The Rangeland Journal The Rangeland Journal Society
Rangeland ecology and management
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Grassland development in tropical and subtropical southern China

G. D. Liu A , D. L. Michalk B C , C. J. Bai A , D. G. Yu B and Z. Q. Chen A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou 571737, Hainan, China.

B New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Orange Agricultural Institute, Forest Road, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: david.michalk@dpi.nsw.gov.au

The Rangeland Journal 30(2) 255-270 https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ08022
Submitted: 15 April 2008  Accepted: 23 May 2008   Published: 3 June 2008

Abstract

China’s 79 million ha of tropical and subtropical grasslands represent a significant national forage resource with a potential for further development for sustainable livestock production. The species rich original forest vegetation has been converted through natural and human activities to secondary forest, grassland and agricultural land. The grasslands which include savannah, shrubland, coppice forest and arable land sown with exotic legumes and grasses are expected to become China’s third largest livestock production zone. Despite degradation the grasslands retain a high level of biodiversity which has been preserved in germplasm depositories with on-going collection expeditions throughout south China. Productivity of natural grasses is moderate (<5 t DM/ha) but can be increased significantly by augmenting with Stylosanthes and other introduced legumes adapted to the infertile or acidic soils and seasonal rainfall.

Stylosanthes species which is used for grazing, green chop or leaf-meal production, as well as a cover crop in orchards, plantations and forest are successful because they are simple to establish and deliver immediate profits to farmers through improved livestock production or sale of forage for leaf meal manufacture. On-going plant breeding programs are delivering new higher yielding legume and grass cultivars with disease resistance and acid soil tolerance. They are expanding selection priorities to address environmental concerns (e.g. soil acidifying legumes) and to meet the needs of new integrated production systems. Introduced legumes and grasses have provided benefits to the environment through improved soil fertility, reduced soil erosion, increased infiltration rates and reduced weed invasion.

Experts believe that the southern tropical and subtropical grasslands still have the capacity to safely increase production and contribute significantly to the improvement of the regional ecosystem. However, this can only be achieved if current programs on germplasm preservation, breeding new cultivars and developing management systems for integrated production systems need to be balanced with work precision livestock management and promotion of monitoring individual animal performance to achieve improved livestock production efficiency.

Additional keywords: biodiversity, productivity, rangelands, Stylosanthes.


Acknowledgements

Comments by two anonymous referees helped improve the paper for publication.


References


Bai C. J. , Liu G. D. , Wang D. J. , Krishna D. , Qudratullah S. , and Prasad V. L. K. Rama, Rao, S. V., Parthasarthy Rao, P., Ramesh, C. R., Balagopal, R., and Gopalan, A. (2004). Stylosanthes leaf meal for animal industries in China and India. Chapter 24. In: ‘High-yielding anthracnose-resistant Stylosanthes for agricultural systems’. Monograph No. 111. (Ed. S. Chakraborty.) pp. 243–251. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Bai C. J., Liu G. D., Wang D. J., Yu D. G., Chen Z. Q., Li Z. D. (2007) Selection and breeding of Brachiaria ruziziensis G.et E.cv. Reyan No. 15. Acta Agrenctin Sinica [In Chinese] 15, 566–571. open url image1

Casanova A. J. (2004). An economic comparison of animal systems for utilization of red soil forages. In: ‘Forages – From Research into Practice’. Working Paper 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. MacLeod, X. G. Xu and A. D. Casanova.) pp. 139–146. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

China National Agriculture Museum (1991). ‘2000 Achievements in agricultural science and technologies.’ (Agricultural Press: Beijing.)

Devendra C. , and Sere C. (1992). ‘Assessment of the use and impact of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 in China.’ (IDRC Report: Ottawa.)

