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  Ecology, Management and Conservation in Natural and Modified Habitats
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Notice to Authors

All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

The Notice to Authors is also provided as a PDF file and may be viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader. This software is free and can be installed from Adobe´s web site.

Licence to publish
For details regarding copyright, please see Copyright/Licence to Publish.

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Open access
Authors may choose to publish their paper Open Access on payment of a publication fee. See Open Access for more details.

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Journal editorial policy
Wildlife Research provides an international forum for the publication of original and significant research and debate on the ecology and management of vertebrate and invertebrate wildlife in natural and modified habitats. The journal has a broad focus ranging from the conservation of threatened species through to the management of over-abundant and invasive species. Papers reporting well-structured field studies, manipulative experiments, and analytical and modelling studies are encouraged. All papers should aim to improve the practice of wildife management and contribute conceptual advances to our knowledge and understanding of wildlife ecology. For a detailed description of the aims and scope of Wildlife Research, please see the recent Editorial in Volume 36 (4).

As well as original research papers, the journal publishes: reviews that offer new insights or timely syntheses of current topics in wildlife management; viewpoint articles highlighting contentious or emerging issues and their implications for wildlife management, conservation, research or policy development; and methods papers that describe and evaluate methodological advances and new techniques in wildlife management and conservation.

Review papers are approved for refereeing by the Editors. Review papers should indicate fruitful areas of further research and be original and innovative; they should not exceed 20 printed pages in length (50 pages A4 double-spaced type including figures and tables). If new experimental data are included in the review, sufficient detail about methods should be provided so that other investigators can repeat the work.

Viewpoint articles are short (2-4 printed pages) opinion papers, which raise ideas and develop novel hypotheses that are scientifically defendable but may be more speculative or controversial than would normally be seen in regular reviews. Viewpoints are assessed on the originality of the ideas presented, the development of logical arguments and the contribution they make in advancing new directions or approaches to the field of wildlife research.

The Editors will consider Comments on papers published in the journal within the past 12 months. If the Comment is negative or critical, the authors of the published paper will be offered the right to reply in a Response. Both the Comment and Response will be peer reviewed, and if accepted, will be published in the same issue. In order to be considered for publication, Comment and Response articles must be concise and impersonal, must contribute to knowledge and must advance the discussion beyond opinion. Their ultimate aim should be to encourage informed debate on topics raised in papers published in Wildlife Research. Comments should have a short abstract (<75 words) and should not exceed 3000 words. The number of figures, tables and references should be limited so that the Comment comprises no more than three typeset pages in total. Responses should have no abstract and should not exceed 1000 words. They should comprise no more than one typeset page in total (including figures, tables and references). If the corresponding or contributing authors of the previously published paper decline their right to reply or fail to do so in a reasonable timeframe, the Comment will be published without a Response. Authors who wish to submit Comments on papers published more than 12 months previously should first seek advice from the Editorial Office.

By submitting their paper to the journal, all authors confirm that the content has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Abstracts and posters from conferences, where the full data set is not presented and the interpretation of results is not developed, would not normally be regarded as publications. The Editors recognise that grey literature often forms the basis of peer-reviewed publications; if a submitted manuscript includes material that has been disseminated in report form, the authors should explain this in their cover letter. Editors will consider such manuscripts on a case-by-case basis.

The journal requires that all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission. The journal will use its best endeavours to ensure that work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that any published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. It takes no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the contributors. All papers are refereed.

There are no page charges, except for the reproduction of colour figures. A free PDF file will be supplied to the author on publication of the article. Paper reprints may also be ordered before publication and an order form is sent to the corresponding author with the final page proofs.

Animal ethics
Papers reporting work with animals must include a reference to the code of practice adopted for the reported experimentation or manipulation and provide details of permits for the study. The Editors will take account of animal welfare issues and reserve the right not to publish.

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Submission and preparation of manuscripts
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.

A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the journal, and that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Suggestions of possible referees are welcome.

If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
Editorial Assistant
Wildlife Research
PO Box 1139 (150 Oxford Street)
Collingwood, Vic. 3066
Telephone +61 3 9662 7616
Fax +61 3 9662 7611
Email publishing.wr@csiro.au

Authors are advised to read recent issues of the journal to note details of the scope of papers, headings, tables, illustrations, style, and general form. Observance of these and the following details will shorten the time between submission and publication. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted.

