CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > The Rangeland Journal   
The Rangeland Journal
  Rangeland Ecology & Management
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
Call for Papers
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Contributors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with CP
blank image
facebook twitter youtube


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 36(1)

High levels of diversity for seed and forage production exist in Cullen australasicum, a potential new perennial forage legume for dry environments in southern Australia

Alan W. Humphries A D E , Stephen J. Hughes A D , Ramakrishnan M. Nair A B D , Eric Kobelt A and Graeme Sandral C D

A SARDI, Waite Campus, PO Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.
B Present address: AVRDC – The World Vegetable Centre, South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, Hyderabad, AP 502 324, India.
C NSW Department of Primary Industries, Pine Gully Road, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.
D CRC for Future Farm Industries, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.
E Corresponding author. Email: alan.humphries@sa.gov.au

The Rangeland Journal 36(1) 41-51 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RJ13055
Submitted: 23 May 2013  Accepted: 11 October 2013   Published: 19 November 2013

PDF (361 KB) $25
 Export Citation

The seed and forage production of a diverse group of the perennial forage legume Cullen spp., collected in southern Australia, was assessed with the aim of discovering diversity for exploitation in future breeding programs. Eighty ecotypes were assessed at the Waite Institute in South Australia, using replicated, spaced-plant field trials, between 2008 and 2012. Seed production in collected ecotypes of Cullen (Expt 1) ranged from 0 to 485 kg ha–1 for windrowed seed yield and from 0 to 790 kg ha–1 for total seed yield, which included vacuum-harvested seed from pods that had fallen to the ground. Individual plants were selected for seed production from their original populations, and the seed and fodder production of their progeny was evaluated in a further field experiment (Expt 2). Moderate to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed production traits. Seed production in progeny families ranged from 0 to1 423 kg ha–1 and was highly correlated with the number of seeds per inflorescence (r = 0.85) and forage yield (r = 0.59). Edible biomass, measured using the Adelaide visual appraisal method, ranged from 50 to 906 g dry weight  (DW)  plant–1 in parent ecotypes and from 404 to 1248 g DW plant–1 in the selected family progenies. Disease infection with anthracnose (Colletotrichum trifolii) caused considerable damage to plants in Expt 1, resulting in the death of all plants of 10 ecotypes, and infection with Alfalfa mosaic virus in Expt 2 was linked to the death of 67 individuals. The results are discussed in relation to breeding C. australasicum for increased seed yield and disease resistance to overcome these deficiencies as barriers to commercial adoption.

Additional keywords: Bullamon lucerne, domestication, scurf pea, seed production, tall verbine.


Andrew, M., Noble, I., and Lange, R. (1979). A non-destructive method for estimating the weight of forage on shrubs. Australian Rangeland Journal 1, 225–231.
CrossRef |

Anon. (2007). Climate change in Australia: Regional impacts and adaptation, managing the risk for Australia. Report from PMSEIC Independent Working Group for Prime Minister’s Science, Engineering and Innovation Council, Canberra, ACT. Available at: www.innovation.gov.au/Science/PMSEIC/Documents/ClimateChangeinAustralia.pdf

Bennett, R., Ryan, M., Colmer, T., and Real, D. (2011). Prioritisation of novel pasture species for use in water-limited agriculture: a case study of Cullen in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58, 83–100.
CrossRef |

Bennett, R. G., Colmer, T. D., Real, D., Renton, M., and Ryan, M. H. (2012). Phenotypic variation for productivity and drought tolerance is widespread in germplasm collections of Australian Cullen species. Crop & Pasture Science 63, 656–671.
CrossRef |

Boschma, S. P., Lodge, G. M., and Harden, S. (2011). Seasonal production of lucerne and other perennial legumes and herbs in a summer-dominant rainfall zone. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 105–114.
CrossRef |

Britten, E. J., and De Lacy, I. (1979). Assessment of the genetic potential for pasture purposes of the Psoralea eriantha-patens complex, a native legume of the semi-arid zone. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 19, 53–58.
CrossRef |

Cocks, P. S. (2001). Ecology of herbaceous perennial legumes: a review of characteristics that may provide management options for the control of salinity and waterlogging in dryland cropping systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 137–151.
CrossRef |

Crawford, E. J., Lake, A. W. H., and Boyce, K. G. (1989). Breeding annual Medicago for semiarid conditions in southern Australia. Advances in Agronomy 42, 399–437.
CrossRef |

Dear, B. S., Li, G. D., Hayes, R. C., Hughes, S. J., Charman, N., and Ballard, R. A. (2007). Cullen australasicum (syn. Psoralea australasica): a review and some preliminary studies related to its potential as a low rainfall perennial pasture legume. The Rangeland Journal 29, 121–132.
CrossRef |

Erskine, W. (1985). Selection for pod retention and pod indehiscence in lentils. Euphytica 34, 105–112.
CrossRef |

French, R. J., and Buirchell, B. J. (2005). Lupin: the largest grain legume crop in Western Australia, its adaptation and improvement through plant breeding. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56, 1169–1180.
CrossRef |

Garran, J., and Gibbs, A. J. (1982). Studies on alfalfa mosaic virus and alfalfa aphids. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 33, 657–664.
CrossRef |

Gholinejad, H., PourBabaei, H., Farajollahi, A., and Parvane, E. (2012). Assessment and comparison of different methods for estimating forage production (Case Study: Rangeland of Kurdistan Province). Journal of Rangeland Science 2, 483–489.

