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Pacific Conservation Biology
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  A journal dedicated to conservation and wildlife management in the Pacific region.
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Pacific Conservation Biology provides a forum for discussion about regional conservation problems; debate about priorities and mechanisms for conservation oriented biological research; and dissemination of the results of relevant research.

Editor-in-Chief: Mike Calver



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Published online 27 June 2016
An evaluation and comparison of spatial modelling applications for the management of biodiversity: a case study on the fragmented landscapes of south-western Australia 
Shaun W. Molloy, Robert A. Davis and Eddie J. B. Van Etten

Spatial modelling tools are increasingly used in biodiversity conservation planning but with many approaches it is often difficult to know which to employ. Using a case study in a biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated five commonly used modelling techniques and found that none of the applications used met all our criteria. Consequently, we advocate a hybrid approach of multiple techniques to identify, quantify and ameliorate threats to regional biota.

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Published online 24 June 2016
Changes in habitat use and distribution of mouflon in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park 
Bronson Palupe, Christina R. Leopold, Steven C. Hess, Jonathan K. Faford, Dexter Pacheco and Seth W. Judge

European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) have become invasive in Hawai‘i and other locations. Eradication of mouflon has been difficult because their behaviour is not like that of feral domestic ungulates. Our results suggest that the habitat use and distribution of mouflon also changes in response to extended eradication efforts.

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Published online 20 June 2016
Fauna-rescue programs highlight unresolved scientific, ethical and animal welfare issues 
Peter Menkhorst, Nick Clemann and Joanna Sumner

In response to a paper advocating large-scale, multi-species ‘fauna-rescue’ programs when habitat is being destroyed, we urge caution by highlighting the lack of evidence of success in such programs. We argue that any benefits are likely to be outweighed by ecological and animal welfare risks, and that any conservation gains are likely to be illusionary.

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Published online 20 June 2016
Population genetic structure of the goby Stiphodon rutilaureus (Gobiidae) in the New Georgia Group, Solomon Islands 
David T. Boseto, Sharon J. Furiness Magnuson and Frank L. Pezold

The Stiphodon rutilaureus in the New Georgia Group, Solomon Islands were studied using mitochondrial analysis and microsatellites. The results indicate low or no population structure among populations of amphidromous sicydiine goby species on different islands within an archipelago. This study provides suggestions for management and conservation of fragile aquatic species.

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Published online 20 June 2016
Response to ‘Fauna-rescue programs highlight unresolved scientific, ethical and animal welfare issues’ by Menkhorst et al. 
Scott A. Thompson and Graham G. Thompson

There is limited knowledge on the success or failure of fauna relocations associated with vegetation clearing programs. This paper comments on issues raised by other authors and provides some suggested guidelines that can be applied in the absence of scientific evidence.

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Published online 17 June 2016
Disappearing jewels: an urgent need for conservation of Fiji’s partulid tree snail fauna 
Gilianne Brodie, Gary M. Barker, Helen Pippard, Cindy S. Bick and Diarmaid Ó Foighil

Fiji has >240 species of native terrestrial snails with an endemism level of ~80%. Information on four potentially threatened endemic Partulidae species is urgently needed. The descriptive information reported here will raise awareness of these tree snails, particularly for remote island communities that have little knowledge of the snail’s uniqueness or threatened conservation status.

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Published online 07 June 2016
Cetacean diversity, common occurrence and community importance in Fijian waters 
Cara Miller, Aisake Batibasaga, Prerna Chand, Sirilo Dulunaqio, Margaret Fox, Stacy Jupiter, Waisea Naisilisili, Yashika Nand, Saras Sharma-Gounder and Brian Smith

This article synthesises disparate data sources to develop a baseline of both confirmed and probable cetacean species, as well as identify areas of common occurrence and community importance within the Fijian Economic Exclusive Zone.

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Published online 06 June 2016
Placing the Fijian Honeyeaters within the meliphagid radiation: implications for origins and conservation 
Mere Yabaki, Richard C. Winkworth, Patricia A. McLenachan, William Aalbersberg, Linton Winder, Steven A. Trewick and Peter J. Lockhart

Discordance between marker loci causes uncertainty at deep levels within the honeyeater phylogeny. This implies that evolutionary diversity metrics, and any conservation decisions based on them, may be misleading. Phylogenetic relationships are clearer for the Fijian species, suggesting at least two colonisations followed by diversification and dispersal to other islands. This finding suggests that conservation effort in Polynesia needs to be spread across both taxa and islands.

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Published online 22 April 2016
Discovery of an important aggregation area for endangered scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, in the Rewa River estuary, Fiji Islands 
Kelly T. Brown, Johnson Seeto, Monal M. Lal and Cara E. Miller

We explored reports that the Rewa River estuary in Fiji is a nursery area for the scalloped hammerhead shark. Results showed that juveniles do occupy the estuary, with analyses of umbilical scars and stomach contents indicating its importance as an aggregation area for the species, necessitating fishery management and protection.