Duan S. S., Lin Q. Q., Zhang J. (2000) Effect of the soil and water conservation of fruit tree and grass intercropping patterns on gentle slope land in Guangdong. Grassland of China 5, 35–40. open url image1

Duan W. J., Ren H., Fu S. L., Guo Q. F., Wang J. (2008) Pathways and determinants of early spontaneous vegetation succession in degraded lowland of South China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50, 147–156.
CrossRef | open url image1

Hacker J. B. , and Junk L. (1998). Breeding tropical and subtropical forage plants. In: ‘Grass for Dairy Cattle’. (Eds J. H. Cherney and D. J. R. Cherney.) pp. 49–71. (CABI: Wallingford.)

He D. Y. (1994). ‘Soil Fertility and Fertilization of Cultivated Crops in Southern China.’ pp. 557–570. (Science Press: Beijing.) [In Chinese]

He H. X., Ba C. J., Wei J. S., Cai B. Y. (2005) Introduced trial of Brachiaria spp. in tropical semiarid regions of Hainan. Chinese Journal of Tropical Agriculture [In Chinese] 25, 4–6. open url image1

He S. L., Deng L., Lei T. (2004) Effect of field slope and green manure crops on water runoff and soil erosion in a hilly citrus orchard. South China Fruits 33, 1–4. open url image1

Hong F. Z. (1985) Studies on the tropical and subtropical pasture resources and their exploitation prospects in China. Tropical Agricultural Research 18, 1–8. open url image1

Horne P. M. (1991). A simple agro-climatic model for forage production on the red soils of South Central China. In: ‘Forages of Red Soils in China. Proceedings No. 38’. (Eds P. M. Horne, D. A. McLeod and J. M. Scott.) pp. 22–28. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Hou H. Y. (1983) Vegetation of China with reference to its geographical distribution. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 70, 509–548.
CrossRef | open url image1

Hu S. T. , Hannaway D. B. , and Youngberg H. W. (1992). ‘Forage Resources of China.’ (Pudoc: Wageningen.)

Hu Z. Z. , and Zhang D. G. (2003). China’s pastures resources. In: ‘Transhumant Grazing Systems in Temperate Asia’. (Eds J. M. Suttie and S. G. Reynolds.) pp. 81–113. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.)

Huang D. F., Lin X. J., Luo T. (2002) Analysis of application about pasture intercropping technology and ecological benefits in tea garden. China Tea 24, 16–18. open url image1

Hwang M. Y. , Wun L. X. , and Zhang C. Z. (1986). The main varieties of forages and their evaluation in southern China. In: ‘Forages in Southeast Asia and Southern Pacific Agriculture. Proceeding Series No. 12’. (Eds G. J. Blair, D. A. Ivory and T. R. Evans.) pp. 76–79. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Jank L. , do Valle C. B. , and Resende R. M. S. (2005). Grass and legume improvement in the tropics and subtropics. In: ‘Grassland: A Global Resource’. (Ed. D. A. Galloway.) pp. 69–80. (Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen.)

Jiang C. S., Ma X. R., Zhou D. M., Zhang Y. Z. (2005) AFLP analysis of genetic variability among Stylosanthes guianensis accessions resistant and susceptible to the stylo anthracnose. Plant Breeding 124, 595–598.
CrossRef | open url image1

Kriticos D. J., Sutherst R. W., Brown J. R., Adkins S. W., Maywald G. F. (2003) Climate change and the potential distribution of an invasive plant: Acacia nilotica ssp. indica in Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 111–124.
CrossRef | open url image1

Lesturgez G., Poss R., Hartmann C., Bourdon E., Noble A., Ratana-Anupap S. (2004) Roots of Stylosanthes hamata create macropores in the compact layer of a sandy soil. Plant and Soil 260, 101–109.
CrossRef | open url image1

Li H. M., Ma Y. X., Mitchell Aide T., Liu W. J. (2008) Past, present and future land-use in Xishuangbanna, China and the implications for carbon dynamics. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 16–24.
CrossRef | open url image1

Li J. B. (2002) Analysis of the benefit of a grass project in the southern farming region. Sichuan Animal and Veterinary Sciences 29, 28–29. open url image1

Li X. L. (2007) The agricultural capability of southern grassland and the signification of food security. Science and Technology Review 3–4, 6–12. open url image1

Li Z., Zhao Q. Q. (2001) Organic carbon content and distribution of soils under different uses in tropical and subtropical China. Plant and Soil 231, 175–185.
CrossRef | open url image1

Liao G. F. , and Jia Y. L. (1996). ‘Rangeland Resources of China.’ (China Science and Technology Press: Beijing.)

