Bacterial vaginosis in female sex workers in Chennai, India
Shanmugasundaram Uma A , Pachamuthu Balakrishnan A E , Kailapuri G. Murugavel A , Aylur K. Srikrishnan A , Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy A , Jebaraj A. Cecelia A , Santhanam Anand A , Kenneth H. Mayer B , David Celentano C , Sadras P. Thyagarajan D and Suniti Solomon A
A YRG Center for AIDS Research and Education, VHS, Taramani, Chennai-600113, India.
B Department of Medicine, Brown University/Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.
C Department of Epidemiology, John’s Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
D Department of Microbiology, Dr.A.L.M. PGIBMS, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai-600113, India.
E Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sexual Health 2(4) 261-262 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH05025
Submitted: 4 May 2005 Accepted: 23 September 2005 Published: 16 November 2005
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes obstetric and gynaecological complications and non-chlamydial/non-gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease and has been shown to be associated with the risk of acquiring HIV and herpes simplex (HSV)-2 infections. This study investigated both the prevalence of BV and its association with STDs among 582 female sex workers living in Chennai, South India. Blood, vaginal and endocervical swabs were tested for HSV-2, HIV, Treponema pallidum, BV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. The vaginal swabs collected were Gram’s stained and analysed for BV by Nugent’s scoring criteria. Of the women studied, 45% (95% CI, 40.6–48.7) were positive, 39.5% (95% CI, 35.5–43.5) were negative and 16% (95% CI, 12.8–18.7) were intermediate for BV. Bacterial vaginosis positivity was directly related to concurrent infection with HSV-2 (RR 1.3, AR 12, P = 0.00), T. vaginalis (RR 1.5, AR 10, P = 0.01) T. pallidum (RR 2.8, AR 16, P = 0.00) and HIV (RR 4.1, AR 52, P = 0.01). Future studies are needed to focus on the risk factors for BV.
Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention
Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002.
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Bacterial vaginosis; a public health review.
Br J Obstet Gynecol
Preventing adverse sequelae of bacterial vaginosis: a public health program and research agenda.
Sex Transm Dis
Association between acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 in women and bacterial vaginosis.
Clin Infect Dis
HIV infection associated with abnormal vaginal flora morphology and bacterial vaginosis.
The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis.
Int J Gynecol
Bacterial vaginosis and HIV seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Reliability of diagnosing Bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of Gram stain interpretation.
J Clin Microbiol
Prevalence of Bacterial vaginosis and its association with genital infections, inflammation, and contraceptive methods in women attending sexually transmitted disease and primary health clinics.
Int J STD AIDS
Bacterial vaginosis in a family practice population.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
Prevalence of Bacterial vaginosis in Thai women attending the family planning clinic, Siriraj Hospital.
J Med Assoc Thai
Nonspecific vaginosis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiological associations.
Am J Med
Is bacterial vaginosis a sexually transmitted infection?
Sex Transm Inf