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Pacific Conservation Biology
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  A journal dedicated to conservation and wildlife management in the Pacific region.
 
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Pacific Conservation Biology provides a forum for discussion about regional conservation problems; debate about priorities and mechanisms for conservation oriented biological research; and dissemination of the results of relevant research.

Editor-in-Chief: Mike Calver

 

 
 
 

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Published online 27 May 2016
Australia's wetlands – learning from the past to manage for the future 
G. Bino, R. T. Kingsford and K. Brandis

We reviewed knowledge about the extent of wetlands, representativeness, impacts and threats to integrity and options for effective conservation. Management and policy for wetlands is dependent on knowledge of distribution, type and extent of wetlands, a key national constraint. Mitigation of increasing development (e.g. northern Australia) will be critical for conservation, along with adequate representation in protected areas, and restoration, particularly with environmental flows.

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Published online 24 May 2016
Approaches to strategic risk analysis and management of invasive plants: lessons learned from managing gamba grass in northern Australia 
Vanessa M. Adams and Samantha A. Setterfield

Invasive species are a major threat in Oceania (and globally), but there is a of lack methods to prioritise limited management funds. This paper reviews risk assessment components and available tools for each component that can be applied in data-limited environments, such as is often the case in Oceania.

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Published online 10 May 2016
Limitations of biophysical habitats as biodiversity surrogates in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park 
Susan E. Jackson and Carolyn J. Lundquist

A habitat classification system identified 46 biophysical habitat types in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. Existing marine protection does not include a majority of habitats, and includes on average only 2.28% of demersal fish species’ ranges. Furthermore, habitats were poorly correlated with demersal fish biodiversity.

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Published online 06 May 2016
Deforestation in Australia: drivers, trends and policy responses 
Megan C. Evans

Deforestation remains a significant threat to Australia’s biodiversity. I provide a detailed critique of the native vegetation policies introduced across Australia over the last 40 years, and quantify deforestation trends from 1972–2014. A more effective policy mix, with a greater focus on monitoring, evaluation and policy learning, is needed to curb deforestation in Australia.

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Published online 22 April 2016
Discovery of an important aggregation area for endangered scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, in the Rewa River estuary, Fiji Islands 
Kelly T. Brown, Johnson Seeto, Monal M. Lal and Cara E. Miller

We explored reports that the Rewa River estuary in Fiji is a nursery area for the scalloped hammerhead shark. Results showed that juveniles do occupy the estuary, with analyses of umbilical scars and stomach contents indicating its importance as an aggregation area for the species, necessitating fishery management and protection.

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Published online 19 April 2016
Systematic conservation planning within a Fijian customary governance context 
Hans K. Wendt, Rebecca Weeks, James Comley and William Aalbersberg

We describe a process undertaken by local scientists and communities to redesign a system of locally managed marine protected areas to better achieve both local and provincial objectives. This represents one of the first attempts to use systematic conservation planning tools to inform customary governance of natural resources, providing an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in this context.

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Published online 08 April 2016
Empowering citizens to effect change – a case study of zoo-based community conservation 
Emily Dunstan, Belinda Fairbrother and Monique Van Sluys

We critically examine a community conservation campaign aimed at increasing uptake of sustainable palm oil (and thus reducing the use of unsustainable palm oil) led by zoos in Australia and New Zealand. We share the elements of success and key learning to build understanding and improvement of these programs globally.

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Published online 07 March 2016
The context and potential sustainability of traditional terrestrial periodic tambu areas: insights from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 
Nathan Whitmore, John Lamaris, Wallace Takendu, Daniel Charles, Terence Chuwek, Brian Mohe, Lucas Kanau and Stanley Pe-eu

No-take tambu areas are an indigenous resource management tool found in Melanesia characterised by a cycle of resource closure followed by instantaneous harvest. We review the use of the method to restock areas with Admiralty cuscus and examine the plausibility of population recovery given differing time intervals and harvest rates.

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Published online 04 March 2016
Emerging threats to biosecurity in Australasia: the need for an integrated management strategy 
M. J. Lott and K. Rose

This review explores how more comprehensive biosecurity initiatives might be implemented in the Australasia region through the adoption of robust pre-border and border quarantine practices, the use of emerging technologies to improve border and post-border biosurveillance and monitoring, and the integration of multiple social, economic and ecological objectives into a more holistic management paradigm.