Liu G. D. (2000). Commercial hay production from Stylosanthes in China. Stylo International, September 2000. Available at: www.csiro.au/proprietaryDocuments/StyloNewsletter_sep00.pdf (Accessed 28 May 2008).

Liu G. D. , Bai C. J. , Wang D. J. , and He H. X. (2004). Stylosanthes cultivars in China: their development and performance. In: ‘High-yielding Anthracnose-resistant Stylosanthes for Agricultural Systems’. Monograph No. 111. (Ed. S. Chakraborty.) pp. 156–158. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Liu G. D. , and Kerridge P. C. (1997). Selection and utilization of Stylosanthes guianensis, for green cover and feed meal production in China. In: ‘Proceedings of the XVIII International Grassland Congress’. (Eds J. Buchanan-Smith, L. Bailey, and P. McCaughley.) pp. 49–50. (Extension Service Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food: Saskatoon.)

Liu G. D. , Noble A. D. , He H. X. , Michalk D. L. , and Ruaysoongnern S. (1999). Soil acidification under Stylosanthes legumes in tropical China: preliminary evaluation of the problem. Vol. 1. In: ‘People and Rangelands: Building the Future. Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland Congress’. Townsville. (Eds D. Eldridge and D. Freudenberger.) pp. 297–298. (VI Internatioal Rangeland Congress, Inc.: Townsville.)

Liu G. D., Phaikaew C., Stur W. W. (1997) Status of Stylosanthes development in other countries. II. Stylosanthes development and utilization in China and south-east Asia. Tropical Grasslands 31, 460–467. open url image1

Liu K. D. , and Zhou J. N. (2000). Avocado Production in China. In: ‘Avocado Production in Asia and the Pacific’. RAP Publication 2000/09. (Ed. M. K. Papademetriou.) (Food and Agriculture Organization: Bangkok.)

Liu G. D., Zhang X. Y. (2008) Developing animal husbandry vigorously in southern agricultural areas to construct New Socialist countryside. Guangdong Prataculture 1, 12–16. open url image1

Liu J. X. (2004). ‘Pasture in southern China.’ (Chemical Industry Publishing House: Beijing.)

Lu H. F., Campbell D. E., Li Z. A., Ren H. (2006) Energy synthesis of an agro-forest restoration system in lower subtropical China. Ecological Engineering 27, 175–192.
CrossRef | open url image1

Luo J. M. (1991) Deep exploration of pratacultural development pattern in agricultural area of Guangdong. Chinese Journal of Grassland 3, 43–44. open url image1

MacLeod N. D., Wen S., Hu M. (2007) An economic assessment of forage options to improve the profitability of smallholder beef cattle enterprises in the Red Soils region of China. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 1284–1296.
CrossRef | open url image1

Mathison M. J. , Wang T. , Yang Z. Y. , Dunning M. H. , Al Y. N. , et al (1985 b). Development of legume-based pastures for livestock production in Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China - preliminary studies with Trifolium semipilosum cv. Safari and temperate legume cultivars. In: ‘Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress’. pp. 1337–1339. (The National Grassland Research Institute: Nishi-nasuno.)

Mathison M. J. , Wang T. , Yang Z. Y. , Ma Z. Z. , Al H. X. , Peng L. W. , and Yang G. R. (1985 a). Development of legume based pastures for livestock production in Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China—preliminary studies with tropical legume cultivars. In: ‘Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress’. pp. 1334–1336. (The National Grassland Research Institute: Nishi-nasuno.)

