Wildlife Research Wildlife Research Society
Ecology, management and conservation in natural and modified habitats
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Contribution of DNA-typing to bushmeat surveys: assessment of a roadside market in south-western Nigeria

Ayodeji Olayemi A , Akinlabi Oyeyiola A , Agostinho Antunes B , Céline Bonillo C , Corinne Cruaud D and Philippe Gaubert E F

A Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, HO 220005, Ife Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

B CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 177, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.

C Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMS 2700 – Service de Systématique Moléculaire, 43 Rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France.

D Genoscope, Centre National de Séquençage, 2 Rue Gaston Crémieux, CP 5706, 91057 Evry Cedex, France.

E Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR BOREA IRD 207, 43 Rue Cuvier – CP 26, 75005 Paris, France.

F Corresponding author. Email: gaubert@mnhn.fr

Wildlife Research 38(8) 696-716 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR11015
Submitted: 25 January 2011  Accepted: 16 August 2011   Published: 5 December 2011

Abstract

Context: Following recent socioeconomic transformations in western and central Africa, the volume of bushmeat hunting, a traditional source of proteins and revenue for rural populations, has reached unsustainable levels. The morphological identification of species sold on bushmeat market stalls may be challenging because of the presence of cryptic taxa and smoked or processed carcasses.

Aims: To assess the contribution of DNA-typing to traditional bushmeat surveys. We conducted a case study at a roadside bushmeat market in Asejire, south-western Nigeria, to characterise the mammalian diversity and sketch out the dynamics of the bushmeat trade.

Methods: We generated a 402-bp Cytochrome b fragment using a ‘universal’ mitochondrial primer pair that successfully amplified across five mammalian orders, and used assignment procedures to assess the taxonomic identification of the traded species. We combined DNA-typing with morphological-based market surveys and questionnaires to half (n = 20) of the market stakeholders.

Key results: Our combined morphological–DNA-based survey revealed a total of 17 species, representing seven mammalian orders (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Hyracoidea, Carnivora, Pholidota and Artiodactyla). DNA-typing allowed identifying the Walter’s duiker, a cryptic, newly described species from the Dahomey Gap, and diagnosing an unidentified primate as the white-throated monkey, Cercopithecus erythrogaster, a species of high conservation concern in Nigeria. K2P pairwise genetic distances among all species exceeded the 11% threshold, indicative of species-level distinction. The most hunted species were the Walter’s duiker and, to a lesser extent, the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus. Questionnaires to traders revealed that the Asejire roadside market was a straightforward trader–hunter system centralising off-takes from distant hunting sites.

Conclusions: We showed how mitochondrial DNA-typing combined with assignment procedures improved the characterisation of the mammalian diversity sold on bushmeat markets. The hunted mammalian community consisted of versatile, small- to medium-sized secondary forest species characteristic of the Dahomey Gap assemblage; their sustainable management is in doubt because of the lack of conservation and health awareness within the traders’ community.

Implications: Given the utility of mitochondrial DNA-typing in identifying species sold in bushmeat markets, we argue in favour of multi-entry investigations to reach a comprehensive characterisation of the bushmeat trade. The building of a web-accessible mtDNA database covering the spectrum of the species hunted for bushmeat would appear to be a valuable diagnostic tool that may help Nigeria and neighbouring countries to set up a rigorous monitoring of wildlife extirpation.

Additional keywords: conservation genetics, Cytochrome b, mammals, questionnaires, sub-Saharan Africa.