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Published online 04 March 2016
Conservation Science Statement 1. The demise of New Zealand's freshwater flora and fauna: a forgotten treasure 
Emily S. Weeks, Russell G. Death, Kyleisha Foote, Rosalynn Anderson-Lederer, Michael K. Joy and Paul Boyce

New Zealand has some of the highest levels of threatened freshwater species in the world but this is often ignored in favour of managing water quality. To improve this we must change legislation to protect endangered species, and their habitats, include habitat protection in the National Objectives Framework (NOF), establish monitoring of threatened invertebrates, better manage riparian zones and include wetlands, estuaries, and groundwater ecosystems in the NOF.

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Published online 19 February 2016
Diversity and current conservation status of Melanesian–New Zealand placostyline land snails (Gastropoda:Bothriembryontidae), with discussion of conservation imperatives, priorities and methodology issues 
Gary M. Barker, Gilianne Brodie, Lia Bogitini and Helen Pippard

Knowledge and conservation effort have a spatial bias. While New Zealand–Lorde Howe–New Caledonia taxa receive much needed conservation attention, those efforts are spatially discordant with the Fiji–Vanuatu–Solomon Islands centre of diversity and the emerging need in those regions for conservation action due to pressures from human activities and invasive species.

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Published online 12 February 2016
Factors affecting frog density in the Solomon Islands 
Patrick Pikacha, Chris Filardi, Clare Morrison and Luke Leung

This paper identifies some important factors affecting the density of frogs in the Solomon Islands. Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) was used to select the most parsimonious model of frog density. Factors identified in the selected model to predict density of 16 species were island, landform, and forest type. These findings have important management implications for the conservation of frogs in the Solomon Islands.

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Published online 15 January 2016
Freshwater ichthyofauna of the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) Gateway in Viti Levu, Fiji 
Lekima K. F. Copeland, David T. Boseto and Aaron P. Jenkins

The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) in Fiji has resulted in new records and new species of freshwater fish. The fauna along this transect is being threatened by reduction in forest catchment cover, construction of dams and weirs along migration routes. Several of the species are important food and totems to Fijians.

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blank image Pacific Conservation Biology
Volume 22 Number 1 2016

 
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Table of Contents 
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Teaching and research: challenges for academic staff 
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Sue Briggs
pp. 1-2
 
 

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Does the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) exhibit agonistic pectoral fin depression? A stereo-video photogrammetric assessment off eastern Australia 
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Kirby R. Smith , Carol Scarpaci , Brett M. Louden and Nicholas M. Otway
pp. 3-11

Grey nurse shark pectoral fin positions during normal swimming were documented using stereo-video photogrammetry. Dihedral pectoral fin angles ranged from –25° to 88° and varied significantly among sites, which was attributed to differing navigational/energetic requirements. There was no significant relationship between pectoral fin angles and distances of sharks from divers.

 
  
 

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Tussock and sod tussock grasslands of the New England Tablelands Bioregion of eastern Australia 
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John T. Hunter and Vanessa H. Hunter
pp. 12-19

The natural temperate montane grasslands of the New England Bioregion of New South Wales are for the first time described. These grasslands are primarily of a wet tussock type. Their phytosociology, occurrence and threats are described. Only 10% (2500 ha) is likely to be in high quality condition.

 
  
 

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Indicators of herbivorous fish biomass in community-based marine management areas in Fiji 
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Simon Albert , Alifereti Tawake , Ron Vave , Paul Fisher and Alistair Grinham
pp. 20-28

Using algal, fish and reef indicators we provide a rapid assessment method of herbivorous fishes in Locally Managed Marine Areas in Fiji. Generally, reefs with higher herbivore biomass had a diverse low biomass of algae. These results show that simple indicators can be a useful addition to the existing local knowledge that underpins community-based management

 
  
 

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Incidental impacts from major road construction on one of Asia’s most important wetlands: the Inner Gulf of Thailand 
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Naruemon Tantipisanuh , George A. Gale and Philip D. Round
pp. 29-36

This paper investigated the impacts of roads on land-use change in a coastal area of Thailand. We found that the rate of land-use change from semi-natural habitats to human-dominated habitats was negatively correlated with distance from major roads. Most of the converted salt-pans were lost to aquaculture.

 
  
 

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Quality not quantity: conserving species of low mobility and dispersal capacity in south-western Australian urban remnants 
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Leanda Denise Mason , Grant Wardell-Johnson and Barbara York Main
pp. 37-47

Urban remnant vegetation persists as patches of varying size and degree of disturbance throughout the Perth metropolitan area in south-western Australia. Nemesiidae, a mygalomorph spider clade, have low mobility and dispersal capabilities. Invasive weeds and rabbits were found to be most detrimental to Nemesiidae presence in urban remnant vegetation patches.

