, B. E., Duursma, R. A., Tissue, D. T., Adams, M. A., Eamus, D., Conroy, J. P., McMurtrie, R. E., Parsby, J., and Linder, S. (2010). Whole-tree chambers for elevated atmospheric CO2 experimentation and tree scale flux measurements in south-eastern Australia: the Hawkesbury forest experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150, 941–951.
CrossRef |

Braithwaite, L. W. (1983). Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, NSW 1. The species and distribution of animals. Australian Wildlife Research 10, 219–229.
CrossRef |

Braithwaite, L. W., Binns, D. L., and Nowlan, R. D. (1988). The distribution of arboreal marsupials in relation to eucalypt forest types in the Eden (NSW) woodchip concession area. Australian Wildlife Research 15, 363–373.
CrossRef |

Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (2002). ‘Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: a Practical Information-theoretic Approach.’ 2nd edn. (Springer-Verlag: New York, NY.)

Commonwealth of Australia (2009). ‘National Koala Conservation and Management Strategy 2009–2014.’ (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (now SEWPAC): Canberra.)

Cork, S. J. (1995). ‘Koala Conservation in the South-east Forests: Consultancy for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and State Forests of New South Wales.’ (CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology: Sydney.)

Cork, S. J., Margules, C. R., and Braithwaite, L. W. (1990). Implications of koala nutrition and the ecology of other arboreal marsupials in south-eastern New South Wales for the conservation management of koalas. In ‘Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in NSW’. (Eds D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed.) pp. 48–57. (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.)

Cork, S., Feary, S., and Mackowski, C. (1995). ‘Koala Conservation in the South-east Forests. Proceedings of an Expert Workshop.’ (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and State Forests of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Crowther, M. S., McAlpine, C. A., Lunney, D., Shannon, I., and Bryant, J. V. (2009). Using broad-scale, community survey data to compare species conservation strategies across regions: a case study of the koala in adjacent catchments. Ecological Management and Restoration 10, 88–96.

CSIRO and Bureau of Meteorology (2010). ‘State of the Climate.’ (Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology: Canberra.) Available at http://www.bom.gov.au/inside/eiab/State-of-climate-2010-updated.pdf [verified 13 February 2012].

DECCW (2010). Koala surveys in the coastal forests of the Bermagui–Mumbulla area: 2007–09. An interim report. Internal report. NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, Sydney. Available at http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/threatenedspecies/10116koalabermmum.pdf [verified 14 April 2012].

Dilman, D. A. (2007). ‘Mail and Internet Surveys: the Tailored Design Method.’ 2nd edn (2007 update). (John Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.)

Dormann, C. F. (2007). Effects of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16, 129–138.
CrossRef |

Driscoll, D. A., Felton, A., Gibbons, P., Felton, A. M., Munro, N. T., and Lindenmayer, D. B. (2011). Priorities in policy and management when existing biodiversity stressors interact with climate-change. On line Climatic Change , .
CrossRef |

Duval, B. D., Blankinship, J. C., Dijkstra, P., and Hungate, B. A. (2012). CO2 effects on plant nutrient concentration depend on plant functional group and available nitrogen: a meta-analysis. Plant Ecology 213, 505–521.
CrossRef |

Eco Logical (2006). Far south coast koala management framework: report prepared for the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Project number 114-001. Eco Logical Australia, Sydney.

Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P., Dudík, M., Ferrier, S., Guisan, A., Hijmans, R. J., Huettmann, F., Leathwick, J. R., Lehmann, A., Li, J., Lohmann, L. G., Loiselle, B. A., Manion, G., Moritz, C., Nakamura, M., Nakazawa, Y., Overton, J. McC. M., Townsend Peterson, A., Phillips, S. J., Richardson, K., Scachetti-Pereira, R., Schapire, R. E., Jorge Soberon, J., Williams, S., Wisz, M. W., and Zimmermann, N. E. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29, 129–151.
CrossRef |

Ellis, W. A. H., Melzer, A., Clifton, I. D., and Carrick, F. (2010). Climate change and the koala Phascolarctos cinereus: water and energy. In ‘Ecology Meets Physiology: a Gordon Grigg Festschrift’. (Eds L. Beard, D. Lunney, H. McCallum and C. Franklin.) Australian Zoologist 35, 369–377.

