Australian Journal of Zoology Australian Journal of Zoology Society
Evolutionary, molecular and comparative zoology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Regional seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral and stray cats (Felis catus) from Tasmania

Bronwyn A. Fancourt A C and Robert B. Jackson B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

B Biosecurity and Quarantine Services, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, PO Box 46, Kings Meadows, Tas. 7249, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: Bronwyn.Fancourt@utas.edu.au

Australian Journal of Zoology 62(4) 272-283 https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO14015
Submitted: 5 March 2014  Accepted: 22 July 2014   Published: 13 August 2014

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite of felids that also has significant implications for the health of wildlife, livestock and humans worldwide. In Australia, feral, stray and domestic cats (Felis catus) are the most important definitive host of T. gondii as they are the only species that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts that provide a major source of infection for mammals and birds. In Tasmania, the rapid decline of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) may allow an increase in feral cat abundance, thereby increasing the risk of T. gondii infection to a range of susceptible wildlife species. At present, there is scant information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in feral cat populations across Tasmania. We tested feral cats from 13 regions across Tasmania for the presence of T. gondii–specific IgG antibodies using a modified agglutination test. Results were combined with serosurveys from three previous studies to enable a comparison of seroprevalence among 14 regions across Tasmania. We found that 84.2% (224 of 266) of cats tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies. This is among the highest rates of prevalence recorded from Australia, and significantly higher than for most other countries. Adult cats had higher seroprevalence than kittens but there was no difference between sexes. In Tasmania, seroprevalence was high in 12 of 14 regions (range: 79.3–100.0%), with only two regions (Tasman Island and Southern Tasmania) recording significantly lower seroprevalence (≤50%). This suggests a high risk of infection across Tasmania, and has significant implications for wildlife conservation should feral cat abundance increase with the ongoing declines in Tasmanian devils.

Additional keywords: definitive host, disease, parasite, spatial variation, toxoplasmosis, zoonosis.


References

Adams, P. J. (2003). Parasites of feral cats and native fauna from Western Australia: the application of molecular techniques for the study of parasitic infections in Australian wildlife. Ph.D. Thesis, Murdoch University, Perth.

Adams, P. J., Elliot, A. D., Algar, D., and Brazell, R. I. (2008). Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from Christmas Island. Australian Veterinary Journal 86, 60–63.
Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from Christmas Island.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c7htl2muw%3D%3D&md5=b08f08e2ff8e686497226150b4aced3cCAS | 18271830PubMed |

Afonso, E., Thulliez, P., and Gilot-Fromont, E. (2006). Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in an urban population of domestic cats (Felis catus). International Journal for Parasitology 36, 1373–1382.
Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in an urban population of domestic cats (Felis catus).CrossRef | 16989836PubMed |

Afonso, E., Germain, E., Poulle, M.-L., Ruette, S., Devillard, S., Say, L., Villena, I., Aubert, D., and Gilot-Fromont, E. (2013). Environmental determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in its definitive hosts. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2, 278–285.
| 24533347PubMed |

Almería, S., Calvete, C., Pagés, A., Gauss, C., and Dubey, J. P. (2004). Factors affecting the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Spain. Veterinary Parasitology 123, 265–270.
Factors affecting the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Spain.CrossRef | 15325052PubMed |

Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Liesenfeld, O., Herrera-Flores, R. G., Ramírez-Sánchez, B. E., González-Herrera, A., Martínez-García, S. A., and Dubey, J. P. (2007). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats from Durango City, Mexico. The Journal of Parasitology 93, 1214–1216.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats from Durango City, Mexico.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c%2FgtFGktg%3D%3D&md5=471a156bc14cba979d772b1f710c4c9eCAS | 18163360PubMed |

Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F., Arnaud-Gil, C. A., López-Longoria, J. C., Molina-Espinoza, L. F., Estrada-Martínez, S., Liesenfeld, O., Hernández-Tinoco, J., Sifuentes-Álvarez, A., and Salas-Martínez, C. (2013a). Toxoplasma gondii infection and suicide attempts: a case-control study in psychiatric outpatients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 201, 948–952.
Toxoplasma gondii infection and suicide attempts: a case-control study in psychiatric outpatients.CrossRef | 24177481PubMed |

Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Silva-Aguilar, D., Villena, I., and Dubey, J. P. (2013b). Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 112, 433–437.
Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico.CrossRef | 24063950PubMed |

Aramini, J. J., Stephen, C., Dubey, J. P., Engelstoft, C., Schwantje, H., and Ribble, C. S. (1999). Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Epidemiology and Infection 122, 305–315.
Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M3otF2hug%3D%3D&md5=71e35dabb5c4b4ee41b9103c5aa19f89CAS | 10355797PubMed |

Arantes, T. P., Lopes, W. D. Z., Ferreira, R. M., Pieroni, J. S. P., Pinto, V. M. R., Sakamoto, C. A., and daCosta, A. J. (2009). Toxoplasma gondii: evidence for the transmission by semen in dogs. Experimental Parasitology 123, 190–194.
Toxoplasma gondii: evidence for the transmission by semen in dogs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVeht7bI&md5=2f739378abc62e112b1d9c9845e576f7CAS | 19622353PubMed |

Ashton, N. (1979). Ocular toxoplasmosis in wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). American Journal of Ophthalmology 88, 322–332.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL3c%2FhslOhsw%3D%3D&md5=fa22e9d404e8701b5dc72010d99d8c80CAS | 384800PubMed |