 
  
 

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Camera traps in the canopy: surveying wildlife at tree hollow entrances 
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Nigel Cotsell and Karl Vernes
pp. 48-60

This research uses camera trap technology to examine wildlife at tree hollow entrances over a three-month period in the sclerophyll forests of north-east New South Wales. Anthropogenic disturbance, including the level of vegetation modification of the understorey was shown to be a significant predictor of arboreal species presence and abundance.

 
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Assessment of the network of protected areas for birds in Taiwan with regard to functional and phylogenetic diversity 
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Hungyen Chen , Satoshi Nagai and Hirohisa Kishino
pp. 61-71

We explored the spatial distribution of bird species, and functional and phylogenetic diversity relative to elevational gradient in Taiwan. Our results indicate that the bird-protected areas in Taiwan may have been established with an over-dependence on species richness but overlooked the importance of phylogenetic diversity.

 
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Does the whale shark aggregate along the Western Australian coastline beyond Ningaloo Reef? 
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Bradley M. Norman , Samantha Reynolds and David L. Morgan
pp. 72-80

The use of satellite tracking, citizen science and photo-identification demonstrates that whale sharks that aggregate at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, migrate north and/or south along the expansive Western Australian coast, before returning to Ningaloo in the austral autumn.

 
  
 

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Book reviews 
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pp. 81-83
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The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 26 June 2015
Conservation, mismatch and the research–implementation gap

R. M. Jarvis, S. B. Borrelle, B. Bollard Breen and D. R. Towns

2. Deforestation in Australia: drivers, trends and policy responses

Megan C. Evans

3. Published 1 May 2015
Cold-blooded indifference: a case study of the worsening status of threatened reptiles from Victoria, Australia

Nick Clemann

4. Published 26 June 2015
Multiple paternity in captive grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus): implications for the captive breeding of this critically endangered species

Robert Townsend, Adam Stow, Maria Asmyhr and Paolo Momigliano

5. Published 16 October 2015
Integrating rehabilitation, restoration and conservation for a sustainable jarrah forest future during climate disruption

Grant W. Wardell-Johnson, Michael Calver, Neil Burrows and Giovanni Di Virgilio

6. Published 22 December 2015
Ignoring the science in failing to conserve a faunal icon – major political, policy and management problems in preventing the extinction of Leadbeater’s possum

David B. Lindenmayer, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney and Sam C. Banks

7. Published 1 May 2015
Failure of science, death of nature

Harry F. Recher

8. Published 26 June 2015
Mapping seagrass cost-effectively in the Coral Triangle: Sabah, Malaysia as a case study

Leela Rajamani and Helene Marsh

9. Published 22 December 2015
A diagnostic framework for biodiversity conservation institutions

Sarah Clement, Susan A. Moore, Michael Lockwood and Tiffany H. Morrison

10. Published 1 April 2016
Camera traps in the canopy: surveying wildlife at tree hollow entrances

Nigel Cotsell and Karl Vernes

11. Published 1 April 2016
Does the whale shark aggregate along the Western Australian coastline beyond Ningaloo Reef?

Bradley M. Norman, Samantha Reynolds and David L. Morgan

12. Published 22 December 2015
The need for a comprehensive reassessment of the Regional Forest Agreements in Australia

David B. Lindenmayer, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney and Sam C. Banks

13. Published 26 June 2015
Insights into the attributes of Pacific Island destinations that appeal to avitourists

Rochelle Steven

14. Published 26 June 2015
Non-target species interaction with sodium fluoroacetate (1080) meat bait for controlling feral pigs (Sus scrofa)

Amanda Millar, Matthew Gentle and Luke K.-P. Leung

15. Published 16 October 2015
Fauna-rescue programs can successfully relocate vertebrate fauna prior to and during vegetation-clearing programs

Scott A. Thompson and Graham G. Thompson

16. Published 1 May 2015
Enhancing legal frameworks for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific

Erika J. Techera

17. Published 26 June 2015
Satellite tracking of rehabilitated wild Baudin’s cockatoos, Calyptorhynchus baudinii: a feasibility trial to track forest black cockatoos

Lian Yeap, Jill M. Shephard, Anna Le Souef, Carly Holyoake, Christine Groom, Rick Dawson, Tony Kirkby and Kristin Warren

18. Published 1 May 2015
Distribution, population structure, and management of a rare sandalwood (Santalum yasi, Santalaceae) in Fiji and Tonga

Ryan D. Huish, Tevita Faka'osi, Heimuli Likiafu, Joseva Mateboto and Katherine H. Huish

19. Published 16 October 2015
What factors affect the density of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in the Solomon Islands?

Patrick Pikacha, Tyrone Lavery and Luke K.-P. Leung

20. Published 16 October 2015
Natural history and conservation biology of the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris): a review

N. J. Collar


      
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