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Demographic predictors of circumcision status in a community-based sample of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia

David J. Templeton A C D , Limin Mao B , Garrett Prestage A , John M. Kaldor A , Susan Kippax B and Andrew E. Grulich A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A National Centre in HIV Epidemiology & Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

B National Centre in HIV Social Research, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia.

C Livingstone Road Sexual Health Centre, 182 Livingstone Road, Marrickville, NSW 2204, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email:

Sexual Health 3(3) 191-193
Submitted: 27 January 2006  Accepted: 24 April 2006   Published: 29 August 2006


Male circumcision may reduce the risk of HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. In observational studies, confounding by demographic factors could produce spurious associations between circumcision and HIV risk. To assess this possibility, cross-sectional data on self-reported circumcision status and demographic factors were collected at baseline as part of the Health in Men study. Two-thirds of 1426 subjects were circumcised, mostly in the neonatal period. In multivariate analyses, age, ethnicity and country of birth were independently associated with circumcision status. Confounding by these demographic factors must be considered in future epidemiological studies addressing circumcision and HIV acquisition.


DJT is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council Public Health Scholarship no. 351044. The National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research and the National Centre in HIV Social Research are funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The Health in Men Cohort study is funded by the National Institutes of Health, a component of the US Department of Health and Human Services (NIH/NIAID/DAIDS: HVDDT Award N01-AI-05395), the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (Canberra) and the New South Wales Health Department (Sydney), and the National Health and Medical Research Council (project grant # 400944). We are grateful for the ongoing commitment of participants in the Health in Men cohort study.


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