Asthana, S. P., Macpherson, C. N. L., Weiss, S. H., Stephens, R., Denny, T. N., Sharma, R. N., and Dubey, J. P. (2006). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and cats in Grenada, West Indies. The Journal of Parasitology 92, 644–645.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and cats in Grenada, West Indies.CrossRef | 16884013PubMed |

Attwood, H. D., Woolley, P. A., and Rickard, M. D. (1975). Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11, 543–551.
Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE28%2Fnt1eisg%3D%3D&md5=9650c010ca393e4ace625e94fbf08a0cCAS | 1195500PubMed |

Berdoy, M., Webster, J. P., and MacDonald, D. W. (2000). Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 267, 1591–1594.
Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MrgslCnsg%3D%3D&md5=027d022b0b1d8aa400a23ff019a3989aCAS | 11007336PubMed |

Bettiol, S. S. (2000). Diseases of the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) with special reference to toxoplasmosis and the marsupial immune system. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

Bettiol, S. S., Obendorf, D. L., Nowarkowski, M., and Goldsmid, J. M. (2000). Pathology of experimental toxoplasmosis in eastern barred bandicoots in Tasmania. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36, 141–144.
Pathology of experimental toxoplasmosis in eastern barred bandicoots in Tasmania.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3c7ksV2lsg%3D%3D&md5=7469a3f608825b396c361baeee9369a5CAS | 10682755PubMed |

Beverley, J. K. A. (1959). Congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis through successive generations of mice. Nature 183, 1348–1349.
Congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis through successive generations of mice.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaG1M%2Fos1Oruw%3D%3D&md5=bf926e29e75f08312a2e363cdd3ba741CAS |

Bowie, W. R., King, A. S., Werker, D. H., Isaac-Renton, J. L., Bell, A., Eng, S. B., and Marion, S. A. (1997). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking water. Lancet 350, 173–177.
Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking water.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2szptlOmsg%3D%3D&md5=936b3a5793e448d5592dc12061973e34CAS | 9250185PubMed |

Burns, R., Williams, E. S., O’Toole, D., and Dubey, J. P. (2003). Toxoplasma gondii infections in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), 1992–1998: clinical signs, serology, pathology, and prevention. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39, 787–797.
Toxoplasma gondii infections in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), 1992–1998: clinical signs, serology, pathology, and prevention.CrossRef | 14733273PubMed |

Campbell, K. J., Harper, G., Algar, D., Hanson, C. C., Keitt, B. S., and Robinson, S. (2011). Review of feral cat eradications on islands. In ‘Island Invasives: Eradication and Management. Proceedings of the International Conference on Island Invasives’. (Eds C. R. Veitch, M. N. Clout and D. R. Towns.) pp. 37–46. (IUCN: Gland, Switzerland & The Centre for Biodiversity and Biosecurity (CBB): Auckland, New Zealand.)

Canfield, P. J., Hartley, W. J., and Dubey, J. P. (1990). Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials. Journal of Comparative Pathology 103, 159–167.
Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3M%2FmtVOktA%3D%3D&md5=017dcaa8ef76aa3efad310b01c2489a8CAS | 2246391PubMed |

Carme, B., Demar, M., Ajzenberg, D., and Dardé, M. L. (2009). Severe acquired toxoplasmosis caused by wild cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15, 656–658.
Severe acquired toxoplasmosis caused by wild cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, French Guiana.CrossRef | 19331765PubMed |

Cavalcante, G. T., Aguiar, D. M., Chiebao, D., Dubey, J. P., Ruiz, V. L. A., Dias, R. A., Camargo, L. M. A., Labruna, M. B., and Gennari, S. M. (2006). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats and pigs from rural Western Amazon, Brazil. The Journal of Parasitology 92, 863–864.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats and pigs from rural Western Amazon, Brazil.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD28rmsF2hsg%3D%3D&md5=8fbade2b332629edbb39133a22b06cddCAS | 16995406PubMed |

Coman, B. J., Jones, E. H., and Westbury, H. A. (1981). Protozoan and viral infections of feral cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 57, 319–323.
Protozoan and viral infections of feral cats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL387otF2htg%3D%3D&md5=80c69015c8e2241a5e0c4ba21392980cCAS | 6280665PubMed |

Cook, I. (1961). Ovine toxoplasmosis. Australian Veterinary Journal 37, 451–456.
Ovine toxoplasmosis.CrossRef |

D’Amore, E., Falcone, E., Busani, L., and Tollis, M. (1997). A serological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray cats. Veterinary Research Communications 21, 355–359.
A serological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray cats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2szns1Omsw%3D%3D&md5=bfb72cc83debb968f651939efc888236CAS | 9232779PubMed |

da Silva, A., Cutolo, A., and Langoni, H. (2002). Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do método de aglutinação direta na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma em soros de ovinos, caprinos, caninos, e felinos. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico 69, 7–11.

de Moraes, É. P. B. X., Batista, A. M., Faria, E. B., Freire, R. L., Freitas, A. C., Silva, M. A. R., Braga, V. A., and Mota, R. A. (2010). Experimental infection by Toxoplasma gondii using contaminated semen containing different doses of tachyzoites in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 170, 318–322.
Experimental infection by Toxoplasma gondii using contaminated semen containing different doses of tachyzoites in sheep.CrossRef |

DeFeo, M. L., Dubey, J. P., Mather, T. N., and Rhodes, R. C. (2002). Epidemiologic investigation of seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in cats and rodents. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63, 1714–1717.
Epidemiologic investigation of seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in cats and rodents.CrossRef | 12492287PubMed |

