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Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. More

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi

 
 
 

blank image Environmental Chemistry
Volume 12 Number 2 2015
RESEARCH FRONT: Tribute to Bill Davison

 
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Foreword: Bill Davison tribute issue 
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J. Lead
pp. i-i
 
 

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Use of diffusive gradients in thin-films for studies of chemical speciation and bioavailability 
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Hao Zhang and William Davison
pp. 85-101

Environmental context. The health of aquatic organisms depends on the distribution of the dissolved forms of chemical components (speciation) and their rates of interaction (dynamics). This review documents and explains progress made using the dynamic technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) to meet these challenges of measuring directly chemical speciation and associated dynamics in natural waters. The relevance of these measurements to uptake by biota of chemical forms in soils, sediments and water is discussed with reference to this expanding literature.

 
  
 

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Measurement of labile arsenic speciation in water and soil using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) 
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Trang Huynh , Hugh H. Harris , Hao Zhang and Barry N. Noller
pp. 102-111

Environmental context. Both inorganic and organic arsenic species are toxic to the environment when labile. The Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films technique, equipped with ferrihydrite binding gel enables measurement of labile arsenic species from water and soil solutions. This study indicated that labile arsenic species are quantitatively adsorbed to the gel, and that they are stable for up to 2 weeks following deployment.

 
    | Supplementary Material (682 KB)
 

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Interpretation of diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT) measurements: a systematic approach 
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Josep Galceran and Jaume Puy
pp. 112-122

Environmental context. Dynamic speciation of an element in a natural medium is essential for understanding its availability. The technique of diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT) has become a widely used tool for in situ environmental studies, being applied to determine fluxes of metal cations, anions, organics and nanoparticles. The interpretation of the measurements with suitable physicochemical models gives valuable insights into the behaviour of the system.

 
  
 

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Voltammetric study of an FeS layer on a Hg electrode in supersaturated FeS chloride solution 
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D. Krznarić and I. Ciglenečki
pp. 123-129

Environmental context. During the electrochemical analysis of natural waters, the Hg electrode could become the site for surface metal sulfide formation, such as FeS, which can have significant influence on the voltammetric determination of FeII. Reduction of FeII in such conditions can occur both on the bare Hg surface and on the FeS-modified Hg surface. Until recently, measurements of FeII have considered only the signal obtained from reduction on the bare Hg surface, and hence may have underdetermined the true FeII content of natural samples.

 
  
 

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Metal ion complexation by soft nanoparticles: the effect of Ca2+ on electrostatic and chemical contributions to the Eigen-type reaction rate 
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Raewyn M. Town
pp. 130-137

Environmental context. The speciation of trace metals in the environment is often dominated by complexation with natural organic matter such as humic acid. Humic acid is a negatively charged soft nanoparticle and its electrostatic properties play an important role in its reactivity with metal ions. The presence of major cations, such as Ca2+, can decrease the effective negative charge in the humic acid particle body and thus modify the chemodynamics of its interactions with trace metal ions.

 
  
 

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Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles under natural freshwater conditions 
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Niksa Odzak , David Kistler , Renata Behra and Laura Sigg
pp. 138-148

Environmental context. Engineered nanomaterials (e.g. silver, zinc oxide and copper oxide) are being widely used in many consumer products such are cosmetics, food packaging and textiles. During their usage and treatment, they will be released to natural waters and partly dissolve, depending on the water type and nanomaterial characteristics. These nanomaterials may thus have some toxic effects to aquatic organisms and indirectly to humans because of higher concentrations of dissolved silver, zinc and copper in natural waters.

 
  
 

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The formation and fate of organoarsenic species in marine ecosystems: do existing experimental approaches appropriately simulate ecosystem complexity? 
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Elliott G. Duncan , William A. Maher and Simon D. Foster
pp. 149-162

Environmental context. In marine environments, inorganic arsenic present in seawater is transformed to organoarsenic species, mainly arsenoribosides in algae and arsenobetaine in animals. These transformations decrease the toxicity of arsenic, yet the fate of arsenoribosides and arsenobetaine when marine organisms decompose is unknown. We review the current literature on the degradation of these organoarsenic species in marine systems detailing the drivers behind their degradation, and also discuss the environmental relevance of laboratory-based experiments.