References

Adekunle, V. A. J. (2006). Conservation of tree species diversity in tropical rainforest ecosystem of south-west Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 18, 91–101. open url image1

Afolayan, T. A. (1980). A synopsis of wildlife conservation in Nigeria. Environmental Conservation 7, 207–212.
A synopsis of wildlife conservation in Nigeria.CrossRef | open url image1

Ajayi, S. S. (1971). Wildlife as a source of protein in Nigeria: some priorities for development. The Nigerian Field 36, 115–127. open url image1

Albrechtsen, L., Macdonald, D. W., Johnson, P. J., Castelo, R., and Fa, J. E. (2007). Faunal loss from bushmeat hunting: empirical evidence and policy implications in Bioko Island. Environmental Science & Policy 10, 654–667.
Faunal loss from bushmeat hunting: empirical evidence and policy implications in Bioko Island.CrossRef | open url image1

Anadu, P., Elamah, P., and Oates, J. (1988). The bushmeat trade in southwestern Nigeria: a case study. Human Ecology 16, 199–208.
The bushmeat trade in southwestern Nigeria: a case study.CrossRef | open url image1

Angelici, F. M., Luiselli, L., Politano, E., and Akani, G. C. (1999). Bushmen and mammal-fauna: a survey of the mammals traded in bush-meat markets of local people in the rainforests of south-eastern Nigeria. Anthropozoologica 30, 51–58. open url image1

Asibey, E. O. A. (1977). Expected effects of land-use patterns on future supplies of bushmeat in Africa South of the Sahara. Environmental Conservation 4, 43–49.
Expected effects of land-use patterns on future supplies of bushmeat in Africa South of the Sahara.CrossRef | open url image1

Assogbadjo, A. E., Codjia, J. T. C., Sinsin, B., Ekue, M. R. M., and Mensah, G. A. (2005). Importance of rodents as a human food source in Benin. Belgian Journal of Zoology 135, 11–15. open url image1

Ayoade, A. A., Fagade, S. P., and Adebisi, A. A. (2006). Dynamics of limnological features of two man-made lakes in relation to fish production. African Journal of Biotechnology 5, 1013–1021. open url image1

Bakarr, M. I., da Fonseca, G. A. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., and Painemilla, K. W. (2001). ‘Hunting and Bushmeat Utilization in the African Rain Forest: Perspectives toward a Blueprint for Conservation Action.’ (Conservation International: Washington, DC.)

Baker, C. S. (2008). A truer measure of the market: the molecular ecology of fisheries and wildlife trade. Molecular Ecology 17, 3985–3998.
A truer measure of the market: the molecular ecology of fisheries and wildlife trade.CrossRef | open url image1

Baker, C. S., Cooke, J. G., Lavery, S., Dalebout, M. L., Ma, Y.-U., Funahashi, N., Carraher, C., and Brownell, R. L. (2007). Estimating the number of whales entering trade using DNA profiling and capture–recapture analysis of market products. Molecular Ecology 16, 2617–2626.
Estimating the number of whales entering trade using DNA profiling and capture–recapture analysis of market products.CrossRef | open url image1

Baranga, D. (2007). Observations on resource use in Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 45, 2–6.
Observations on resource use in Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda.CrossRef | open url image1

Barnes, R. F. W. (2002). The bushmeat boom and bust in West and Central Africa. Oryx 36, 236–242.
The bushmeat boom and bust in West and Central Africa.CrossRef | open url image1

Bartlett, S. E., and Davidson, W. S. (1992). FINS (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing): a procedure for identifying the animal origin of biological specimens. BioTechniques 12, 408–411.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XktVWru7g%3D&md5=404b812cd0eedc37770bfd689edb617dCAS | open url image1

Bifarin, J. O., Ajibola, M. E., and Fadiyimu, A. A. (2008). Analysis of marketing bush meat in Idanre local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research 3, 667–671. open url image1

Booth, A. H. (1958). The Niger, the Volta and the Dahomey Gap as geographic barriers. Evolution 12, 48–62.
The Niger, the Volta and the Dahomey Gap as geographic barriers.CrossRef | open url image1

Bowen-Jones, E., Brown, D., and Robinson, E. (2002). ‘Assessment of the Solution-orientated Research Needed to Promote a More Sustainable Bushmeat Trade in Central and West Africa.’ (DEFRA (DETR), Wildlife & Countryside Directorate: London.)