Grace, P. R., Oades, J. M., Keith, H., and Hancock, T. W. (1995). Trends in wheat yields and soil organic carbon in the permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 857–864.
CrossRef | CAS |

Grashoff, C. (1990). Effect of pattern of water supply on Vicia faba L. 2. Pod retention and filling, and dry matter partitioning, production and water use. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 38, 131–143.

Grimes, J. W. (1997). A revision of Cullen (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). Australian Systematic Botany 10, 565–648.
CrossRef |

Hayes, R. C., Li, G. D., Dear, B. S., Humphries, A. W., and Tidd, J. R. (2009). Persistence, productivity, nutrient composition, and aphid tolerance of Cullen spp. Crop & Pasture Science 60, 1184–1192.
CrossRef |

Hiruki, C., and Hampton, R. O. (1990). Alfalfa mosaic. In: ‘Compendium of alfalfa diseases’. 2nd edn. (Eds D. L. Stuteville and D. C. Erwin.) p. 54. (APS Press: St. Paul, MN.)

Kerridge, P. C., and Skerman, P. J. (1968). The distribution and growth characteristics of the native legume Psoralea eriantha in Western Queensland. Tropical Grasslands 2, 41–50.

Kobelt, E., Hughes, S. J., and Humphries, A. W. (2011). Developing harvest technologies for Cullen australasicum. Publication No. 11/027. RIRDC, Australian Government, ACT. Available at: https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/11-027.

Kroiss, L., Moody, M., Barker, S., Byrne, M., and Ryan, M. (2009). Development, characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers for Cullen australasicum (Leguminosae). Conservation Genetics 10, 1803–1805.
CrossRef | CAS |

Latham, L. J., and Jones, R. A. C. (2001a). Incidence of infection in experimental plots, commercial crops, and seed stocks of cool season crop legumes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 397–413.
CrossRef |

Latham, L. J., and Jones, R. A. C. (2001b). Alfalfa mosaic and pea seed-borne mosaic viruses in cool season crop, annual pasture, and forage legumes: susceptibility, sensitivity, and seed transmission. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 771–790.
CrossRef |

Lawes Agricultural Trust (2012). ‘Genstat Release 15.’ (VSN International: Hemel Hempstead, UK)

Li, G. D., Lodge, G. M., Moore, G. A., Craig, A. D., Dear, B. S., Boschma, S. P., Albertsen, T. O., Miller, S. M., Harden, S., Hayes, R. C., Hughes, S. J., Snowball, R., Smith, A. B., and Cullis, B. C. (2008). Evaluation of perennial pasture legumes and herbs to identify species with high herbage production and persistence in mixed farming zones in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 449–466.
CrossRef |

Litchfield, W. H. (1951). Soil survey of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond, South Australia. Divisional Report No. 2/51. CSIRO Division of Soils, Adelaide, S. Aust.

Mather, K., and Jinks, J. L. (1982). ‘Biometrical genetics.’ 3rd edn. (Chapman and Hall: London.)

Nair, R. M., Habili, N., and Randles, J. W. (2009). Infection of Cullen australasicum (syn. Psoralea australasica) with Alfalfa mosaic virus. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 4, 46–48.
| CAS |

Nair, R. M., Wilmshurst, C., Russ, M. H., Williams, A., and Priest, M. (2010). First report of anthracnose (Colletotrichum trifolii) on Cullen australasicum (syn. Psoralea australasica). Australasian Plant Disease Notes 5, 34–36.
CrossRef |

Prescott, J. A. (1931). The soils of Australia in relation to vegetation and climate. Council for Science and Industrial Research, Bulletin No. 52. CS and IR, Canberra, ACT.

Real, D., Sandral, G. A., Rebuffo, M., Hughes, S. J., Kelman, W. M., Mieres, J. M., Dods, K., and Crossa, J. (2012). Breeding of an early-flowering and drought-tolerant Lotus corniculatus L. variety for the high-rainfall zone of southern Australia. Crop & Pasture Science 63, 848–857.
CrossRef | CAS |

Skerman, P. J. (1957). Bullamon lucerne (Psoralea eriantha Benth). A plant worth watching. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 23, 337–339.

Smith, A. B., Cullis, B. R., and Thompson, R. (2005). The analysis of crop cultivar breeding and evaluation trials: an overview of current mixed model approaches. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 143, 449–462.
CrossRef |

Stace, H. C. T., Hubble, G. D., Brewer, R., Northcote, K. H., Sleeman, J. R., Mulcahy, M. J., and Hallsworth, E. G. (1968). ‘A handbook of Australian soils.’ (Rellim Technical Publications: Adelaide, S. Aust.)

Suriyagoda, L. D. B., Real, D., Renton, M., Lambers, H., and Ryan, M. H. (2013). Establishment, survival, and herbage production of novel, summer-active perennial pasture legumes in the low-rainfall cropping zone of Western Australia as affected by plant density and cutting frequency. Crop & Pasture Science 64, 71–85.
CrossRef |

Wang, Y. J., Nair, R. M., Mu, C. S., and Dundas, I. S. (2010). Floral morphology and pollination system in the native Australian perennial pasture legume Cullen australasicum (syn. Psoralea australasica). Crop & Pasture Science 61, 1001–1008.
CrossRef |

Subscriber Login


Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2014