ESRI (2008). ‘ArcGIS. Version 9.3.’ (Environmental Systems Research Institute: Redlands, CA.)

Felton, A., Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D., Montague-Drake, R., Lowe, A., Saunders, D., Felton, A., Steffen, W., Munro, N., Youngentob, K., Gillen, J., Gibbons, P., Bruzgul, J., Fazey, I., Bond, S., Elliott, C., Macdonald, B., Porfirio, L., Westgate, M., and Worthy, M. (2009). Climate change, conservation and management: an assessment of the peer-reviewed scientific journal literature. Biodiversity and Conservation 18, 2243–2253.
CrossRef |

Forestry Commission of New South Wales (1988). ‘Forestry Operations in Eden Management Area: Environmental Impact Statement.’ (Forestry Commission of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Forestry Commission of New South Wales (1989). ‘The Forests of Eden: Providing for our Future.’ (Forestry Commission of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Forests NSW (2005). ‘ESFM Plan: Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management, South Coast – Southern NSW.’ (Department of Primary Industries, Forests NSW: Southern Region.)

Forests NSW (2011). Data on prescribed fire and wildfire and pre-logging surveys. Department of Primary Industries, Forests NSW, Southern Region. Eden NSW and West Pennant Hills NSW. These data were provided by the NSW OEH Spatial Services.

Garnaut, R. (2011). ‘The Garnaut Review 2011: Australia in the Global Response to Climate Change.’ Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. (Cambridge University Press: Melbourne.)

Gleadow, R. M., Foley, W. J., and Woodrow, I. E. (1998). Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx F.Muell. Plant, Cell & Environment 21, 12–22.
CrossRef | CAS |

Gordon, G., and Hrdina, F. (2005). Koala and possum populations in Queensland during the harvest period, 1906–1936. Australian Zoologist 33, 69–99.

Gordon, G., Brown, A. S., and Pulsford, T. (1988). A koala (Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss) population crash during drought and heat-wave conditions in southwestern Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 13, 451–461.
CrossRef |

Gujarati, D. N. (1995) ‘Basic Econometrics.’ (McGraw-Hill: New York.)

Hovenden, M. J., and Williams, A. L. (2010). The impacts of rising CO2 concentrations on Australian terrestrial species and ecosystems. Austral Ecology 35, 665–684.
CrossRef |

Hughes, L. (2003). Climate change and Australia: trends, projections and impacts. Austral Ecology 28, 423–443.
CrossRef |

Hughes, L. (2012). Can Australian biodiversity adapt to climate change? In ‘Wildlife and Climate Change: Towards Robust Conservation Strategies for Australian Fauna’. (Eds D. Lunney and P. Hutchings.) pp. 8–10. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Hutchinson, M. F. (1995). Interpolating mean rainfall using thin plate smoothing splines. International Journal of GIS 9, 305–403. Available at http://fennerschool.anu.edu.au/research/products/anusplin-vrsn-44#acton-tabs-link--tabs-fenner_product_tabs-middle-1 [verified 24 March 2014].

Jenkins, B., and Recher, H. F. (1990). Conservation in the eucalypt forests of the Eden region in south east New South Wales. In ‘Department of Ecosystem Management Report’. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.

Jurskis, V. (2001). A review of some techniques used to describe koala habitat and its use by koalas with particular reference to low density populations at Eden. In ‘The Research and Management of Non-urban Koala Populations’. (Eds K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick and D. Lamb.) pp. 71–88. (Koala Research Centre of Central Queensland: Rockhampton, Qld.)

Jurskis, V., and Potter, M. (1997). ‘Koala Surveys, Ecology and Conservation at Eden. Research Paper No. 34.’ (Research Division, State Forests of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Jurskis, V., Rowell, D., and Ridley, D. (1994). ‘Survey Techniques and Aspects of the Ecology of the Koala near Eden. Research Paper No. 22.’ (Research Division, State Forests of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Jurskis, V., Douch, A., McCray, K., and Shields, J. (2001). A playback survey of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, and a review of its distribution in the Eden region of south-eastern New South Wales. Australian Forestry 64, 226–231.
CrossRef |

Kingsford, R. T., and Watson, J. E. M. (2011). Climate change in Oceania – a synthesis of biodiversity impacts and adaptations. Pacific Conservation Biology 17, 270–284.