Desmonts, G., and Remington, J. S. (1980). Direct agglutination test for diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection: method for increasing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11, 562–568.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL3M%2Fkslaiuw%3D%3D&md5=2a5a0ad4c7cd82ff8f51e4f9f503c253CAS | 7000807PubMed |

Desmonts, G., Couvreur, J., Alison, F., Baudelot, J., Gerbeaux, J., and Lelong, M. (1965). Étude épidémiologique sur la toxoplasmose: de l’influence de la cuisson des viandes de boucherie sur la fréquence de l’infection humaine. Revue Francaise d’Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 10, 952–958.
| 1:STN:280:DyaF28%2FmslCgtg%3D%3D&md5=ff6a7e17f68d7b0d3bd0e6e74731080fCAS | 5853186PubMed |

Dorny, P., Speybroeck, N., Verstraete, S., Baeke, M., De Becker, A., Berkvens, D., and Vercruysse, J. (2002). Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in urban stray cats in Belgium. The Veterinary Record 151, 626–629.
Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in urban stray cats in Belgium.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD38jhs12ltw%3D%3D&md5=58205319a745ba52f2d88b18121fbda9CAS | 12479298PubMed |

Dubey, J. P. (1986a). A review of toxoplasmosis in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 22, 177–202.
A review of toxoplasmosis in cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL2s7nvFKktA%3D%3D&md5=33e2459b5e31b970c13f4258b4d34b61CAS | 3551316PubMed |

Dubey, J. P. (1986b). A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs. Veterinary Parasitology 19, 181–223.
A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL283gvFyntw%3D%3D&md5=045c315eef426cb2c92b1e852671ea37CAS | 3518210PubMed |

Dubey, J. P. (1995). Duration of immunity to shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by cats. The Journal of Parasitology 81, 410–415.
Duration of immunity to shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by cats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2M3psVOgtg%3D%3D&md5=1c26f79b935417749f8d7753e60a128bCAS | 7776126PubMed |

Dubey, J. P. (1997). Validation of the specificity of the modified agglutination test for toxoplasmosis in pigs. Veterinary Parasitology 71, 307–310.
Validation of the specificity of the modified agglutination test for toxoplasmosis in pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlt1Gltbc%3D&md5=930f798b081949fa7f74a6652f8d7edaCAS | 9299699PubMed |

Dubey, J. P. (2010). ‘Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans.’ (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.)