Michalk D. L. (2004 a). A strategy for the development of the red soil areas of southern China. In: ‘Forages – From Research into Practice’. Working Paper 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. MacLeod, X. G. Xu and A. D. Casanova.) pp. 17–36. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Michalk D. L. (2004 b). Integrated pastures systems for cattle production in Guangdong and Hainan Provinces. In: ‘Forages – From Research into Practice.’ Working Paper 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. MacLeod, X. G. Xu and A. D. Casanova.) pp. 174–190. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Michalk D. L. , Ayres J. , Fu N. P. , and Zhu C. M. (1995). Cattle production under sedentary and improved management in the dry tropics of Hainan Island, China. In: ‘Rangelands in a Sustainable Biosphere. Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress’. Salt Lake City. (Ed. N. E. West.) pp. 369–370. (Society for Range Management: Denver.)

Michalk D. L. , and Fu N. P. (1988). Verano stylo: A useful legume for range improvement in the dry tropics of Hainan Island, China. In: ‘Rangeland Resources: Management and Utilization. Proceedings of the Third International Rangeland Congress’. New Delhi. (Eds P. Singh, P. S. Pathak, V. Shanker and A. K. Srivastava.) pp. 345–349. (Range Management Society of India: Jhansi.)

Michalk D. L., Fu N. P., Zhu C. M. (1993a) Improvement of dry tropical rangelands in Hainan Island, China. 1. Evaluation of pasture legumes. Journal of Range Management 46, 331–339.
CrossRef | open url image1

Michalk D. L., Fu N. P., Zhu C. M. (1993b) Improvement of dry tropical rangelands in Hainan Island, China. 2. Evaluation of pasture grasses. Journal of Range Management 46, 339–345.
CrossRef | open url image1

Michalk D. L., Fu N. P., Zhu C. M. (1998a) Improvement of dry tropical rangelands in Hainan Island, China. 3. Nutrient deficiencies and pasture response to initial fertiliser. Journal of Range Management 51, 97–195.
CrossRef | open url image1

Michalk D. L., Fu N. P., Zhu C. M. (1998b) Improvement of dry tropical rangelands in Hainan Island, China. 4. Effect of seedbed preparation on grass and legume establishment. Journal of Range Management 51, 106–114.
CrossRef | open url image1

Michalk D. L. , and Huang Z. K. (1993). Response of white clover to lime and magnesium on infertile acid soil in subtropical China. In: ‘Proceedings of the XVII International Grassland Congress’. Palmerston North. (Eds M. J. Baker, J. R. Crush and L. R. Humphreys.) pp. 1562–1563. (New Zealand Grassland Association: Palmerston North.)

Michalk D. L., Huang Z. K. (1994a) Grassland improvement in subtropical Guangdong Province, China. 1. Evaluation of pasture legumes. Tropical Grasslands 28, 129–138. open url image1

Michalk D. L., Huang Z. K. (1994b) Grassland improvement in subtropical Guangdong Province, China. 2. Evaluation of pasture grasses. Tropical Grasslands 28, 139–145. open url image1

Michalk D. L., Ryan W. J., Huang Z. K. (1994) Grassland improvement in subtropical Guangdong Province, China. 3. Strategy to improve acid soils. Tropical Grasslands 28, 146–154. open url image1

Nan Z. B. (2005) The grassland farming system and sustainable agricultural development in China. Japanese Society of Grassland Science 51, 15–19.
CrossRef | open url image1

Ni J. (2004) Estimating net primary productivity of grasslands from field biomass measurements in temperate northern China. Plant Ecology 174, 217–234.
CrossRef | open url image1

Noble A. D., Cannon M., Muller D. (1997) Evidence of accelerated soil acidification under Stylosanthes-dominated pastures. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 1309–1322.
CrossRef | open url image1

Noble A. D., Moody P., Liu G. D., Ruaysoongnern S., Qi Z. P., Berthelsen S. (2003) Quantification and remediation of soil chemical degradation in tropical Australia, China and Thailand. Pedosphere 23, 31–39. open url image1

Noble A. D. , Ruaysoongnern S. , Willet I. R. , and Palmer B. (1999). Soil acidification under Stylosanthes seed production systems in northeast Thailand and northern Australia: A potential constraint to long term sustainability. In: ‘Meeting the Challenges of Land Degradation in the 21st Century, 2nd International Land Degradation Conference’. (Eds C. Anecksamphant, C. Charoenchamratcheep, T. Vearasilp, and H. Eswaran.) p. 49. (Department of Land Development: Bangkok.)