 
  
 

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Interpretation of heavy metal speciation in sequential extraction using geochemical modelling 
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Yanshan Cui and Liping Weng
pp. 163-173

Environmental context. Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide environmental concern, and the risk depends not only on their total concentration, but also on their chemical speciation. Based on state-of-the-art geochemical modelling, we pinpoint the heavy metal pools approached by the widely used sequential extraction method. The finding of this paper can help users of sequential extraction methods to better interpret their results.

 
    | Supplementary Material (990 KB)
 

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Degradation of oxytetracycline in the aquatic environment: a proposed steady state kinetic model that takes into account hydrolysis, photolysis, microbial degradation and adsorption by colloidal and sediment particles 
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Mark F. Zaranyika , Pamhidzai Dzomba and Jameson Kugara
pp. 174-188

Environmental context. Pollution of the aquatic environment by oxytetracycline can lead to microbial resistance thereby compromising the efficacy of current medication regimes. Adsorption by colloidal and sediment particles reduces the rate at which oxytetracycline degrades, whereas the longer the antimicrobial remains in the aquatic environment, the greater the danger of microbial resistance. There is need therefore for a fuller understanding of the kinetics of degradation of oxytetracycline in aquatic ecosystems before measures for mitigating pollution by the antimicrobial can be designed.

 
  
 

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Comparative characterisation of two fulvic acids from East Lake and Liangzi Lake in central China 
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Jun Wang , Huijie Li , Yong Chen , Yuan Fang , Zongping Wang , Tao Tao and Yuegang Zuo
pp. 189-197

Environmental context. Fulvic acids account for a large proportion of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments and affect the transportation and bioavailability of organic and inorganic pollutants. The structural and spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acids mainly depend on the sources, seasons and anthropogenic activity. We present an advanced approach using fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid and cost-effective method to investigate the composition, properties and origins of fulvic acids.

 
  
 

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Reversible exchange of stable nitroxyl radicals on nanosilver particles 
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Mark A. Chappell , Lesley F. Miller and Cynthia L. Price
pp. 198-203

Environmental context. Nanometre-sized silver particles promote unique chemical reactions on their surface. This work examines the ability of silver nanoparticles to collect and store unpaired electrons, called radicals, on their surface. This capability by silver nanoparticles could potentially serve to drive degradation reactions in the environment.

 
    | Supplementary Material (266 KB)
 

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Characterising sediments of a tropical sediment-starved shelf using cluster analysis of physical and geochemical variables 
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Lynda C. Radke , Jin Li , Grant Douglas , Rachel Przeslawski , Scott Nichol , Justy Siwabessy , Zhi Huang , Janice Trafford , Tony Watson and Tanya Whiteway
pp. 204-226

Environmental context. Australia's tropical marine estate is a biodiversity hotspot that is threatened by human activities. Analysis and interpretation of large physical and geochemistry data sets provide important information on processes occurring at the seafloor in this poorly known area. These processes help us to understand how the seafloor functions to support biodiversity in the region.

 
    | Supplementary Material (437 KB)
 

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Characterisation of oil contaminated soils by comprehensive multiphase NMR spectroscopy 
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Hashim Farooq , Denis Courtier-Murias , Myrna J. Simspon , Werner E. Maas , Michael Fey , Brian Andrew , Jochem Struppe , Howard Hutchins , Sridevi Krishnamurthy , Rajeev Kumar , Martine Monette , Henry J. Stronks and André J. Simpson
pp. 227-235