Dubey, J. P., and Desmonts, G. (1987). Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Equine Veterinary Journal 19, 337–339.
Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL2szgsVWmsg%3D%3D&md5=04576ca6eca54834e82ab7ad5763432dCAS | 3622463PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., and Frenkel, J. K. (1972). Cyst-induced toxoplasmosis in cats. The Journal of Protozoology 19, 155–177.
Cyst-induced toxoplasmosis in cats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE38%2Fpt1SrtQ%3D%3D&md5=16d14de6150850ac9d07e84d5af85783CAS | 5008846PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., and Frenkel, J. K. (1976). Feline toxoplasmosis from acutely infected mice and the development of toxoplasma cysts. The Journal of Protozoology 23, 537–546.
Feline toxoplasmosis from acutely infected mice and the development of toxoplasma cysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE2s%2Fntl2hsA%3D%3D&md5=dcb5358a0e38f2df2538ad408e85e728CAS | 1003342PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., and Thulliez, P. (1989). Serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cats fed Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194, 1297–1299.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL1M3lsVOltg%3D%3D&md5=5f7e677b400c0398056949e8abbc9b1aCAS | 2722663PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Miller, N. L., and Frenkel, J. K. (1970a). Characterization of the new fecal form of Toxoplasma gondii. The Journal of Parasitology 56, 447–456.
Characterization of the new fecal form of Toxoplasma gondii.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3cXks1emtbY%3D&md5=13b423e3a99d4c596321d1b1cb58abf7CAS | 5467864PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Miller, N. L., and Frenkel, J. K. (1970b). The Toxoplasma gondii oocyst from cat faeces. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 132, 636–662.
The Toxoplasma gondii oocyst from cat faeces.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXivFajsg%3D%3D&md5=1986fda75d66feffe4ecbe5a943dd64cCAS | 4927658PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Ott-Joslin, J., Torgerson, R. W., Topper, M. J., and Sundberg, J. P. (1988). Toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops). Veterinary Parasitology 30, 97–105.
Toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1M3isVSrtQ%3D%3D&md5=4b898d3ed052f6f3b46d714a2b8f9e0aCAS | 3245110PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Lappin, M. R., and Thulliez, P. (1995a). Long-term antibody responses of cats fed Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts. The Journal of Parasitology 81, 887–893.
Long-term antibody responses of cats fed Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK287jtVSktg%3D%3D&md5=36d6aae177484c3318252b2d0a80a118CAS | 8544059PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Thulliez, P., Weigel, R. M., Andrews, C. D., Lind, P., and Powell, E. C. (1995b). Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56, 1030–1036.
| 1:STN:280:DyaK287js1KksA%3D%3D&md5=311bba61b93cd1ff1a539dc5cbcf8f30CAS | 8533974PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Weigel, R. M., Siegel, A. M., Thulliez, P., Kitron, U. D., Mitchell, M. A., Mannelli, A., Mateus-Pinilla, N. E., Shen, S. K., Kwok, O. C. H., and Todd, K. S. (1995c). Sources and reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infection on 47 swine farms in Illinois. The Journal of Parasitology 81, 723–729.
Sources and reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infection on 47 swine farms in Illinois.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK28%2FktlGlsQ%3D%3D&md5=f4ad4e262b2ce9329af86511dcff328fCAS | 7472862PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Saville, W. J. A., Stanek, J. F., and Reed, S. M. (2002). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from rural Ohio. The Journal of Parasitology 88, 802–803.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from rural Ohio.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD38vjvF2qsg%3D%3D&md5=3c7bcfbf0c142f7c439bc43e9f98f106CAS | 12197137PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Navarro, I. T., Sreekumar, C., Dahl, E., Freire, R. L., Kawabata, H. H., Vianna, M. C. B., Kwok, O. C. H., Shen, S. K., Thulliez, P., and Lehmann, T. (2004). Toxoplasma gondii infections in cats from Paraná, Brazil: seroprevalence, tissue distribution, and biologic and genetic characterization of isolates. The Journal of Parasitology 90, 721–726.
Toxoplasma gondii infections in cats from Paraná, Brazil: seroprevalence, tissue distribution, and biologic and genetic characterization of isolates.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2cvltFensw%3D%3D&md5=c9e5dc8394905a0a924cc930189e2728CAS | 15359466PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Su, C., Cortés, J. A., Sundar, N., Gomez-Marin, J. E., Polo, L. J., Zambrano, L., Mora, L. E., Lora, F., Jimenez, J., Kwok, O. C. H., Shen, S. K., Zhang, X., Nieto, A., and Thulliez, P. (2006). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombia, South America and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates. Veterinary Parasitology 141, 42–47.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombia, South America and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD28rlsFGkuw%3D%3D&md5=55a1fc362b3950417e8f961111ae149eCAS | 16797845PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., López-Torres, H. Y., Sundar, N., Velmurugan, G. V., Ajzenberg, D., Kwok, O. C. H., Hill, R., Dardé, M. L., and Su, C. (2007a). Mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii isolated from feral cats on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. The Journal of Parasitology 93, 1365–1369.
Mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii isolated from feral cats on Mona Island, Puerto Rico.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c7ls12lsA%3D%3D&md5=e72599e42b7cd703d1182d8326458862CAS | 18314681PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Zhu, X. Q., Sundar, N., Zhang, H., Kwok, O. C. H., and Su, C. (2007b). Genetic and biologic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates of cats from China. Veterinary Parasitology 145, 352–356.
Genetic and biologic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates of cats from China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjsVGmsLo%3D&md5=b7be1ee028f7110dc1823a452209ee24CAS | 17267132PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Bharia, C. R., Lappin, M. R., Ferreira, L. R., Thorn, A., and Kwok, O. C. H. (2009a). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. antibodies in cats from Pennsylvania. The Journal of Parasitology 95, 578–580.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. antibodies in cats from Pennsylvania.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3c%2FgtlOksQ%3D%3D&md5=da0139ec4b123ee829385e565e5d185eCAS | 19061304PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Lappin, M. R., Kwok, O. C. H., Mofya, S., Chikweto, A., Baffa, A., Doherty, D., Shakeri, J., Macpherson, C. N. L., and Sharma, R. N. (2009b). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies. The Journal of Parasitology 95, 1129–1133.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MjktlChsA%3D%3D&md5=4e12f4ceb5022681744f77fbe784a5b5CAS | 19385716PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Moura, L., Majumdar, D., Sundar, N., Velmurugan, G. V., Kwok, O. C. H., Kelly, P., Krecek, R. C., and Su, C. (2009c). Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats (Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies. Parasitology 136, 589–594.
Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats (Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlt1Cks7Y%3D&md5=35bb37e737cd718c96754da8150cacc4CAS | 19402949PubMed |

Dubey, J. P., Velmurugan, G. V., Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Alvarado-Esquivel, D., Rodríguez-Peña, S., Martínez-García, S., González-Herrera, A., Ferreira, L. R., Kwok, O. C. H., and Su, C. (2009d). Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from animals in Durango, Mexico. The Journal of Parasitology 95, 319–322.
Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from animals in Durango, Mexico.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1Mvns1KisA%3D%3D&md5=46178a435e2e85526be45ce236376724CAS | 18925790PubMed |

Ekanayake, D. K., Rajapakse, R. P. V. J., Dubey, J. P., and Dittus, W. P. J. (2004). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. The Journal of Parasitology 90, 870–871.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2cvkvFagsg%3D%3D&md5=fe75148970128fc4c2680fbbe1f261ccCAS | 15357087PubMed |

Esteves, F., Aguiar, D., Rosado, J., Costa, M. L., de Sousa, B., Antunes, F., and Matos, O. (2014). Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in cats from Lisbon and in pigs from centre and south of Portugal. Veterinary Parasitology 200, 8–12.
Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in cats from Lisbon and in pigs from centre and south of Portugal.CrossRef | 24418601PubMed |

Eymann, J., Herbert, C. A., Cooper, D. W., and Dubey, J. P. (2006). Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) from urban Sydney, Australia. The Journal of Parasitology 92, 267–272.
Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) from urban Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 16729682PubMed |

Frenkel, J. K. (1970). Pursuing toxoplasma. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 122, 553–559.
Pursuing toxoplasma.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE3M%2Fmt1KhsA%3D%3D&md5=033d9458083cc36408f1a264b73ff904CAS | 4922985PubMed |

Frenkel, J. K. (1973). Toxoplasmosis: parasite life cycle, pathology and immunology. In ‘The Coccidia’. (Eds D. A. Hammond and P. L. Long.) pp. 343–410. (Baltimore University Park Press: Baltimore, MD.)