Lawler, I. R., Foley, W. J., Woodrow, I. E., and Cork, S. J. (1997). The effects of elevated CO2 atmospheres on the nutritional quality of Eucalyptus foliage and its interaction with soil nutrient and light availability. Oecologia 109, 59–68.
CrossRef |

Lennon, J. J. (2000). Red-shifts and red herrings in geographical ecology. Ecography 23, 101–113.
CrossRef |

Lindenmayer, D. (2009). ‘Forest Pattern and Ecological Process.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Lunney, D. (2005). The Eden woodchip debate, part 2 (1987–2004). In ‘Proceedings of the 6th National Conference of the Australian Forest History Society’. (Eds M. C. Calver, H. Bigler-Cole, G. Bolton, J. Dargavel, A. Gaynor, P. Horwitz, J. Mills and G. Wardell-Johnson.) pp. 265–324. (Millpress: Rotterdam, The Netherlands.)

Lunney, D., and Hutchings, P. (2012). Wildlife and climate change: are robust strategies for Australian fauna possible? In ‘Wildlife and Climate Change: Towards Robust Conservation Strategies for Australian Fauna’. (Eds D. Lunney and P. Hutchings.) pp. 180–201. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Lunney, D., and Leary, T. (1988). The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13, 67–92.
CrossRef |

Lunney, D., and Matthews, A. (2002). Ecological changes to forests in the Eden region of New South Wales. In ‘Australia’s Ever-Changing Forests. V: Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Australian Forest History’. (Eds J. Dargavel, D. Gaughwin and B. Libbis.) pp. 289–310. (Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University: Canberra.)

Lunney, D., and Moon, C. (1988). An ecological view of the history of logging and fire in Mumbulla State Forest on the South Coast of New South Wales. In ‘Australia’s Ever Changing Forests: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Australian Forest History’. (Eds K. J. Frawley and N. M. Semple.) pp. 23–61. (Department of Geography and Oceanography, Australian Defence Force Academy: Canberra.)

Lunney, D., Esson, C., Moon, C., Ellis, M., and Matthews, A. (1997). A community-based survey of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, in the Eden region of south-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 24, 111–128.
CrossRef |

Lunney, D., O’Neill, L., Matthews, A., and Sherwin, W. B. (2002). Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106, 101–113.
CrossRef |

Lunney, D., Gresser, S., O’Neill, L. E., Matthews, A., and Rhodes, J. (2007). The impact of fire and dogs on koalas at Port Stephens, New South Wales, using population viability analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 13, 189–201.

Lunney, D., Crowther, M. S., Shannon, I., and Bryant, J. V. (2009). Combining a map-based public survey with an estimation of site occupancy to determine the recent and changing distribution of the koala in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 36, 262–273.
CrossRef |

Lunney, D., Crowther, M. S., Wallis, I., Foley, W. J., Lemon, J., Wheeler, R., Madani, G., Orscheg, C., Griffith, J. E., Krockenberger, M., Retamales, M., and Stalenberg, E. (2012a). Koalas and climate change: a case study on the Liverpool Plains, north-west NSW. In ‘Wildlife and Climate Change: Towards Robust Conservation Strategies for Australian Fauna’. (Eds D. Lunney and P. Hutchings.) pp. 150–168. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW.)

Lunney, D., Lemon, J., Crowther, M. S., Stalenberg, E., Ross, K., and Wheeler, R. (2012b). An ecological approach to koala conservation in a mined landscape. In ‘Life-of-Mine Conference 2012’. pp. 345–354. (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne.)