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Published online 19 February 2016
Diversity and current conservation status of Melanesian–New Zealand placostyline land snails (Gastropoda:Bothriembryontidae), with discussion of conservation imperatives, priorities and methodology issues 
Gary M. Barker, Gilianne Brodie, Lia Bogitini and Helen Pippard

Knowledge and conservation effort have a spatial bias. While New Zealand–Lorde Howe–New Caledonia taxa receive much needed conservation attention, those efforts are spatially discordant with the Fiji–Vanuatu–Solomon Islands centre of diversity and the emerging need in those regions for conservation action due to pressures from human activities and invasive species.

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Published online 12 February 2016
Factors affecting frog density in the Solomon Islands 
Patrick Pikacha, Chris Filardi, Clare Morrison and Luke Leung

This paper identifies some important factors affecting the density of frogs in the Solomon Islands. Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) was used to select the most parsimonious model of frog density. Factors identified in the selected model to predict density of 16 species were island, landform, and forest type. These findings have important management implications for the conservation of frogs in the Solomon Islands.

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Published online 15 January 2016
Freshwater ichthyofauna of the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) Gateway in Viti Levu, Fiji 
Lekima K. F. Copeland, David T. Boseto and Aaron P. Jenkins

The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) in Fiji has resulted in new records and new species of freshwater fish. The fauna along this transect is being threatened by reduction in forest catchment cover, construction of dams and weirs along migration routes. Several of the species are important food and totems to Fijians.

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blank image Pacific Conservation Biology
Volume 22 Number 2 2016
Conservation Oceania Style: Highlighting Oceania’s Unique Approaches to Conservation

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Table of Contents 
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Thinking globally, acting locally – conservation lessons from Oceania 
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V. M. Adams , R. E. Spindler and R. T. Kingsford
pp. 85-89

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Empowering citizens to effect change – a case study of zoo-based community conservation 
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Emily Dunstan , Belinda Fairbrother and Monique Van Sluys
pp. 90-97

We critically examine a community conservation campaign aimed at increasing uptake of sustainable palm oil (and thus reducing the use of unsustainable palm oil) led by zoos in Australia and New Zealand. We share the elements of success and key learning to build understanding and improvement of these programs globally.


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Biodiversity conservation in Sydney Harbour 
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Joanne L. Banks , Pat Hutchings , Belinda Curley , Luke Hedge , Bob Creese and Emma Johnston
pp. 98-109

Sydney Harbour has significant environmental and conservation value, however, like many other harbours, is subject to stressors. We outline its environmental assets and major threats, and report on current and developing conservation strategies. This knowledge may help coastal and harbour managers within the region to better prepare for similar challenges.


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Conservation Science Statement. The demise of New Zealand's freshwater flora and fauna: a forgotten treasure 
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Emily S. Weeks , Russell G. Death , Kyleisha Foote , Rosalynn Anderson-Lederer , Michael K. Joy and Paul Boyce
pp. 110-115

New Zealand has some of the highest levels of threatened freshwater species in the world but this is often ignored in favour of managing water quality. To improve this we must change legislation to protect endangered species, and their habitats, include habitat protection in the National Objectives Framework (NOF), establish monitoring of threatened invertebrates, better manage riparian zones and include wetlands, estuaries, and groundwater ecosystems in the NOF.


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Australia's wetlands – learning from the past to manage for the future 
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G. Bino , R. T. Kingsford and K. Brandis
pp. 116-129

We reviewed knowledge about the extent of wetlands, representativeness, impacts and threats to integrity and options for effective conservation. Management and policy for wetlands is dependent on knowledge of distribution, type and extent of wetlands, a key national constraint. Mitigation of increasing development (e.g. northern Australia) will be critical for conservation, along with adequate representation in protected areas, and restoration, particularly with environmental flows.


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Deforestation in Australia: drivers, trends and policy responses 
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Megan C. Evans
pp. 130-150

Deforestation remains a significant threat to Australia’s biodiversity. I provide a detailed critique of the native vegetation policies introduced across Australia over the last 40 years, and quantify deforestation trends from 1972–2014. A more effective policy mix, with a greater focus on monitoring, evaluation and policy learning, is needed to curb deforestation in Australia.

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The context and potential sustainability of traditional terrestrial periodic tambu areas: insights from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 
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Nathan Whitmore , John Lamaris , Wallace Takendu , Daniel Charles , Terence Chuwek , Brian Mohe , Lucas Kanau and Stanley Pe-eu
pp. 151-158

No-take tambu areas are an indigenous resource management tool found in Melanesia characterised by a cycle of resource closure followed by instantaneous harvest. We review the use of the method to restock areas with Admiralty cuscus and examine the plausibility of population recovery given differing time intervals and harvest rates.


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Limitations of biophysical habitats as biodiversity surrogates in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park 
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Susan E. Jackson and Carolyn J. Lundquist
pp. 159-172

A habitat classification system identified 46 biophysical habitat types in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. Existing marine protection does not include a majority of habitats, and includes on average only 2.28% of demersal fish species’ ranges. Furthermore, habitats were poorly correlated with demersal fish biodiversity.