Bradley, R. D., and Baker, R. J. (2001). A test of the genetic species concept: Cytochrome-b sequences and mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 82, 960–973.
A test of the genetic species concept: Cytochrome-b sequences and mammals.CrossRef | open url image1

Brock, P. M., Döring, H., and Bidartondo, M. I. (2009). How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium. New Phytologist 181, 719–724.
How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium.CrossRef | open url image1

Brown, D., and Davies, G. (2007). Introduction. In ‘Bushmeat and Livelihoods: Wildlife Management and Poverty Reduction’. (Eds G. Davies and D. Brown.) pp. 1–10. (Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.)

Brugiere, D., and Magassouba, B. (2009). Pattern and sustainability of the bushmeat trade in the Haut Niger National Park, Republic of Guinea. African Journal of Ecology 47, 630–639.
Pattern and sustainability of the bushmeat trade in the Haut Niger National Park, Republic of Guinea.CrossRef | open url image1

Carpaneto, G. M., and Fusari, A. (2000). Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 9, 1571–1585.
Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western Tanzania.CrossRef | open url image1

Carpaneto, G. M., Fusari, A., and Okongo, H. (2007). Subsistence hunting and exploitation of mammals in the Haut–Ogooué Province, south-eastern Gabon. Journal of Anthropological Sciences 85, 183–193. open url image1

Chapman, C. A., Lawes, M. J., and Eeley, H. A. C. (2006). What hope for African primate diversity? African Journal of Ecology 44, 116–133.
What hope for African primate diversity?CrossRef | open url image1

Clarke, S. C., Magnussen, J. E., Abercrombie, D. L., McAllister, M. K., and Shivji, M. S. (2006). Identification of shark species composition and proportion in the Hong Kong shark fin market based on molecular genetics and trade records. Conservation Biology 20, 201–211.
Identification of shark species composition and proportion in the Hong Kong shark fin market based on molecular genetics and trade records.CrossRef | open url image1

Codjia, J. T. C., and Assogbadjo, A. E. (2004). Faune sauvage mammalienne et alimentation des populations holli et fon de la forêt classée de la Lama (Sud-Bénin). Cahiers Agriculture 13, 341–347. open url image1

Colyn, M., Hulselmans, J., Sonet, G., Oudé, P., De Winter, J., Natta, A., Tamás Nagy, Z., and Verheyen, E. (2010). Discovery of a new duiker species (Bovidae: Cephalophinae) from the Dahomey Gap, West Africa. Zootaxa 2637, 1–30. open url image1

Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S., and Rowclife, J. M. (2005). Structure and operation of bushmeat commodity chain in southwestern Ghana. Conservation Biology 19, 139–149. open url image1

Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S., and Rowcliffe, J. M. (2007). Livelihoods and sustainability in a bushmeat commodity chain in Ghana. In ‘Bushmeat and Livelihoods: Wildlife Management and Poverty Reduction’. (Eds G. Davies and D. Brown.) pp. 32–46. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK.)

Djagoun, S. C. A. M., and Gaubert, P. (2009). Small carnivorans from southern Benin: a preliminary assessment of diversity and hunting pressure. Small Carnivore Conservation 40, 1–10. open url image1

Eaton, M., Meyers, G., Kolokotronis, S.-O., Leslie, M., Martin, A., and Amato, G. (2010). Barcoding bushmeat: molecular identification of central African and South American harvested vertebrates. Conservation Genetics 11, 1389–1404.
Barcoding bushmeat: molecular identification of central African and South American harvested vertebrates.CrossRef | open url image1

Edderai, D., and Dame, M. (2006). A census of the commercial bushmeat market in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Oryx 40, 472–476.
A census of the commercial bushmeat market in Yaoundé, Cameroon.CrossRef | open url image1

Eniang, E. A., Eniang, M. E., and Akpan, C. E. (2008). Bush meat trading in the Oban Hills region of south-eastern Nigeria: implications for sustainable livelihoods and conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 1, 70–83. open url image1