Frenkel, J. K. (1974). Breaking the transmission chain of Toxoplasma: a program for the prevention of human toxoplasmosis. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 50, 228–235.
| 1:STN:280:DyaE2c7gs1Wnuw%3D%3D&md5=21fcb474bb06a15eb0199eee59ddf6cfCAS | 4521730PubMed |

Frenkel, J. K., Dubey, J. P., and Miller, N. L. (1970). Toxoplasma gondii in cats: fecal stages identified as coccidian oocysts. Science 167, 893–896.
Toxoplasma gondii in cats: fecal stages identified as coccidian oocysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE3c%2Fot1Kguw%3D%3D&md5=7f0e4329e57e1e34c52a8830c50810a7CAS | 4903651PubMed |

Frenkel, J. K., Ruiz, A., and Chinchilla, M. (1975). Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24, 439–443.
| 1:STN:280:DyaE2M3it12jsw%3D%3D&md5=ffd8c268b9e7cb484997ee7c32f6360fCAS | 1098494PubMed |

Frenkel, J. K., Hassanein, K. M., Hassanein, R. S., Brown, E., Thulliez, P., and Quinteronunez, R. (1995). Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Panama City, Panama: a five-year prospective cohort study of children, cats, rodents, birds, and soil. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53, 458–468.
| 1:STN:280:DyaK28%2FpsVyisQ%3D%3D&md5=1f8bdb6c0099928d5018392463b7c011CAS | 7485703PubMed |

Galvan-Ramirez, M., Sanchez-Orozco, L., Rodriguez, L., Rodriguez, S., Roig-Melo, E., Troyo Sanroman, R., Chiquete, E., and Armendariz-Borunda, J. (2013). Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in drivers involved in road traffic accidents in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Parasites & Vectors 6, 294.
Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in drivers involved in road traffic accidents in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.CrossRef |

Garven, A. (1957). Toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis of clinical and latent infection in Australia. Australasian Annals of Medicine 6, 141–144.
| 1:STN:280:DyaG2s%2Fpt1Cisw%3D%3D&md5=86a5082b14f8c6c7d56713a2e27ae6b7CAS | 13445638PubMed |

Gauss, C. B. L., Almería, S., Ortuño, A., Garcia, F., and Dubey, J. P. (2003). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from Barcelona, Spain. The Journal of Parasitology 89, 1067–1068.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from Barcelona, Spain.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3srkslOhtw%3D%3D&md5=d9407d119645da20586c3c8fc280e5c6CAS |

Gregory, G. G., and Munday, B. L. (1976). Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian midlands and King Island. Australian Veterinary Journal 52, 317–320.
Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian midlands and King Island.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE2s%2FksVenuw%3D%3D&md5=a2c022684030dab2d0b595ccf3cebce3CAS | 985246PubMed |

Hamidinejat, H., Mosalanejad, B., Avizeh, R., Razi Jalali, M. H., Ghorbanpour, M., and Namavari, M. (2011). Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Ahvaz feral cats, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 4, 217–222.

Hartley, W. J., and Marshall, S. C. (1957). Toxoplasmosis as a cause of ovine perinatal mortality. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 5, 119–124.
Toxoplasmosis as a cause of ovine perinatal mortality.CrossRef |

Hartley, W. J., and Munday, B. L. (1974). Felidae in the dissemination of toxoplasmosis to man and other animals. Australian Veterinary Journal 50, 224–228.
Felidae in the dissemination of toxoplasmosis to man and other animals.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE2M%2FhtVWjtQ%3D%3D&md5=4f24ac02687e6233486c7e07c0df5602CAS | 4413452PubMed |

Hawkins, C. E., Baars, C., Hesterman, H., Hocking, G. J., Jones, M. E., Lazenby, B., Mann, D., Mooney, N., Pemberton, D., Pyecroft, S., Restani, M., and Wiersma, J. (2006). Emerging disease and population decline of an island endemic, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii. Biological Conservation 131, 307–324.
Emerging disease and population decline of an island endemic, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii.CrossRef |

Hay, J., Aitken, P., Hutchison, W., and Graham, D. (1983a). The effect of congenital and adult-acquired Toxoplasma infections on the motor performance of mice. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 77, 261–277.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL2c%2Fit1Okuw%3D%3D&md5=372fe830991f42454ade5fc56e69fdfaCAS | 6625726PubMed |

Hay, J., Hutchison, W. M., Aitken, P. P., and Graham, D. I. (1983b). The effect of congenital and adult-acquired Toxoplasma infections on activity and responsiveness to novel stimulation in mice. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 77, 483–495.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL2c7gtlemtQ%3D%3D&md5=23ed7d10a367dece34047ffb1c204dc8CAS | 6660954PubMed |

Hayward, M. W., and Marlow, N. (2014). Will dingoes really conserve wildlife and can our methods tell? Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 835–838.
Will dingoes really conserve wildlife and can our methods tell?CrossRef |

Hill, D., and Dubey, J. (2002). Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 8, 634–640.
Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD38njt1emtA%3D%3D&md5=f62e26d8e01d8c65452ee3d55fd6134bCAS | 12390281PubMed |

Hill, D. E., Chirukandoth, S., and Dubey, J. P. (2005). Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals. Animal Health Research Reviews 6, 41–61.
Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals.CrossRef | 16164008PubMed |

Hollings, T., Jones, M., Mooney, N., and McCallum, H. (2013). Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2, 110–118.
| 24533323PubMed |

Hollings, T., Jones, M., Mooney, N., and McCallum, H. (2014). Trophic cascades following the disease-induced decline of an apex predator, the Tasmanian devil. Conservation Biology 28, 63–75.
Trophic cascades following the disease-induced decline of an apex predator, the Tasmanian devil.CrossRef | 24024987PubMed |

Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6, 65–70.