Pan Y. N. (1990) Effect on the growth and benefit of pig production using ryegrass. Prataculture and Animal Husbandry 1, 17–18. open url image1

Peng Y. H. , and Yu Z. L. (1996). ‘Ecological Studies on Vegetation Rehabilitation of Tropical and Subtropical Degraded Ecosystems.’ (Guangdong Science and Technology Press: Guangzhou.)

Peters M. , Horne P. , Schmidt A. , Holmann F. , Kerridge P. C. , et al (2001). The role of forages in reducing poverty and degradation of natural resources in tropical production systems. Agricultural Research and Extension Network Paper No. 117. Available at: www.odi.org.uk/networks/agren/papers/agrenpaper_117.pdf (Accessed 28 May 2008).

Ren J. Z., Hu Z. Z., Zhao J., Zhang D. G., Hou F. J., Lin H. L., Mu X. D. (2008) A grassland classification system and its application in China. The Rangeland Journal 30, 199–209. open url image1

Ren J. Z., Li X. L., Hou F. J. (2002) Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 13, 1017–1021.
PubMed |
open url image1

Ren J. Z., Nan Z. B., Lin H. L., Hou F. J. (2007) Outlook on establishing of a new food system. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 9, 17–21. open url image1

Riggs P. (2003) Agroecological restoration in Guangdong. Leisha Magazine, December Issue.

Sanchez P. A., Salinas J. G. (1981) Low-input technology for managing Oxisols and Ultisols in tropical America. Advances in Agronomy 34, 279–406. open url image1

Shelton H. M. , Franzel S. , and Peters M. (2005). Adoption of tropical legume technology around the world: analysis of success. In: ‘Grassland: A Global Resource.’ (Ed. D. A. Galloway.) pp. 149–166. (Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen.)

Shen Z. Y., Xiao Y. D. (1995) The development of prataculture with southern rural characteristics. Jiangxi Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 4, 6–9. open url image1

Shi Z. C. (2001) Boosting the vegetation construction of wood and pasture, realizing the balanced development of agroforestry and prataculture. Grassland and Turf 2, 3–5. open url image1

Stocking M. A. (2003) Tropical soils and food security: the next 50 years. Science 302, 1356–1359.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Su S. J., Lin J. R. (1994) Report on pratacultural system engineering of hillyland in Fujian Province, China. Pratacultural Science [In Chinese] 11, 38–41. open url image1

Tang C., Barton L., Raphael C. (1998) Pasture legume species differ in their capacity to acidify soil. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49, 53–58.
CrossRef | open url image1

Tscharntke T., Klein A. M., Kruess A., Steffandewenter I., Thies S. (2005) Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters 8, 857–874.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wang R., Wang Y. Z. (2006) Invasion dynamics and potential spread of the invasive alien plant species Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) in China. Diversity & Distributions 12, 397–408.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wen S. (2005). The comprehensive developing and matching technology of forage and cattle production in hilly Red Soil region. In: ‘Characteristics and High Effective Utilization of Red Soil’. (Eds M. Xu, S. Wen and J. Li) pp. 227–248. (Chinese Press of Agricultural, Science and Technology: Beijing)

Wen S. L. , Casanova A. , Scott J. M. , McLeod D. M. , Zhang J. Q. , and Xie L. S. (2004 b). Low input forages for developing red soil wastelands in southern China. In: ‘Forages – From Research into Practice.’ Working Paper 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. MacLeod, X. G. Xu and A. D. Casanova.) pp. 67–72. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Wen S. L. , McLeod D. A. , Casanova A. J. , Scott J. M. , Horne P. , Xie L. S. , and Zhang J. Q. (2004 a). Forages for erosion control on red soils of south central China. In: ‘Forages – From Research into Practice.’ Working Paper 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. MacLeod, X. G. Xu and A. D. Casanova.) pp. 44–49. (ACIAR: Canberra.)