Fa, J. E., Peres, C. A., and Meeuwig, J. (2002). Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison. Conservation Biology 16, 232–237.
Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison.CrossRef | open url image1

Fa, J. E., Ryan, S. F., and Bell, D. J. (2005). Hunting vulnerability, ecological characteristics and harvest rates of bushmeat species in afrotropical forests. Biological Conservation 121, 167–176.
Hunting vulnerability, ecological characteristics and harvest rates of bushmeat species in afrotropical forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Fa, J. E., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Amin, R., Albrechtsen, L., and Macdonald, D. (2006). Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross–Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon. Biological Conservation 129, 497–510.
Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross–Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon.CrossRef | open url image1

Gaubert, P., and Begg, C. M. (2007). Re-assessed molecular phylogeny and evolutionary scenario within genets (Carnivora, Viverridae, Genettinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44, 920–927.
Re-assessed molecular phylogeny and evolutionary scenario within genets (Carnivora, Viverridae, Genettinae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXnslGgsbo%3D&md5=31e64cd5a758e574018a0112dc27a446CAS | open url image1

Gaubert, P., Fernandes, C. A., Bruford, M. W., and Veron, G. (2004). Genets (Carnivora, Viverridae) in Africa: an evolutionary synthesis based on Cytochrome b sequences and morphological characters. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 81, 589–610.
Genets (Carnivora, Viverridae) in Africa: an evolutionary synthesis based on Cytochrome b sequences and morphological characters.CrossRef | open url image1

Gaubert, P., Taylor, P. J., Fernandes, C. A., Bruford, M. W., and Veron, G. (2005). Patterns of cryptic hybridization revealed using an integrative approach: a case study on genets (Carnivora, Viverridae, Genetta spp.) from the southern African subregion. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 86, 11–33.
Patterns of cryptic hybridization revealed using an integrative approach: a case study on genets (Carnivora, Viverridae, Genetta spp.) from the southern African subregion.CrossRef | open url image1

Gaubert, P., Machordom, A., Morales, A., López-Bao, J. V., Veron, G., Amin, M., Barros, T., Basuony, M., Djagoun, C. A. M. S., Do Linh San, E., Fonseca, C., Geffen, E., Onder Ozkurt, S., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., and Palomares, F. (2011). Comparative phylogeography of two African carnivorans presumably introduced into Europe: disentangling natural versus human-mediated dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar. Journal of Biogeography 38, 341–358.
Comparative phylogeography of two African carnivorans presumably introduced into Europe: disentangling natural versus human-mediated dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar.CrossRef | open url image1

Ghobrial, L., Lankester, F., Kiyang, J., Akih, A., de Vries, S., Fotso, R., Gadsby, E., Jenkins, P., and Gonder, M. (2010). Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon. BMC Ecology 10, 2.
Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon.CrossRef | open url image1

Goldman, C. A. (1984). Systematic revision of the African mongoose genus Crossarchus (Mammalia: Viverridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 62, 1618–1630.
Systematic revision of the African mongoose genus Crossarchus (Mammalia: Viverridae).CrossRef | open url image1

Happold, D. C. D. (1987). ‘The Mammals of Nigeria.’ (Oxford University Press: London.)

Hebert, P. D. N., Penton, E. H., Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. H., and Hallwachs, W. (2004). Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101, 14812–14817.
Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXovVyju7g%3D&md5=45da0a23756bce511b67c2b5f00b6642CAS | open url image1

Henshaw, J., and Child, G. S. (1972). New attitudes in Nigeria. Oryx 11, 275–283. open url image1

Holt, F. L. (2005). The catch-22 of conservation: indigenous peoples, biologists, and cultural change. Human Ecology 33, 199–215.
The catch-22 of conservation: indigenous peoples, biologists, and cultural change.CrossRef | open url image1