Mantyka-Pringle, C. S., Martin, T. G., and Rhodes, J. R. (2012). Interactions between climate and habitat loss effects on biodiversity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 18, 1239–1252.
CrossRef |

McAlpine, C. A., Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., Bowen, M. E., Lunney, D., Mitchell, D. L., Pullar, D. V., and Possingham, H. P. (2006). The importance of forest area and configuration relative to local habitat factors for conserving forest mammals: a case study of koalas in Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 132, 153–165.
CrossRef |

Melzer, A., Carrick, F., Menkhorst, P., Lunney, D., and St John, B. (2000). Overview, critical assessment, and conservation implications of koala distribution and abundance. Conservation Biology 14, 619–628.
CrossRef |

Menkhorst, P. (2008). Hunted, marooned, re-introduced, contracepted: a history of koala management in Victoria. In ‘Too Close for Comfort: Contentious Issues in Human–Wildlife Encounters’. (Eds D. Lunney, A. Munn and W. Meikle.) pp. 73–92. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Moore, B. D., Lawler, I. R., Wallis, I. R., Beale, C. M., and Foley, W. J. (2010). Palatability mapping: a koala’s eye view of spatial variation in habitat quality. Ecology 91, 3165–3176.
CrossRef | PubMed |

NSW Department of Industry and Investment (2011). ‘GIS Data Monthly Drought Declarations from January 1986 to December 2010.’ [Verified 1 July 2011].

Office of Environment and Heritage (2011a). ‘Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database.’ (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Spatial Services: Sydney.) [Verified 1 July 2011].

Office of Environment and Heritage (2011b). ‘NSW Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) Data for Woody Areas for the Years 1988 to 2008.’ (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Spatial Services: Sydney.) Available at http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/research/VISmap.htm [verified 1 July 2011].

Penna, I. (2004). The Eden woodchip scheme and its implications for forest fauna: a political ecology perspective. In ‘Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna’. 2nd edn. (Ed. D. Lunney.) pp. 63–80. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Phillips, B. (1990). ‘Koalas: the Little Australians We’d All Hate to Lose.’ (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.)

Phillips, S., and Callaghan, J. (2011). The spot assessment technique: a tool for determining localised levels of habitat use by koalas Phascolarctos cinereus. Australian Zoologist 35, 774–780.
CrossRef |

Pittock, A. B. (2009). ‘Climate Change: the Science, Impacts and Solutions.’ 2nd edn. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Pyke, G. H., and O’Conner, P. J. (1991). Wildlife conservation in the South-east forests of New South Wales. Technical reports of the Australian Museum: Number 5. (Ed. J. K. Lowry.) Australian Museum, Sydney.

Recher, H. F., Lunney, D., and Matthews, A. (2009). Small mammal populations in a eucalypt forest affected by fire and drought. I. Long-term patterns in an era of climate change. Wildlife Research 36, 143–158.
CrossRef |

Reed, P., and Lunney, D. (1990). Habitat loss: the key problem for the long-term survival of koalas in NSW. In ‘Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in NSW’. (Eds D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed.) pp. 9–31. (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.)

Reed, P., Lunney, D., and Walker, P. (1990). A 1986–1987 survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in New South Wales and an ecological interpretation of its distribution. In ‘Biology of the Koala’. (Eds A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson.) pp. 55–74. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

Rhodes, J. R., Ng, C. F., de Villiers, D. L., Preece, H. J., McAlpine, C. A., and Possingham, H. P. (2011). Using integrated population modelling to quantify the implications of multiple threatening processes for a rapidly declining population. Biological Conservation 144, 1081–1088.
CrossRef |

Seabrook, L., McAlpine, C., Baxter, G., Rhodes, J., Bradley, A., and Lunney, D. (2011). Drought-driven change in wildlife distribution and numbers: a case study of koalas in south west Queensland. Wildlife Research 38, 509–524.
CrossRef |

Smith, A. G., McAlpine, C., Rhodes, J. R., Seabrook, L., Baxter, G., Lunney, D., and Bradley, A. (2013). At what spatial scales does resource selection vary? A case study of koalas in a semi-arid region. Austral Ecology 38, 230–240.
CrossRef |

Steffen, W., Burbidge, A. A., Hughes, L., Kitching, R., Lindenmayer, D., Musgrave, W., Stafford Smith, M., and Werner, P. (2009). ‘Australia’s Biodiversity and Climate Change.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Stokland, J. N., Halvorsen, R., and Støa, B. (2011). Species distribution modelling. Effect of design and sample size of pseudo-absence observations. Ecological Modelling 222, 1800–1809.
CrossRef |

Wisz, M. S., and Guisan, A. (2009). Do pseudo-absence selection strategies influence species distribution models and their predictions? An information-theoretic approach based on simulated data. BMC Ecology 9, 8.
CrossRef | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014