Hutchison, W. M. (1965). Experimental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. Nature 206, 961–962.
Experimental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaF28%2FjsFGgsA%3D%3D&md5=27acca93329ad4bfc34f01d7e9622161CAS | 5839865PubMed |

Hutchison, W. M., Bradley, M., Cheyne, W. M., Wells, B. W. P., and Hay, J. (1980). Behavioural abnormalities in Toxoplasma-infected mice. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 74, 337–345.

Innes, E. A. (1997). Toxoplasmosis: comparative species susceptibility and host immune response. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 20, 131–138.
Toxoplasmosis: comparative species susceptibility and host immune response.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2szltF2itA%3D%3D&md5=f795ea2415a371427df0e008ebb01691CAS | 9208198PubMed |

Jakob-Hoff, R. M., and Dunsmore, J. D. (1983). Epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in southern Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 60, 217–218.
Epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in southern Western Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL2c%2Flt1artw%3D%3D&md5=5fa7957b834450333f9d73a791597f50CAS | 6639518PubMed |

Jennis, F. (1963). Toxoplasmosis in New South Wales. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 41, 187–197.
Toxoplasmosis in New South Wales.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaF387ls1Cisw%3D%3D&md5=9a2ea88053f764a1e12b5bc3a71bf702CAS | 13964648PubMed |

Johnson, A. M., Roberts, H., and Munday, B. L. (1988). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild macropods. Australian Veterinary Journal 65, 199–201.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild macropods.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1czjvFOmsw%3D%3D&md5=7b8fd981d865567d1e08ba625cda5a02CAS | 3421883PubMed |

Jones, E., and Coman, B. (1982). Ecology of the feral cat, Felis catus (L.), in south-eastern Australia. III. Home ranges and population ecology in semiarid north-west Victoria. Wildlife Research 9, 409–420.
Ecology of the feral cat, Felis catus (L.), in south-eastern Australia. III. Home ranges and population ecology in semiarid north-west Victoria.CrossRef |

Karunajeewa, H., Siebert, D., Hammond, R., Garland, S., and Kelly, H. (2001). Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus, parvovirus B19 and Toxoplasma gondii in a Melbourne obstetric population: implications for management. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 41, 23–28.
Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus, parvovirus B19 and Toxoplasma gondii in a Melbourne obstetric population: implications for management.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MvjsVKrtQ%3D%3D&md5=556eefcc13282de29c074e77935edf8eCAS | 11284642PubMed |

Kulasena, V. A., Rajapakse, R. P. V. J., Dubey, J. P., Dayawansa, P. N., and Premawansa, S. (2011). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka. The Journal of Parasitology 97, 152.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M3hvValtA%3D%3D&md5=56d0a7888100b48579f6028a5ffae9e5CAS | 21348625PubMed |

Lickey, A. L. A., Kennedy, M., Patton, S., and Ramsay, E. C. (2005). Serologic survey of domestic felids in the Petén region of Guatemala. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36, 121–123.
Serologic survey of domestic felids in the Petén region of Guatemala.CrossRef |

Lopes, A. P., Cardoso, L., and Rodrigues, M. (2008). Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal. Veterinary Parasitology 155, 184–189.
Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal.CrossRef | 18571327PubMed |

Lukešová, D., and Literák, I. (1998). Shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by Felidae in zoos in the Czech Republic. Veterinary Parasitology 74, 1–7.
Shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by Felidae in zoos in the Czech Republic.CrossRef | 9493305PubMed |

Macrì, G., Sala, M., Linder, A., Pettirossi, N., and Scarpulla, M. (2009). Comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detecting Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies in dog and cat. Parasitology Research 105, 35–40.
Comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detecting Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies in dog and cat.CrossRef | 19221795PubMed |

Mahon, P. S., Banks, P. B., and Dickman, C. R. (1998). Population indices for wild carnivores: a critical study in sand-dune habitat, south-western Queensland. Wildlife Research 25, 11–22.
Population indices for wild carnivores: a critical study in sand-dune habitat, south-western Queensland.CrossRef |

Mancianti, F., Nardoni, S., Ariti, G., Parlanti, D., Giuliani, G., and Papini, R. A. (2010). Cross-sectional survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in colony cats from urban Florence (Italy). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 12, 351–354.
Cross-sectional survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in colony cats from urban Florence (Italy).CrossRef | 19811938PubMed |

McOrist, S., and Smales, L. (1986). Morbidity and mortality of free-living and captive echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus (Shaw), in Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 22, 375–380.
Morbidity and mortality of free-living and captive echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus (Shaw), in Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL283ot1Sgug%3D%3D&md5=968696050a29bee368fabc42b90045a9CAS | 3735583PubMed |

Millán, J., Cabezón, O., Pabón, M., Dubey, J. P., and Almería, S. (2009). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Veterinary Parasitology 165, 323–326.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain.CrossRef | 19665309PubMed |