Irwin, D. M., Kocher, T. D., and Wilson, A. C. (1991). Evolution of the Cytochrome b gene of mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution 32, 128–144.
Evolution of the Cytochrome b gene of mammals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXksVejtLk%3D&md5=653ae9921ecf84f02567ad970e7302cdCAS | open url image1

Jenik, J. (1994). The Dahomey Gap, an important issue in West African phytogeography. Mémoires de la Société de Biogéographie 4, 125–133. open url image1

Jones-Bowen, E., and Pendry, S. (1999). The threat to primates and other mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished. Oryx 33, 233–246. open url image1

Juste, J., Fa, J. E., Perez del Val, J., and Castroviejo, J. (1995). Market dynamics of bushmeat species in Equatorial Guinea. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 454–467.
Market dynamics of bushmeat species in Equatorial Guinea.CrossRef | open url image1

Kersten, I., Baumbach, G., Oluwole, A. F., Obioh, I. B., and Ogunsola, O. J. (1998). Urban and rural fuelwood situation in the tropical rain-forest area of south-west Nigeria. Energy 23, 887–898.
Urban and rural fuelwood situation in the tropical rain-forest area of south-west Nigeria.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXnt12lurc%3D&md5=143faa380397c7dcd3281d8a290a4bc2CAS | open url image1

Kimura, M. (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111–120.
A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXmtFSktg%3D%3D&md5=db2067ef1369984c5c64e081cf01e526CAS | open url image1

Kingdon, J. (1997). ‘The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals.’ (Academic Press: San Diego, CA.)

Kocher, T. D., Thomas, W. K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S. V., Pääbo, S., Villablanca, F. X., and Wilson, A. C. (1989). Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86, 6196–6200.
Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXlvV2ksbw%3D&md5=b4bf4a78c4e2618f24506ca426139fd8CAS | open url image1

Kümpel, N. F., East, T., Keylock, N., Rowcliffe, J. M., Cowlishaw, G., and Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2007). Determinants of bushmeat consumption and trade in continental Equatorial Guinea: an urban-rural comparison. In ‘Bushmeat and Livelihoods: Wildlife Management and Poverty Reduction’. (Eds G. Davies and D. Brown.) pp. 73–91. (Blackwell Publishing / the Zoological Society of London: Oxford, UK.)

Kümpel, N., Milner-Gulland, E., Cowlishaw, G., and Rowcliffe, J. (2010). Incentives for hunting: the role of bushmeat in the household economy in rural Equatorial Guinea. Human Ecology 38, 251–264.
Incentives for hunting: the role of bushmeat in the household economy in rural Equatorial Guinea.CrossRef | open url image1

LeBreton, M., Prosser, A., Tamoufe, U., Sateren, W., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Diffo, J. L. D., Burke, D. S., and Wolfe, N. D. (2006). Patterns of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of disease risk among central African communities. Animal Conservation 9, 357–363.
Patterns of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of disease risk among central African communities.CrossRef | open url image1

Lopez, J. V., Yuhki, N., Masuda, R., Modi, W., and O’Brien, S. J. (1994). Numt, a recent transfer and tandem amplification of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic cat. Journal of Molecular Evolution 39, 174–190.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXlsFShtrs%3D&md5=db65370474841eb5679d9c846d6de80dCAS | open url image1

Lou, M., and Brian Golding, G. (2010). Assigning sequences to species in the absence of large interspecific differences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56, 187–194.
Assigning sequences to species in the absence of large interspecific differences.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmvVWgtrw%3D&md5=53ed5412259f77e4d79f631f8bb2a5b6CAS | open url image1

Malisa, A. L., Gwakisa, P., Balthazary, S., Wasser, S. K., and Mutayoba, B. M. (2006). The potential of mitochondrial DNA markers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for domestic and wild species identification. African Journal of Biotechnology 5, 1588–1593.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtV2iu7vK&md5=831c8133c201efc8f0e5862901b5879bCAS | open url image1