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Checklist for preparation of manuscripts

  1. Type the manuscript double- or 1.5-line-spaced throughout, including references, figure captions, and tables, which should be placed at the end of the document. Clearly numbered figures should also be imported at the end of the document at submission stage. Line numbers must be added (continuous throughout the document), and all pages must be numbered. 
  2. Type the title and all headings aligned left, with only the first letter of the first word and of any proper name capitalised.
  3. Main headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References) are set in bold roman (not italic) type. Minor headings are set in light italic type.
  4. Do not indent paragraphs or use a carriage-return (Enter) at the end of lines within a paragraph.
  5. Do not use initial capitals for vernacular names of species except where the name is based on a proper name (e.g. regent honeyeater, but Port Lincoln parrot; sugar glider, but Leadbeater´s possum).
  6. Use ´s´ not ´z´ in words such as ´recognise´, ´analyse´ and ´organisation´.
  7. Use the conventions ´from … to´, ´between … and´, ´range x-y´.
  8. Use single quotation marks.
  9. Check that all references mentioned in the text are in the References, and vice versa.
  10. List references in the text in chronological order, separated by semi-colons. List references in the References list in alphabetical order. In the text, do not use a comma between the author´s name and the date.
  11. Give journal and book titles in full in the References list.
  12. Do not use tabs to create hanging indents within the References.
  13. Spell out numbers less than 10 unless with a unit. Type a space between a numeral and its unit.
  14. Prepare figures with symbols and letters appropriate for the reduction intended. Use Helvetica or another sans-serif font in figures.
  15. Check that stippling and/or symbols in figures are legible at the size likely to be used in the published paper.
  16. Type tables using the table menu in Word with the title as a separate paragraph. Put explanatory matter referring to the table as a whole in a headnote, which should be in a separate paragraph from the title, and directly under the heading.
  17. Indicate approximate positions of figures and tables on the manuscript.
  18. Check that figures and tables are numbered in the order in which they are discussed in the text.
  19. Provide a running head for the paper of not more than 50 characters (including spaces).
  20. Provide a postal address, telephone and fax numbers and an email address for the corresponding author.

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Guidelines for the presentation of papers

General presentation
The work should be presented in concise and clear English. The Introduction must describe the aims of the work and/or the hypothesis being tested, but it should not exceed what is necessary to indicate the reason for the work and its essential background. Sufficient experimental detail should be given to allow assessment of the results and enable the work to be repeated. The Discussion should focus attention on the significance of the results and must discuss their implications for wildlife management.

Additional material of a detailed nature that may be useful to other workers but which is not essential to the printed paper may be lodged as Supplementary Material with the Journal, provided that it is submitted with the manuscript for inspection by the referees. Such material will be made available from the journal´s website and a note to this effect should be included in the paper.

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This should be concise, interesting and appropriately informative and should contain sufficient keywords to facilitate retrieval by online search engines. Place names should be avoided unless the geographic location is critical to the point of the paper. An abridged title suitable for use as a running head at the top of the printed page and not exceeding 50 letter spaces should also be supplied.

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Abstracts should be no more than 350 words. For research articles and methods papers, the Abstract should state concisely why the study was done, what hypothesis was tested, and how the study was undertaken; should give the principal findings and conclusions; and should highlight the implications for wildlife management or future research. Abstracts of research articles and methods papers should be formatted to include the following labelled sections: Context; Aims; Methods; Key results; Conclusions; Implications. Abstracts of Reviews and Viewpoint articles do not need to be formatted with sections but should still provide a concise overview of the full manuscript.

In addition, authors of accepted papers are asked to provide a short summary that captures the essence of the work and puts it clearly in a management context. These summaries will appear in the Table of Contents on the journal’s website to help wildlife managers, policy makers, consultants and others not directly involved in research to understand its significance, outcomes and applications.

The short summary should be three sentences (~60 words) in total, free from jargon, and written at the level of an article in a good newspaper. The first sentence should engage the reader and highlight the importance of the research. The second sentence should describe the aim of the work and the main discovery. The final sentence should describe how the results fit into the bigger picture. To accompany the text, we also request a colour photograph or other image that highlights an important aspect of the work. This image will be used in the online Table of Contents, email alerts and RSS feeds to promote the paper and assist in providing a context for the reader.  If a photo credit is required please provide details to your Production Editor. The image should be submitted as a 96 dpi JPEG file and must be no wider than 9 cm and no higher than 4 cm.

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Footnotes are discouraged. They should be used only when essential and should be placed within horizontal rules immediately under the lines to which they refer.

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References are cited chronologically in the text by author and date and are not numbered. All references in the text must be listed at the end of the paper, arranged alphabetically; all entries in this list must correspond to references in the text. In the text the names of two coauthors are linked by ´and´; for three or more the first author´s name is followed by ´et al.´. No editorial responsibility can be taken for the accuracy of the references; authors are requested to check these with special care.