Miller, N. L., Frenkel, J. K., and Dubey, J. P. (1972). Oral infections with Toxoplasma cysts and oocysts in felines, other mammals and in birds. The Journal of Parasitology 58, 928–937.
Oral infections with Toxoplasma cysts and oocysts in felines, other mammals and in birds.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE3s%2Fit1emtg%3D%3D&md5=64df8405839fabe43f8861b7fdf43f46CAS | 5078599PubMed |

Milstein, T. C., and Goldsmid, J. M. (1997). Parasites of feral cats from southern Tasmania and their potential significance. Australian Veterinary Journal 75, 218–219.
Parasites of feral cats from southern Tasmania and their potential significance.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2s3ktlKktQ%3D%3D&md5=d53622fbd82920ae2e44d9968aa1ded9CAS | 9088518PubMed |

Molsher, R., Newsome, A., and Dickman, C. (1999). Feeding ecology and population dynamics of the feral cat (Felis catus) in relation to the availability of prey in central-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 26, 593–607.
Feeding ecology and population dynamics of the feral cat (Felis catus) in relation to the availability of prey in central-eastern New South Wales.CrossRef |

Molsher, R., Dickman, C., Newsome, A., and Müller, W. (2005). Home ranges of feral cats (Felis catus) in central-western New South Wales, Australia. Wildlife Research 32, 587–595.
Home ranges of feral cats (Felis catus) in central-western New South Wales, Australia.CrossRef |

Morrison, R. G. B. (1981). ‘A Field Guide to Tracks and Traces of Australian Animals.’ (Rigby Publishers: Hong Kong.)

Moseby, K. E., Stott, J., and Crisp, H. (2009). Movement patterns of feral predators in an arid environment – implications for control through poison baiting. Wildlife Research 36, 422–435.
Movement patterns of feral predators in an arid environment – implications for control through poison baiting.CrossRef |

Moura, L., Kelly, P., Krecek, R. C., and Dubey, J. P. (2007). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from St. Kitts, West Indies. The Journal of Parasitology 93, 952–953.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from St. Kitts, West Indies.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2srps1Sntw%3D%3D&md5=14b43bff0854f69e5ffa338abfb3ecf9CAS | 17918385PubMed |

Munday, B. L. (1970). The epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis with particular reference to the Tasmanian environment. M.V.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne.

Nutter, F. B., Dubey, J. P., Levine, J. F., Breitschwerdt, E. B., Ford, R. B., and Stoskopf, M. K. (2004). Seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225, 1394–1398.
Seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats.CrossRef | 15552314PubMed |

O’Callaghan, M., Reddin, J., and Dehmann, D. (2005). Helminth and protozoan parasites of feral cats from Kangaroo Island. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129, 81–83.

Obendorf, D. L., and Munday, B. L. (1983). Toxoplasmosis in wild Tasmanian wallabies. Australian Veterinary Journal 60, 62.
Toxoplasmosis in wild Tasmanian wallabies.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL3s7nslyqtQ%3D%3D&md5=d9f082f02c250eebd81c9a5db75a9ce2CAS | 6838441PubMed |

Obendorf, D. L., and Munday, B. L. (1990). Toxoplasmosis in wild eastern barred bandicoots Perameles gunnii. In ‘Bandicoots and Bilbies’. (Eds J. H. Seebeck, P. R. Brown, R. L. Wallis and C. M. Kemper.) pp. 193–197. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

Obendorf, D., Statham, P., and Driessen, M. (1996). Detection of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from free-ranging eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32, 623–626.
Detection of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from free-ranging eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1c%2Fitl2qtA%3D%3D&md5=ef161d4614fe7774d837cf915c4251c1CAS | 9359062PubMed |

Parameswaran, N. (2008). Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials. Ph.D. Thesis, Murdoch University, Perth.

Parameswaran, N., O’Handley, R. M., Grigg, M. E., Wayne, A., and Thompson, R. C. (2009). Vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials. Parasitology 136, 939–944.
Vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MvotFamtA%3D%3D&md5=f756f34c2cd112b94ed280f77ab2eb5bCAS | 19549348PubMed |

Pedersen, M. G., Stevens, H., Pedersen, C. B., Nørgaard-Pedersen, B., and Mortensen, P. B. (2011). Toxoplasma infection and later development of schizophrenia in mothers. The American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 814–821.
Toxoplasma infection and later development of schizophrenia in mothers.CrossRef | 21536690PubMed |

Pena, H. F. J., Soares, R. M., Amaku, M., Dubey, J. P., and Gennari, S. M. (2006). Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats from São Paulo state, Brazil: seroprevalence, oocyst shedding, isolation in mice, and biologic and molecular characterization. Research in Veterinary Science 81, 58–67.
Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats from São Paulo state, Brazil: seroprevalence, oocyst shedding, isolation in mice, and biologic and molecular characterization.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xit1Cksrc%3D&md5=c0b6b10612cb10a0c3eddc9c817a1dabCAS |

Pusch, L., Romeike, B., Deckert, M., and Mawrin, C. (2009). Persistent toxoplasma bradyzoite cysts in the brain: incidental finding in an immunocompetent patient without evidence of a toxoplasmosis. Clinical Neuropathology 28, 210–212.
Persistent toxoplasma bradyzoite cysts in the brain: incidental finding in an immunocompetent patient without evidence of a toxoplasmosis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MvivVGjuw%3D%3D&md5=0cc225dfcce80b2179afd886f2b20609CAS | 19537140PubMed |

R Development Core Team (2013). ‘R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.’ (R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna.)

