CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Sexual Health   
Sexual Health
Journal Banner
  Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Scope
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn

red arrow Interview with Kit Fairley
blank image
Hear Kit Fairley speak about what is sexual health.

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 9(2)

Providing HIV-negative results to low-risk clients by telephone

Damian P. Conway A E , Loretta M. Healey B , Evert Rauwendaal C , David J. Templeton A B and Stephen C. Davies D

A The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
B Royal Prince Alfred Sexual Health Clinic, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Lucas Street, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.
C Alcohol and Drug Service, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.
D North Shore Sexual Health Service, Royal North Shore Hospital, Herbert Street, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia.
E Corresponding author. Email: dconway@kirby.unsw.edu.au

Sexual Health 9(2) 160-165 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH10159
Submitted: 10 December 2010  Accepted: 12 May 2011   Published: 3 October 2011


 
PDF (120 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Background: In Australia, Health Department policies differ on the recommended method of providing HIV results. Traditionally, all results have been provided in person. Our aim was to trial provision of HIV-negative test results by telephone to low-risk clients attending sexual health services and to assess clients’ preferences for delivery method. Methods: During 4 months in 2009 at two sexual health services in Sydney, all clients assessed as low-risk for HIV infection were invited to receive their HIV result by telephone. Non-receipt of results was defined as failure to receive results within 30 days of the test being performed. Results: Of 763 clients tested, 328 (43%) were excluded following risk assessment, 30 (4%) declined to participate and 405 (53%) were enrolled. Among enrolled clients, 86% received their HIV result by telephone within 30 days, 97% were satisfied with delivery of the result by telephone and 93% preferred telephone delivery for their next HIV result. Only one enrolled client returned a positive HIV result. Independent predictors of receiving results within the 30-day timeframe were clinic attendance for sexually transmissible infection screening (P = 0.021), lack of anogenital symptoms (P = 0.015) and not being a sex worker (P = 0.001). Conclusions: In this study of telephone provision of HIV results to low HIV-risk clients, there were no adverse events and clients expressed satisfaction with the process plus a strong preference for telephone delivery of future results. There was a decreased rate of failure to receive HIV results compared with other Australian studies.

Additional keywords: HIV testing, post-test discussion, sexual health services, telephone notification.


References

[1]  AIDS and Infectious Diseases Branch, NSW Department of Health. Policy Directive PD2005_048. HIV antibody testing – counselling – guidelines. Sydney: NSW Department of Health; 2005. Available online at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/PD/2005/PD2005_048.html [verified September 2010].

[2]  Ministerial Advisory Committee on AIDS, Sexual Health and Hepatitis; Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. National HIV testing policy. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing; 2006. Available online at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-hiv_hepc-hiv-index.htm[verified September 2010].

[3]  Rogstad K, Palfreeman A, Rooney G, Hart GJ, Lowbury R, Mortimer P, et al UK national guidelines on HIV testing 2006. Int J STD AIDS 2006; 17: 668–76.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[4]  Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, Janssen RS, Taylor AW, Lyss SB, et al CDC Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recommend Rep 2006; 55: 1–17.

[5]  New Zealand Ministry of Health. Recommendations for HIV testing of adults in healthcare settings. Wellington: Ministry of Health; 2008. Available online at: http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/hivaids-testingadultsinhealthcare[verified September 2010].

[6]  McKinstry LA, Goldbaum GM, Meischke HW. Telephone notification of HIV test results: impact in King County, Washington. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 796–800.
| PubMed |

[7]  Morgan J. The advantages of notifying negative HIV results by telephone. N Z Med J 2005; 118: U1744.
| PubMed |

[8]  Schluter WW, Judson FN, Baron AE, McGill WL, Marine WM, Douglas JM. Usefulness of human immunodeficiency virus post-test counseling by telephone for low-risk clients of an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Sex Transm Dis 1996; 23: 190–7.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[9]  Spielberg F, Critchlow C, Vittinghoff E, Coletti AS, Sheppard H, Mayer KH, et al Home collection for frequent HIV testing: acceptability of oral fluids, dried blood spots and telephone results. HIV Early Detection Study Group. AIDS 2000; 14: 1819–28.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[10]  Gold RS, Karantzas G. Thought processes associated with reluctance in gay men to be tested for HIV. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 775–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[11]  Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R, Owens D. Screening for HIV in health care settings: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 125–31.
| PubMed |

[12]  Kinsler JJ, Cunningham WE, Davis C, Wong MD. Time trends in failure to return for HIV test results. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 397–400.
| PubMed |

[13]  Sanchez T, Finlayson T, Drake A, Behel S, Cribbin M, Dinenno E, et al HIV risk, prevention, and testing behaviors: United States, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System; men who have sex with men, November 2003–April 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 2006; 55: 1–16.
| PubMed |

[14]  Wilson D, Hoare A, Regan D, Law M. Importance of promoting HIV testing for preventing secondary transmissions: modelling the Australian HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men. Sex Health 2009; 6: 19–33.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[15]  Marks G, Crepaz N, Janssen RS. Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. AIDS 2006; 20: 1447–50.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[16]  Hutchinson AB, Branson BM, Kim A, Farnham PG. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of alternative HIV counseling and testing methods to increase knowledge of HIV status. AIDS 2006; 20: 1597–604.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[17]  Zetola NM, Klausner JD, Haller B, Nassos P, Katz MH. Association between rates of HIV testing and elimination of written consents in San Francisco. JAMA 2007; 297: 1061–2.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[18]  Frith L. HIV self-testing: a time to revise current policy. Lancet 2007; 369: 243–5.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[19]  Forsyth SF, Agogo EA, Lau L, Jungmann E, Man S, Edwards SG, et al Would offering rapid point-of-care testing or non-invasive methods improve uptake of HIV testing among high-risk genitourinary medicine clinic attendees? A patient perspective. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 550–2.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[20]  Mahto M, Higgins SP. Increased uptake of HIV screening following introduction of “opt out” testing and results by telephone. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80: 156.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[21]  Chan E, McNulty A, Tribe K. Who returns for HIV screening test results? Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18: 171–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[22]  Healey LM, O’Connor CC, Templeton DJ. HIV result giving. Is it time to change our thinking? Sex Health 2010; 7: 8–10.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[23]  Fox J, Weerasinghe D, Lagios K, Hillman R. Sex in the suburbs. Aust Fam Physician 2003; 32: 358–63.
| PubMed |

[24]  Brown L, Copas A, Stephenson J, Gilleran G, Ross JDC. Preferred options for receiving sexual health screening results: a population and patient survey. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 184–7.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[25]  Frankland A, Lee E, Zablotska I, Prestage G, Down I, Holt M, et al. Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Social Research; 2009 Available online at: http://nchsr.arts.unsw.edu.au/media/File/sydney_gcps_feb2009.pdf [verified September 2010].

[26]  Lohse N, Hansen AB, Pedersen G, Kronborg G, Gerstoft J, Sorensen HT, et al Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995–2005. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 87–95.
| PubMed |

[27]  Bhaskaran K, Hamouda O, Sannes M, Boufassa F, Johnson AM, Lambert PC, et al Changes in the risk of death after HIV seroconversion compared with mortality in the general population. JAMA 2008; 300: 51–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2015