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Systematic conservation planning within a Fijian customary governance context 
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Hans K. Wendt , Rebecca Weeks , James Comley and William Aalbersberg
pp. 173-181

We describe a process undertaken by local scientists and communities to redesign a system of locally managed marine protected areas to better achieve both local and provincial objectives. This represents one of the first attempts to use systematic conservation planning tools to inform customary governance of natural resources, providing an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in this context.


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Emerging threats to biosecurity in Australasia: the need for an integrated management strategy 
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M. J. Lott and K. Rose
pp. 182-188

This review explores how more comprehensive biosecurity initiatives might be implemented in the Australasia region through the adoption of robust pre-border and border quarantine practices, the use of emerging technologies to improve border and post-border biosurveillance and monitoring, and the integration of multiple social, economic and ecological objectives into a more holistic management paradigm.


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Approaches to strategic risk analysis and management of invasive plants: lessons learned from managing gamba grass in northern Australia 
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Vanessa M. Adams and Samantha A. Setterfield
pp. 189-200

Invasive species are a major threat in Oceania (and globally), but there is a of lack methods to prioritise limited management funds. This paper reviews risk assessment components and available tools for each component that can be applied in data-limited environments, such as is often the case in Oceania.

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The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 7 June 2016
Deforestation in Australia: drivers, trends and policy responses

Megan C. Evans

2. Published 26 June 2015
Conservation, mismatch and the research–implementation gap

R. M. Jarvis, S. B. Borrelle, B. Bollard Breen and D. R. Towns

3. Published 22 December 2015
Ignoring the science in failing to conserve a faunal icon – major political, policy and management problems in preventing the extinction of Leadbeater’s possum

David B. Lindenmayer, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney and Sam C. Banks

4. Published 26 June 2015
Multiple paternity in captive grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus): implications for the captive breeding of this critically endangered species

Robert Townsend, Adam Stow, Maria Asmyhr and Paolo Momigliano

5. Published 16 October 2015
Integrating rehabilitation, restoration and conservation for a sustainable jarrah forest future during climate disruption

Grant W. Wardell-Johnson, Michael Calver, Neil Burrows and Giovanni Di Virgilio

6. Published 22 December 2015
A diagnostic framework for biodiversity conservation institutions

Sarah Clement, Susan A. Moore, Michael Lockwood and Tiffany H. Morrison

7. Published 1 April 2016
Camera traps in the canopy: surveying wildlife at tree hollow entrances

Nigel Cotsell and Karl Vernes

8. Published 1 April 2016
Does the whale shark aggregate along the Western Australian coastline beyond Ningaloo Reef?

Bradley M. Norman, Samantha Reynolds and David L. Morgan

9. Published 22 December 2015
The need for a comprehensive reassessment of the Regional Forest Agreements in Australia

David B. Lindenmayer, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney and Sam C. Banks

10. Published 16 October 2015
Fauna-rescue programs can successfully relocate vertebrate fauna prior to and during vegetation-clearing programs

Scott A. Thompson and Graham G. Thompson

11. Published 26 June 2015
Mapping seagrass cost-effectively in the Coral Triangle: Sabah, Malaysia as a case study

Leela Rajamani and Helene Marsh

12. Published 26 June 2015
Non-target species interaction with sodium fluoroacetate (1080) meat bait for controlling feral pigs (Sus scrofa)

Amanda Millar, Matthew Gentle and Luke K.-P. Leung

13. Published 26 June 2015
Satellite tracking of rehabilitated wild Baudin’s cockatoos, Calyptorhynchus baudinii: a feasibility trial to track forest black cockatoos

Lian Yeap, Jill M. Shephard, Anna Le Souef, Carly Holyoake, Christine Groom, Rick Dawson, Tony Kirkby and Kristin Warren

14. Published 26 June 2015
Insights into the attributes of Pacific Island destinations that appeal to avitourists

Rochelle Steven

15. Published 16 October 2015
What factors affect the density of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in the Solomon Islands?

Patrick Pikacha, Tyrone Lavery and Luke K.-P. Leung

16. Published 16 October 2015
Natural history and conservation biology of the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris): a review

N. J. Collar

17. Published 7 June 2016
Emerging threats to biosecurity in Australasia: the need for an integrated management strategy

M. J. Lott and K. Rose

18. Published 26 June 2015
The UK Government agrees to create the world's largest marine reserve around the Pitcairn Islands, a UK Overseas Territory in the South Pacific

Terence P. Dawson

19. Published 16 October 2015
When losing your nuts increases your reproductive success: sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) nut caching by the woylie (Bettongia penicillata)

Marie Murphy, Kay Howard, Giles E. St J. Hardy and Bernard Dell

20. Published 22 December 2015
The distribution and conservation status of Carpentarian grasswrens (Amytornis dorotheae), with reference to prevailing fire patterns

Graham N. Harrington and Stephen A. Murphy

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Volume 22 (2)

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