CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Sexual Health   
Sexual Health
Journal Banner
  Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn

red arrow Interview with Kit Fairley
blank image
Hear Kit Fairley speak about what is sexual health.


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 11(1)

Being drunk and high during sex is not associated with condom use behaviours: a study of high-risk young Black males

Richard A. Crosby A B F, Robin R. Milhausen C, Stephanie Sanders B, Cynthia A. Graham D and William L. Yarber E

A College of Public Health at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.
B The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
C Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition at the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1H 5R1, Canada.
D Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.
E School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
F Corresponding author. Email: richard.crosby@uky.edu

Sexual Health 11(1) 84-86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH13181
Submitted: 16 November 2013  Accepted: 4 December 2013   Published: 4 March 2014

PDF (89 KB) $25
 Export Citation

Objective: To assess the relationship between the frequency of being drunk and high during sex, and condom use errors and problems (CUEP) among a sample of high-risk young Black males recruited from the United States. Methods: Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmissible infections in three cities in the southern United States. Males 15–23 years of age (n = 697) who identified as African-American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. Measures of alcohol and drug use, as well as condom use behaviours were assessed by audio-computer assisted self-interview. Eighteen CUEP were included in this assessment. Results: Sixteen bivariate correlations were obtained. The magnitude of the coefficients was small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.13. Only three were significant. These were positive associations between the frequency of being drunk and the frequency of unprotected vaginal sex, as well as the frequency of the 18-item measure of CUEP. A significant correlation was also found between the frequency of being high during sex and the frequency of unprotected vaginal sex. Adjustments for age did not change the findings. Conclusions: Interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviours among young Black males attending sexually transmissible infection clinics are no more likely to benefit patients through the inclusion of messages and training attempting to dissuade the use of alcohol and drugs before or during sex.

Additional keywords: alcohol use, drug use, sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections, young men.


[1]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS surveillance, 2011 (year end edition). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.

[2]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. African Americans and AIDS. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2006.

[3]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS among African Americans. Fact sheet. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2013. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/racialethnic/aa/facts/ [verified 17 January 2014].

[4]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A heightened national response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among African Americans. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.

[5]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. African Americans and sexually transmitted diseases. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.

[6]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV and AIDS among African American youth. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.

[7]  Southern States AIDS/STD Directors Work Group (SSADWG). Southern States manifesto. 2003. Available at: http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention/documents/pdf/FinalSouthernManifesto.pdf [verified 17 January 2014]

[8]  Crosby RA, Charnigo R, Weathers C, Caliendo AM, Shrier LA. Condom effectiveness against non-viral sexually transmitted infections: a prospective study using electronic daily diaries. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 484–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[9]  Crosby RA, Bounse S. Condom effectiveness: where are we now? Sex Health 2012; 9: 10–7.
CrossRef |

[10]  Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bull World Health Organ 2004; 82: 454–61.
| PubMed |

[11]  Crosby RA. Sate of condom use in HIV prevention science and practice. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2013; 10: 59–64.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[12]  DiClemente RJ, Crittenden CP, Rose E, Sales JM, Wingood GM, Crosby RA, et al Psychosocial predictors of HIV-associated sexual behaviors and the efficacy of prevention interventions in adolescents at-risk for HIV infection: what works and what doesn’t work. Psychosom Med 2008; 70: 598–605.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[13]  Salazar LF, Crosby RA, Santelli J, DiClemente RJ. Sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy among adolescents. In DiClemente, RJ, Santelli, JS, Crosby, RA, editors. Adolescent health: understanding and preventing risk. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Wiley; 2009. pp. 259–275.

[14]  DiClemente RJ, Crosby RA. Sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents: risk factors, antecedents, and prevention strategies. In Adams, GR, Berzonsky M, editors. Blackwell handbook of adolescence. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd; 2003. pp. 573–605.

[15]  Cooper ML. Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among college students and youth: evaluating the evidence. J of Studies on Alcohol 2002; : 101–7.

[16]  Von Haeften I, Fishbein M, Kaspryzk D, Montano D. Acting on one’s intentions: variations in condom use intentions and behaviours as a function of type of partner, gender, ethnicity and risk. Psychol Health Med 2000; 5: 163–71.
CrossRef |

[17]  Calsyn DA, Crits-Christoph P, Hatch-Maillette MA, Doyle SR, Song YS, Coyer S, et al Reducing sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol for patients in substance abuse treatment. Addiction 2010; 105: 100–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[18]  Leigh BC, Vanslyke JG, Hoppe MJ, Rainey DT, Morrison DM. Drinking and condom use: results from an event-based daily diary. AIDS Behav 2008; 12: 104–12.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[19]  Leigh BC, Ames SL, Stacy AW. Alcohol, drugs, and condom use among drug offenders: an event-based analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 93: 38–42.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[20]  Gillmore MR, Morrison DM, Leigh BC, Hoppe MJ, Gaylord J, Rainey DT. Does “high = high risk?” An event-based analysis of the relationship between substance use and unprotected anal sex among gay and bisexual men. AIDS Behav 2002; 6: 361–70.
CrossRef |

[21]  Gilmore AK, Granato HF, Lewis MA. The use of drinking and condom-related protective strategies in association with condom use and sex-related alcohol use. J Sex Res 2013; 50: 470–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[22]  Baćak V, Stulhofer A. Condom use errors and problems in a national sample of young Croatian adults. Arch Sex Behav 2012; 41: 995–1003.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[23]  Lang DL, Salazar LF, Diclemente RJ, Markosyan K, Darbinyan N. Predictors of condom errors among sex workers in Armenia. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22: 126–30.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[24]  Crosby RA, Graham CA, Milhausen RR, Sanders SA. Yarber WL. Condom use errors/problems survey. In Fisher, T, Davis, C, Yarber, W, Davis, S, editors. Handbook of sexuality-related measures. 3rd edn. New York: Routledge; 2011. pp. 153–159.

[25]  LaBrie J, Earleywine M, Schiffman J, Pedersen E, Marriot C. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses. J Sex Res 2005; 42: 259–66.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2015