Environmental context. Novel technology is used to examine oil contaminated soil to better understand this longstanding problem. The data indicate that oil forms a non-discriminant layer over all the soil components, which in their natural state would be exposed to water, and that it retains certain polar compounds while contributing other oil contaminants to the surrounding porewater and groundwater. Such molecular level information helps to better understand the reoccurrence of hydrophobicity in remediated soil, and could lead to novel clean-up methods.

 
    | Supplementary Material (380 KB)
 

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Hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation of formic acid on mineral aerosols surface: a mechanistic, kinetic and spectroscopic study 
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Cristina Iuga , C. Ignacio Sainz-Díaz and Annik Vivier-Bunge
pp. 236-244

Environmental context. The presence of air-borne mineral dust containing silicates in atmospheric aerosols should be considered in any exploration of volatile organic compound chemistry. This work reports the mechanisms, relative energies and kinetics of free-radical reactions with formic acid adsorbed on silicate surface models. We find that silicate surfaces are more likely to act as a trap for organic radicals than to have a catalytic effect on their reactions.

 
  
 

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Source identification of atmospheric particle-bound metals at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica 
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Andrea Bazzano , Francesco Soggia and Marco Grotti
pp. 245-252

Environmental context. The atmosphere above Antarctica, the cleanest part of the Earth’s troposphere, serves as a valuable laboratory for studying natural atmospheric processes and for monitoring the impact of human activities on the global environment. Central to these studies is an understanding of long-range transport of pollutants to Antarctica, and distinguishing the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources. We use chemical tracers and isotopic analysis to assess the origin of metals associated with atmospheric particulates in Antarctica.

 
    | Supplementary Material (535 KB)
 

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Determination of diffusion coefficients of dissolved organic matter in the Churchill River estuary system, Hudson Bay (Canada) 
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J. Balch and C. Guéguen
pp. 253-260

Environmental context. Reliable interpretation of metal levels measured by diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) requires a sound understanding of the diffusion properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the main ligand of metals in natural waters. The present study determined that the molecular weight of DOM and conductivity are the main factors controlling the diffusion of freshly collected estuarine DOM across the DGT diffusive gel.

 
    | Supplementary Material (199 KB)
 

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Published online 08 December 2014
Chemical and bioanalytical assessment of coal seam gas associated water 
Janet Y. M. Tang, Mauricio Taulis, Jacinta Edebeli, Frederic D. L. Leusch, Paul Jagals, Gregory P. Jackson and Beate I. Escher

Environmental context. Water associated with coal seam gas is generally of poor quality and thus its management and potential further usage is a subject of concern. In a comprehensive study involving chemical and bioanalytical assessments of coal seam gas associated water, we found that less than 5 % of the biological effects could be explained by chemical analysis. The use of bioanalytical tools to complement chemical analysis is recommended for monitoring the quality of water associated with coal seam gas.

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    | Supplementary Material (471 KB)
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Published online 08 August 2014
In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid 
Madeleine E. Payne, Heather F. Chapman, Janet Cumming and Frederic D. L. Leusch

Environmental context. Hydraulic fracturing fluids, used in large volumes by the coal seam gas mining industry, are potentially present in the environment either in underground formations or in mine wastewater (produced water). Previous studies of the human health and environmental effects of this practice have been limited because they use only desktop methods and have not considered combined mixture toxicity. We use a novel in vitro method for toxicity assessment, and describe the toxicity of a hydraulic fracturing fluid on a human gastrointestinal cell line.