Martin, G. H. G. (1983). Bushmeat in Nigeria as a natural resource with environmental implications. Environmental Conservation 10, 125–132.
Bushmeat in Nigeria as a natural resource with environmental implications.CrossRef | open url image1

Meyer, C. P., and Paulay, G. (2005). DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling. PLoS Biology 3, e422.
DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling.CrossRef | open url image1

Mickleburgh, S., Waylen, K., and Racey, P. (2009). Bats as bushmeat: a global review. Oryx 43, 217–234.
Bats as bushmeat: a global review.CrossRef | open url image1

Monroe, M. C., and Willcox, A. S. (2006). Could risk of disease change bushmeat-butchering behavior? Animal Conservation 9, 368–369.
Could risk of disease change bushmeat-butchering behavior?CrossRef | open url image1

Muchaal, P. K., and Ngandjui, G. (1999). Impact of village hunting on wildlife populations in the western Dja Reserve, Cameroon. Conservation Biology 13, 385–396.
Impact of village hunting on wildlife populations in the western Dja Reserve, Cameroon.CrossRef | open url image1

Munch, K., Boomsma, W., Huelsenbeck, J. P., Willerslev, E., and Nielsen, R. (2008a). Statistical assignment of DNA sequences using Bayesian phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 57, 750–757.
Statistical assignment of DNA sequences using Bayesian phylogenetics.CrossRef | open url image1

Munch, K., Boomsma, W., Willerslev, E., and Nielsen, R. (2008b). Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences 363, 3997–4002.
Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjs1CmtQ%3D%3D&md5=15450d7e5c11d16ea50f03f2768ff58eCAS | open url image1

Ng, E. Y. K., and Peng Pang, M. (2010). Comparison of nucleotide DNA alignment search programmes. International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics 2, 163–176.
Comparison of nucleotide DNA alignment search programmes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXltV2rsbg%3D&md5=bdd1c47179f0d01dea2409cf11aaa371CAS | open url image1

Noelle-Neumann, E. (1970). Wanted: rules for wording structured questionnaires. Public Opinion Quarterly 34, 191–201.
Wanted: rules for wording structured questionnaires.CrossRef | open url image1

Ogunsanmi, A. O., Taiwo, V. O., Iroeche, P. C., and Sobaloju, S. O. (2001). Serological survey of salmonellosis in grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in Asejire, Irewole Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 30, 115–118.
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3svkvVChtw%3D%3D&md5=4184605d7e6663ed56b1ce66229d1a54CAS | open url image1

Okorie, P. U., and Ekechukwu, K. O. (2004). Bushmeat trade in Amuro-Okigwe, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 5, 187–192. open url image1

Olayemi, A., Nicolas, V., Gaubert, P., Leirs, H., and Verheyen, E. (2010). ‘Small Mammals, Morphology and Molecules: Tale-bearing Tenants of the Nigerian Southwestern Forest Block.’ (Nova Science Publishers: New York.)

Peh, K, and Drori, O (2010). Fighting corruption to save the environment: Cameroon’s experience. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 39, 336–339. open url image1

Peters, C. J. (2005). Marburg and Ebola – Arming ourselves against the deadly filoviruses. The New England Journal of Medicine 352, 2571–2573.
Marburg and Ebola – Arming ourselves against the deadly filoviruses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXls1Wqt7g%3D&md5=24b5b576fb3d10c0b3d69e84c10fdb4aCAS | open url image1

Rogers, S. O., and Bendich, A. J. (1988). Extraction of DNA from plant tissues. In ‘Plant Molecular Biology Manual. Vol. A6’. (Eds S. B. Gelvin and R. A. Schilperoort.) pp. 1–10. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston, MA.)

Rose, A. L. (2001). Social change and social values in mitigating bushmeat commerce. In ‘Hunting and Bushmeat Utilization in the African Rain Forest: Perspectives toward a Blueprint for Conservation Action’. (Eds M. I. Bakarr, G. A. B. Da Fonseca, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands and K. W. Painemilla.) pp. 59–73. (Conservation International: Washington, DC.)