Wu C. C. (1981). Delineation of China’s agricultural resources. In: ‘China Geographer No. 11: Agriculture’. (Eds C.W. Pannell and C.L. Salter.) pp. 27–39. (Westview Press: Boulder.)

Wu Z. Y. , Zhu Y. , and Jiang H. (1987) ‘The Vegetation of Yunnan’. (Science Press: Beijing.)

Xie H. , Richard C. , Xu J. , and Wang J. (2002). Current rangeland management in Zhongdian County, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China. In: ‘Yak Productions in Central Asian Highlands. Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Yak’. (Eds H. Jianlin, C. Richard, O. Hannotte, C. McVeigh and J. E. O. Rege.) (International Livestock Research Institute: Nairobi.)

Xinhua News Agency (2005). China to develop 13 million hectares grassland in South. Available at: www.china.org.cn/english/2005/Nov/150028.htm. (accessed 27 May 2008).

Xu J. C., Melick D. R. (2007) Rethinking the effectiveness of public protected areas in southwest China. Conservation Biology 21, 318–328.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Yang L. Z., Liu G. D., Bai C. J. (2005) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth of Brachiaria brizantha.  Journal of South China University of Tropical Agriculture 8, 27–29. open url image1

Yang Z. Y., Xin G. R., Yue C. Y. (1997) A case study on the benefits of Italian ryegrass–rice rotation system. Pratacultural Science 14, 35–39. open url image1

Yuan F. J., Kui J. X., Li S., Xie Y. B., Guo Z. Y. (2004) The Effect of P, K and S fertilizer on the yield of Brachiaria decumbens.  Sichuan Grassland [In Chinese] 8, 27–29. open url image1

Zhang J. E., Luo S. M., Duan S. S. (2001) The environment of a young litchi orchard planted with forage grass in south China. Acta Horticulturae 558, 311–313. open url image1

Zhang J. H., Cao M. (1995) Tropical forest vegetation of Xishuanhbanna SW China and its secondary changes, with special reference to some problems in local nature conservation. Biological Conservation 73, 229–238.
CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang J. R., Duan S. S., Luo S. M. (2000) Eco-environmental effects of fruit trees and different pasture inter-planting systems in young orchard on slope land of latosol soils (Hapludox). Soil and Environmental Sciences 9, 42–44. open url image1

Zhang J. Q. , Luo T. , Casanova A. J. , Ying Z. Y. , Horne P. M. , Blair G. J. , Scott J. M. , McLeod D. A. , and Wen S. L. (2004). Evaluation of forage accessions in subtropical Hunan and Fujian. In: ‘Forages for the Red Soil Areas of China’. Paper No. 55. (Eds J. M. Scott, D. A. McLeod, M. G. Xu and A. J. Casanova.) pp. 73–80. (Working ACIAR: Canberra.)

Zhao J. Q., Michalk D. L., Du G. Z., Wen Y. F., Kemp D. R., Nicol H. (2007) Effect of fertilization on pasture in acid soil in Yunnan Province in China. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 523–535. open url image1

Zhao Q. Q. , Gong Z. T. , Hou C. Q. , and Zou G. C. (1990). Tropical soils. In: ‘Soils of China’. (Eds C. W. Li and O. Sun.) pp. 43–73. (Science Press: Beijing.)

Zhao Q. Q. , and Shi H. (1986). On the genesis, classification and characteristics of the soils in tropical and subtropical China. In: ‘Proceedings of the International Symposium on Red Soils’. (Eds C. K. Li, and O. Sun Ou.) pp. 197–228. (Science Press, Beijing.)

Zheng X. L. (2001). Status of plant variety right for agricultural crops in China. In: ‘System for Plant Variety Right in China’. (Ed. R. C. Duan.) pp. 18–20. (Ministry of Agriculture of China: Beijing.)








Export Citation Cited By (2)