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    | Supplementary Material (149 KB)
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Published online 20 June 2014
Microbial fuel cells under extreme salinity: performance and microbial analysis 
Oihane Monzon, Yu Yang, Cong Yu, Qilin Li and Pedro J. J. Alvarez

Environmental context. The treatment of extremely saline, high-strength wastewaters while producing electricity represents a great opportunity to mitigate environmental effects and recover resources associated with wastes from shale oil and gas production. This paper demonstrates that extreme halophilic microbes can produce electricity at salinity up to 3- to 7-fold higher than sea water.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EN14216  Accepted 21 March 2015
    Physical long term regeneration dynamics of soil organic matter as followed by 1H solid-state NMR methods
    Alexander Jäger, Jette Schwarz, Yamuna Kunhi Mouvenchery, Gabriele Schaumann, Marko Bertmer
    Abstract


    EN14207  Accepted 13 March 2015
    Thermolytic degradation of methyl methionine and implications for its role in DMS and MeCl formation in hypersaline environments
    Ines Mulder, Torsten Krause, Tobias Sattler, Christoph Tubbesing, Sabine Studenroth, Krzysztof Bukowski, Elliot Atlas, Heinz Schöler
    Abstract


    EN15026  Accepted 10 March 2015
    Air pollution: new insight from direct measurements of ozone production
    Piero Di Carlo
    Abstract


    EN14264  Accepted 08 March 2015
    Dimethylsulfide model calibration in the Barents Sea using a genetic algorithm and neural network
    Bo Qu, Albert Gabric, Meifang Zeng, Zhifeng Lu
    Abstract


    EN14229  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Environmental effects on arsenosugars and arsenolipids in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta)
    Asta Petursdottir, Kyle Fletcher, Helga Gunnlaugsdottir, Eva Krupp, Frithjof Kuepper, Jorg Feldmann
    Abstract


    EN14240  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation and Halogenation of Organic Matter in Nature
    Peter Comba, Marion Kerscher, Torsten Krause, Heinz Schöler
    Abstract


    EN14233  Accepted 01 March 2015
    Voltammetric tools for trace element speciation in freshwaters: methodologies, outcomes and future perspectives
    Damiano Monticelli, Salvatore Caprara
    Abstract


    EN14218  Accepted 01 March 2015
    Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants
    Florian Faure, Colin Demars, Olivier Wieser, Manuel Kunz, Luiz de Alencastro
    Abstract


    EN15002  Accepted 17 February 2015
    A Recent Survey of Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds
    Gordon Gribble
    Abstract


    EN14094  Accepted 18 February 2015
    Phosphorus and arsenic distributions in a seasonally-stratified, iron- and manganese-rich lake: microbiological and geochemical controls
    Adam Hartland, Martin Andersen, David Hamilton
    Abstract


    EN14223  Accepted 16 February 2015
    Dissolution of mixed amorphous-crystalline Cd-containing Fe coprecipitates in the presence of common organic ligands
    Carla Rosenfeld, Carmen Martinez
    Abstract


    EN14157  Accepted 16 February 2015
    Interaction of humic acids with soil minerals. Adsorption and surface aggregation induced by Ca2+
    Nanci Kloster, Marcelo Avena
    Abstract


    EN14215  Accepted 08 February 2015
    Effect of fluctuating oxygen concentration on iron oxidation at the pelagic ferrocline of a meromictic lake
    Jenny Bravidor, Julika Kreling, Andreas Lorke, Matthias Koschorreck
    Abstract


    EN14205  Accepted 05 February 2015
    FPA-based micro-FTIR imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples
    Martin Löder, Mirco Kuczera, Svenja Mintenig, Claudia Lorenz, Gunnar Gerdts
    Abstract


    EN14150  Accepted 31 January 2015
    Formation of PAH-quinonesduring the gas phase reactions of PAHs with the OH radical in the atmosphere
    Ji Yi Lee, Douglas Lane, Yong Pyo Kim
    Abstract


    EN14204  Accepted 29 January 2015
    Dynamics of halocarbons in coastal surface waters during short term mesocosm experiments
    Anna Orlikowska, Christian Stolle, Falk Pollehne, Klaus Jürgens, Detlef Schulz-Bull
    Abstract


    EN14236  Accepted 29 January 2015
    Characterization of Microplastics and Toxic Species Extracted from the Microplastic Samples from the North Pacific Gyre Collection Sites.
    Lorena Rios Mendoza, Patrick Jones
    Abstract