Ross, H. A., Lento, G. M., Dalebout, M. L., Goode, M., Ewing, G., McLaren, P., Rodrigo, A. G., Lavery, S., and Baker, C. S. (2003). DNA Surveillance: web-based molecular identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. The Journal of Heredity 94, 111–114.
DNA Surveillance: web-based molecular identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjsFaqu7k%3D&md5=01cad5fa40e6f95086f94d14be1ab5f3CAS | open url image1

Salzmann, U., and Hoelzmann, P. (2005). The Dahomey Gap: an abrupt climatically induced rain forest fragmentation in West Africa during the late Holocene. The Holocene 15, 190–199.
The Dahomey Gap: an abrupt climatically induced rain forest fragmentation in West Africa during the late Holocene.CrossRef | open url image1

Shi, H., Fong, J. J., Parham, J. F., Pang, J., Wang, J., Hong, M., and Zhang, Y.-P. (2008). Mitochondrial variation of the ‘eyed’ turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49, 1025–1029.
Mitochondrial variation of the ‘eyed’ turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVCntL7E&md5=e497518911eab423d429b5e456ea9145CAS | open url image1

Sodeinde, O. A., and Soewu, D. A. (1999). Pilot study of the traditional medicine trade in Nigeria with reference to wild fauna. TRAFFIC Bulletin 18, 35–40. open url image1

Soewu, D. A. (2008). Wild animals in ethnozoological practices among the Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria and the implications for biodiversity conservation. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6, 421–427. open url image1

Soewu, D., and Ayodele, I. (2009). Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5, 39.
Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria.CrossRef | open url image1

Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. (2007). MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24, 1596–1599.
MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXpsVGrsL8%3D&md5=65ebfa4594fa9e15d0d37308ad5c623fCAS | open url image1

Thommasen, H. V., Thomson, M. J., Shutler, G. G., and Kirby, L. T. (1989). Development of DNA fingerprints for use in wildlife forensic science. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17, 321–326. open url image1

Tobe, S. S., Kitchener, A., and Linacre, A. (2009). Cytochrome b or Cytochrome c oxidase Subunit I for mammalian species identification – An answer to the debate. Forensic Science International. Genetics Supplement Series 2, 306–307.
Cytochrome b or Cytochrome c oxidase Subunit I for mammalian species identification – An answer to the debate.CrossRef | open url image1

Verma, S. K., and Singh, L. (2003). Novel universal primers establish identity of an enormous number of animal species for forensic application. Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 28–31.
Novel universal primers establish identity of an enormous number of animal species for forensic application.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXivVyju7w%3D&md5=ffad5b352017cfe5a3630f54aa0e11c0CAS | open url image1

Wilkie, D. (2006). Bushmeat: a disease risk worth taking to put food on the table? Animal Conservation 9, 370–371.
Bushmeat: a disease risk worth taking to put food on the table?CrossRef | open url image1

Wilkie, D. S., Sidle, J. G., and Boundzanga, G. C. (1992). Mechanized logging, market hunting, and a bank loan in Congo. Conservation Biology 6, 570–580.
Mechanized logging, market hunting, and a bank loan in Congo.CrossRef | open url image1

Willcox, A. S., and Nambu, D. M. (2007). Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of southwestern Cameroon. Biological Conservation 134, 251–261.
Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of southwestern Cameroon.CrossRef | open url image1

Ye, J., McGinnis, S., and Madden, T. L. (2006). BLAST: improvements for better sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 34, W6–9.
BLAST: improvements for better sequence analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xps1yitLc%3D&md5=fb5e05477ddfe15c72003a4e8de1b10eCAS | open url image1

Zhang, L., Hua, N., and Sun, S. (2008). Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation awareness in southwest China. Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 1493–1516.
Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation awareness in southwest China.CrossRef | open url image1



Export Citation