Titles must be included for all references. Papers that have not been accepted for publication may not be included in the list of references and must be cited either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´pers. comm.´; the use of such citations is discouraged. Titles of periodicals must not be abbreviated.

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Citation of references (examples)
EndNote and Reference Manager provide output styles for Wildlife Research. References should be in the following formats:

  • Journal paper
    Kavanagh, R. P., and Lambert, M. J. (1990). Food selection by the greater glider, Petauroides volans: is foliar nitrogen a determinant of habitat quality? Australian Wildlife Research 17, 285-299.

  • Chapter in a book
    Lee, A. K., Woolley, P. A., and Braithwaite, R. W. (1982). Life history strategies of dasyurid marsupials. In ´Carnivorous Marsupials´. (Ed. M. Archer.) pp. 1-11. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

  • Whole book
    Strahan, R. (Ed.) (1995). ´The Mammals of Australia.´ (Reed Books: Sydney.)

  • Report or bulletin
    Parer, I., Sobey, W. R., and Conolly, D. (1987). Reproduction of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) under varying degrees of confinement. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Rangelands Research Technical Paper No. 36. (CSIRO: Melbourne.)

  • Conference Proceedings
    Hone, J., and Pedersen, H. (1980). Changes in a feral pig population after poisoning. In ´Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference´. (Ed. J. P. Clark.) pp. 176-182. (University of California: Davis, CA.)

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Authors are requested to use the International System of Units (Système International d´Unités) for exact measurements of physical quantities and where appropriate elsewhere. The double solidus must not be used in complex groupings of units; the negative index form ( e.g. g kg-1 h-1) is preferred.

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Mathematical formulae
Formulae should be carefully typed with symbols in correct alignment and adequately spaced. If special symbols must be hand-written, they should be inserted with care and identified by pencilled notes in the margin. Judicious use should be made of the solidus to avoid 2-line mathematical expressions wherever possible and especially in the running text. Each long formula should be displayed on a separate line with at least 2 lines of space above and below. Set up complex mathematics using an equation editor.

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Enzyme nomenclature
The names of enzymes should conform to the Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the IUB on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes as published in ´Enzyme Nomenclature 1984´ (Academic Press, New York, 1984). If there is good reason to use a name other than the recommended name, at the first mention of the alternative name in the text it should be identified by the recommended name and EC number. The Editor should be advised of the reasons for using the alternative name.

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Chemical nomenclature
The nomenclature of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, vitamins, etc. should follow the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Other biologically active compounds, such as metabolic inhibitors, plant growth regulators, buffers, etc., should be referred to once by their correct chemical name (which is in accordance with IUPAC rules of Chemical Nomenclature) and then by their most widely accepted common name. For pesticides, the latest issue of ´Pesticides - Synonyms and Chemical Names´ (Australian Government Publishing Service) should be followed. Where there is no common name, trade names or letter abbreviations of the chemical may be used.

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Statistical evaluation of results
The tests should be described briefly and, if necessary, supported by references. Numbers of individuals, mean values and measures of variability should be stated. It should be made clear whether the standard deviation or the standard error of the mean has been given.

The design and conduct of experiments must be sufficiently explained that readers can judge for themselves the validity of the results. Authors should describe how measurements were made and indicate how treatments were assigned to units or blocks, and the number of replicates. When common experimental designs such as randomised block or split-plot designs are used a reference is not necessary, but it is appropriate to cite a reference for little-used methods or designs, in which case the use of these methods should be justified. The experimental design dictates the proper method of statistical analysis and the basis of assessing the precision of treatment means. The precision achieved should be reported by a standard error of the treatment mean or a coefficient of variation. Wherever possible, the assumptions implicit in the analysis should be checked. Treatment comparisons such as the least significant difference (l.s.d.) may be made when the variance ratio (F value) is significant, but authors must be aware of the limitations to the use of multiple comparisons. Ultimately, the statistical analyses should highlight the biological principles embodied in the results.