    EN14243  Accepted 22 January 2015
    Methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments from the southern Yellow Sea: Spatial distribution and potential producer
    Ying Fan, Jing Lan, Jiaokai Wang, Zongshan Zhao, Meixun Zhao, Guibin Jiang
    Abstract


    EN14176  Accepted 20 January 2015
    Change in Chirality of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Can Overcome Anionic Surfactant Stabilization: A Systematic Study of Aggregation Kinetics
    Iftheker Khan, Joseph Flora, A. R. M. Afrooz, Nirupam Aich, Ariette Schierz, P Ferguson, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Navid Saleh
    Abstract


    EN14194  Accepted 18 January 2015
    Hydrocarbons in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)
    Catherine Guigue, Lionel Bigot, Jean Turquet, Marc Tedetti, Nicolas Ferretto, Madeleine Goutx, Pascale Cuet
    Abstract


    EN14167  Accepted 07 January 2015
    Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris
    Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vicent Rocher, Mohamed Saad, Nicolas Renault, Bruno Tassin
    Abstract


    EN14225  Accepted 02 January 2015
    New particle formation above a simulated salt lake in aerosol chamber experiments
    Katharina Kamilli, Johannes Ofner, Bernhard Lendl, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Andreas Held
    Abstract


    EN14202  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Halogenated hydrocarbon formation in a moderately acidic salt lake in Western Australia – role of abiotic and biotic processes
    Alexander Ruecker, Pascal Weigold, Sebastian Behrens, Maik Jochmann, Xochitli Osorio, Andreas Kappler
    Abstract


    EN14186  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Characteristics, seasonality and sources of inorganic ions and trace metals in Northeast Asian aerosols
    Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Kimitaka Kawamura, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Pingqing Fu
    Abstract


    EN14154  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Exploring the seasonal NMHC distribution in an urban area of the Middle East during ECOCEM campaigns: very high loadings dominated by local emissions and dynamics
    Thérèse Salameh, Stéphane Sauvage, Charbel Afif, Agnès Borbon, Thierry Léonardis, Jérôme Brioude, Antoine Waked, Nadine Locoge
    Abstract


    EN14141  Accepted 09 December 2014
    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms
    Lawton Shaw, Chuyen Phung, Michael Grace
    Abstract


    EN14143  Accepted 21 November 2014
    Adsorption of trace metals by microplastic pellets in fresh water
    Andrew Turner, Luke Holmes
    Abstract


    EN14181  Accepted 07 November 2014
    Tl(I) and Tl(III) presence in Suspended Particulate Matter: Speciation analysis of thallium in wastewater
    Natalia Ospina-Alvarez, P. Burakiewicz, M. Sadowska, B KrasnodÄ™bska-OstrÄ™ga
    Abstract


    EN14184  Accepted 05 November 2014
    Free Zn2+ determination in natural freshwater of the Pyrenees: towards on-site measurements with AGNES
    Corinne Parat, Laurent Authier, Alain Castetbon, David Aguilar, Encarna Companys, Jaume Puy, Josep Galceran
    Abstract


29


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 25 August 2014
Observations and assessment of iron oxide and green rust nanoparticles in metal-polluted mine drainage within a steep redox gradient

Carol A. Johnson, Gina Freyer, Maria Fabisch, Manuel A. Caraballo, Kirsten Küsel and Michael F. Hochella

2. Published 24 June 2014
Aquatic toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials: challenges and recommendations for future toxicity testing

Aaron G. Schultz, David Boyle, Danuta Chamot, Kimberly J. Ong, Kevin J. Wilkinson, James C. McGeer, Geoff Sunahara and Greg G. Goss

3. Published 28 April 2014
A critical look at the calculation of the binding characteristics and concentration of iron complexing ligands in seawater with suggested improvements

Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Charles-Edouard Thuróczy and Leo R. M. Maas

4. Published 28 April 2014
Metal complexation by organic ligands (L) in near-pristine estuarine waters: evidence for the identity of L