Santana, L. F., Rossi, G. A. M., Gaspar, R. C., Pinto, V. M. R., Oliveira, G. P. D., and Costa, A. J. D. (2013). Evidence of sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats. Small Ruminant Research 115, 130–133.
Evidence of sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats.CrossRef |

Skerratt, L. F., Phelan, J., McFarlane, R., and Speare, R. (1997). Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a common wombat. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33, 346–351.
Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a common wombat.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2s3nvVansg%3D%3D&md5=87f5911f2526a6b7b07d9a411b607eedCAS | 9131574PubMed |

Smith, K. E., Zimmerman, J. J., Patton, S., Beran, G. W., and Hill, H. T. (1992). The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals. Veterinary Parasitology 42, 199–211.
The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK38zlvVyisA%3D%3D&md5=c5bf6f1e40af0b349e8c83dd71500987CAS | 1496780PubMed |

Sumner, B., and Ackland, M. L. (1999). Toxoplasma gondii antibody in domestic cats in Melbourne. Australian Veterinary Journal 77, 447–449.
Toxoplasma gondii antibody in domestic cats in Melbourne.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1MzotFSgtQ%3D%3D&md5=e117e0288fee739aca2616df5c9891f2CAS | 10451730PubMed |

Szabo, K. A., Mense, M. G., Lipscomb, T. P., Felix, K. J., and Dubey, J. P. (2004). Fatal toxoplasmosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The Journal of Parasitology 90, 907–908.
Fatal toxoplasmosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2cvkvFantw%3D%3D&md5=c77b1e863a263601d249013de780620bCAS | 15357102PubMed |

Tenter, A. M., Heckeroth, A. R., and Weiss, L. M. (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology 30, 1217–1258.
Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MzgsVSqsA%3D%3D&md5=9f5fca3b2c792b7ea393e68fa7b9ef20CAS | 11113252PubMed |

Tiao, N., Darrington, C., Molla, B., Saville, W., Tilahun, G., Kwok, O., Gebreyes, W., Lappin, M., Jones, J., and Dubey, J. (2013). An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Epidemiology and Infection 141, 1029–1033.
An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXkvFKqsLw%3D&md5=805d286d2119bb90cf13cd3e55b3fd5cCAS | 22857007PubMed |

Triggs, B. (2004). ‘Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: a Field Guide to Australian Mammals.’ (Oxford University Press: Melbourne.)

Villard, O., Cimon, B., Franck, J., Fricker-Hidalgo, H., Godineau, N., Houze, S., Paris, L., Pelloux, H., Villena, I., and Candolfi, E. (2012). Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 73, 231–235.
Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.CrossRef | 22541791PubMed |

Vyas, A., Kim, S. K., Giacomini, N., Boothroyd, J. C., and Sapolsky, R. M. (2007). Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 6442–6447.
Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXks1Sntbg%3D&md5=dedd1a10b047f0f465fbe58a83d83856CAS | 17404235PubMed |

Wallace, G. D. (1969). Serologic and epidemiologic observations on toxoplasmosis on three Pacific atolls. American Journal of Epidemiology 90, 103–111.
| 1:STN:280:DyaF1M3mslWgtg%3D%3D&md5=e54748592a39c7e7937769c6ef9d9d53CAS | 5817004PubMed |

Wallace, G. D. (1976). The prevalence of toxoplasmosis on Pacific islands, and the influence of ethnic group. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 25, 48–53.
| 1:STN:280:DyaE287lvVCqsQ%3D%3D&md5=27fcf4f3e8d514bb3c439528c6fa29b6CAS | 1259082PubMed |

Watson, A. D. J., Farrow, B. R. H., and McDonald, P. J. (1982). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pet dogs and cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 58, 213–214.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pet dogs and cats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL3s%2FkvVSrtg%3D%3D&md5=2b04143a434ffb44bcd41f76d3a36e2dCAS |

Webster, J. P., Brunton, C. F. A., and Macdonald, D. W. (1994). Effect of Toxoplasma gondii upon neophobic behaviour in wild brown rats, Rattus norvegicus. Parasitology 109, 37–43.
Effect of Toxoplasma gondii upon neophobic behaviour in wild brown rats, Rattus norvegicus.CrossRef | 8058367PubMed |

Wolf, A., Cowen, D., and Paige, B. (1939). Human toxoplasmosis: occurrence in infants as an encephalomyelitis verification by transmission to animals. Science 89, 226–227.
Human toxoplasmosis: occurrence in infants as an encephalomyelitis verification by transmission to animals.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvmslWluw%3D%3D&md5=4f6feb7efc5b701f281f7418e53877ceCAS | 17737029PubMed |

Work, T., Massey, J., Rideout, B., Gardiner, C., Ledig, D., Kwok, O., and Dubey, J. (2000). Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered ‘Alala from Hawaii’. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36, 205–212.
Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered ‘Alala from Hawaii’.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3czosl2htw%3D%3D&md5=cda93fc2e378a4a56644e17808f4a0eeCAS | 10813600PubMed |

Yilmaz, S. M., and Hopkins, S. H. (1972). Effects of different conditions on duration of infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. The Journal of Parasitology 58, 938–939.
Effects of different conditions on duration of infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE3s%2Fit1emtw%3D%3D&md5=55b232b278513332129e706bc325c522CAS | 5078600PubMed |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (6)

View Altmetrics