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Tables must be numbered with arabic numerals and each must be accompanied by a title. A headnote containing material relevant to the whole table should start on a new line as it will be set in a different font. Tables should be arranged with regard to the dimensions of the printed page (17.5 by 22 cm) and the number of columns kept to a minimum. Excessive subdivision of column headings is undesirable and long headings should be avoided by the use of explanatory notes, which should be incorporated into the headnote. The first letter only of headings to rows and vertical columns should be capitalised. The symbol for the unit of measurement should be placed in parentheses beneath the column heading. Prefixes for units should be chosen to avoid an excessive number of digits in the body of the table or scaling factors in the headings. When scaling factors cannot be avoided, the quantity expressed should be preceded by the power of 10 by which the value has been multiplied. For example, the value 0.05 would appear as 5 under the heading 102 × N and the value 500 would appear as 5 under the heading 10-2 × N. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table. Vertical rules must not be used. Each table must be referred to in the text. Only in exceptional circumstances will the presentation of essentially the same data in both tabular and graphical form be permitted; where adequate, the graphical form should be used. Short tables can frequently be incorporated into the text as a sentence or as a brief untitled tabulation. Footnotes in tables should be reserved for specific items in columns.

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Authors are asked to submit their illustrations in electronic format, see ´Electronic files for accepted manuscripts´ for details. However, all illustrations should conform to the general instructions for layout as follows.

Line drawings and graphs
Line illustrations prepared using either a draw or chart/graph program should be saved in the following formats: Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (preferred format); encapsulated postscript (.eps); or Excel (.xls). Illustrations created using Powerpoint should be saved in PowerPoint or as Windows metafiles (.wmf); CorelDraw files should be saved as .eps or .ai files; charts created on a Macintosh computer should be saved as .eps, .ps or PICT files; SigmaPlot files should be saved in eps format (postscript printer driver required). In all cases they should be editable vector graphic files. Avoid using 3D surface area charts because print quality is often poor. Remove colours from all charts and graphs.

Line illustrations must be of high quality and if not produced using a software package should be drawn using black ink on flexible white board or on drawing or tracing paper, and with regard to the size of the printed page (16.5 by 22 cm). If originals are larger than this they should be photographically reduced and high-quality bromide prints used as originals. Lettering should be in sans-serif type (Helvetica preferred) with the first letter of the first word and any proper names capitalised. The x-height of inscriptions after reduction should be 1.2-1.3 mm (capitals 2 mm). Thus, for the preferred reductions of graphs to 30, 40, or 50% of original linear dimensions, the initial x-height of lettering should be 4, 3, or 2.5 mm, respectively. Symbols and grid marks should be the same respective sizes, and curves and axes should then be either 0.8, 0.7, or 0.6 mm thick, respectively. Proportionately smaller sizes of type, symbols, grid marks, and curve thicknesses should be used for lesser reductions (the thickness of all lines on line diagrams must be no less than 1 pt). The following symbols should be used: . The symbols + and × should be avoided. Explanations of symbols should be given in the caption to the figure. Lettering of graphs should be kept to a minimum as excessive lettering within the frame of a graph makes the lines difficult to decipher. Grid marks should point inwards; legends to axes should state the quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate SI units in parentheses. Unsatisfactory artwork will be returned for correction.

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Digital images should be prepared and photographs scanned at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size and saved in greyscale format as TIFF or Photoshop files. It is preferable for labels to be applied electronically to the scanned images in Photoshop, rather than scanning manually labeled figures. Electronic files of colour figures or photographs should be saved in CMYK colour not in RGB colour, because the CMYK format is required for printing. Authors should note that colours change when converted to CMYK from RGB and when printed from different types of printer; hence, when colour accuracy is important, authors should provide a hard copy that is correct so that colour reproduction during printing can be matched to an accurate original. Note that the journal does not cover the cost of printing colour pages, so please speak to the Editor if you wish to publish photographs in colour.

Photographs must be of the highest quality with a full range of tones and of good contrast. Before being compiled into the figure, photographs must be trimmed squarely to exclude features not relevant to the paper and be separated from adjacent photographs by uniform spaces that will be 2 mm wide after reduction. Lettering should be in a sans-serif type and contrast with its background; thus, white lettering should be used on darker backgrounds. The size of lettering should be such that the final height after reduction is 1.5-2.0 mm. Important features to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated.

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Electronic files for accepted manuscripts
Electronic files of the final versions of both the text and illustrations should be sent when the paper has been accepted for publication. Files should be named using the paper number and appropriate identifying information (e.g. WR07001_finaltext; WR07001_Fig1). The text and figure captions should be sent as a single Word file, and the tables as separate Word files. If you are unable to supply files in Word, please contact the Managing Editor for acceptable alternatives. The figures should be provided in the formats described above.

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Page proofs and corrections
Copyedited manuscripts and subsequently page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking prior to publication. At these stages only essential alterations and correction of publisher errors may be undertaken. Excessive author alterations at page proof stage will be charged back to the author at $5 per item.

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