Hollydawn Murray, Guillaume Meunier, Dagmar B. Stengel and Rachel Cave

5. Published 24 June 2014
Speciation mapping of environmental samples using XANES imaging

Barbara E. Etschmann, Erica Donner, Joël Brugger, Daryl L. Howard, Martin D. de Jonge, David Paterson, Ravi Naidu, Kirk G. Scheckel, Chris G. Ryan and Enzo Lombi

6. Published 24 June 2014
A micro-sized model for the in vivo study of nanoparticle toxicity: what has Caenorhabditis elegans taught us?

Jinhee Choi, Olga V. Tsyusko, Jason M. Unrine, Nivedita Chatterjee, Jeong-Min Ahn, Xinyu Yang, B. Lila Thornton, Ian T. Ryde, Daniel Starnes and Joel N. Meyer

7. Published 24 June 2014
The influence of particle size and structure on the sorption and oxidation behaviour of birnessite: II. Adsorption and oxidation of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Mario Villalobos, Manuel Carrillo-Cárdenas, Richard Gibson, N. Ruth López-Santiago and Jimmy A. Morales

8. Published 25 August 2014
Separation, detection and characterisation of engineered nanoparticles in natural waters using hydrodynamic chromatography and multi-method detection (light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and single particle ICP-MS)

Kim Proulx and Kevin J. Wilkinson

9. Published 28 April 2014
Labilities of aqueous nanoparticulate metal complexes in environmental speciation analysis

Raewyn M. Town and Herman P. van Leeuwen

10. Published 25 August 2014
Current status and future direction for examining engineered nanoparticles in natural systems

Manuel D. Montaño, Gregory V. Lowry, Frank von der Kammer, Julie Blue and James F. Ranville

11. Published 24 June 2014
Nanoparticle core properties affect attachment of macromolecule-coated nanoparticles to silica surfaces

Ernest M. Hotze, Stacey M. Louie, Shihong Lin, Mark R. Wiesner and Gregory V. Lowry

12. Published 24 June 2014
Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

Marie-Noële Croteau, Agnieszka D. Dybowska, Samuel N. Luoma, Superb K. Misra and Eugenia Valsami-Jones

13. Published 25 August 2014
Analysis of soil organic matter at the solid–water interface by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Stephanie C. Genest, Myrna J. Simpson, André J. Simpson, Ronald Soong and David J. McNally

14. Published 28 January 2015
Multi-elemental scanning transmission X-ray microscopy–near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy assessment of organo–mineral associations in soils from reduced environments

Chunmei Chen and Donald L. Sparks

15. Published 25 March 2015
Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles under natural freshwater conditions

Niksa Odzak, David Kistler, Renata Behra and Laura Sigg

16. Published 25 August 2014
The persistence and transformation of silver nanoparticles in littoral lake mesocosms monitored using various analytical techniques

Lindsay M. Furtado, Md Ehsanul Hoque, Denise M. Mitrano, James F. Ranville, Beth Cheever, Paul C. Frost, Marguerite A. Xenopoulos, Holger Hintelmann and Chris D. Metcalfe

17. Published 28 January 2015
Ligand- and oxygen-isotope-exchange pathways of geochemical interest

William H. Casey

18. Published 25 August 2014
Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a comparative screening study of their occurrence, formation of phototransformation products and their in vitro toxicity

Marlies Bergheim, Richard Gminski, Bernd Spangenberg, Malgorzata Dębiak, Alexander Bürkle, Volker Mersch-Sundermann, Klaus Kümmerer and Reto Gieré

19. Published 25 March 2015
Interpretation of heavy metal speciation in sequential extraction using geochemical modelling

Yanshan Cui and Liping Weng

20. Published 3 October 2014
Arsenic mobility and toxicity in South and South-east Asia – a review on biogeochemistry, health and socio-economic effects, remediation and risk predictions

E. Marie Muehe and Andreas Kappler


      
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