Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Geometrical properties of materials for energy production by salinity exchange

A. V. Delgado A C , S. Ahualli A , M. M. Fernández A , M. A. González A , G. R. Iglesias A , J. F. Vivo-Vilches B and M. L. Jiménez A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, E18071 Granada, Spain.

B Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, E18071 Granada, Spain.

C Corresponding author. Email: adelgado@ugr.es

Environmental Chemistry 14(5) 279-287 https://doi.org/10.1071/EN16210
Submitted: 23 December 2016  Accepted: 13 March 2017   Published: 12 April 2017

Environmental context. Oceans and seas have the potential to play a significant role in providing renewable and clean energy. In particular, salinity difference energy aims to extract the enormous amount of energy that is released when fresh water rivers flow into the oceans. Capmix methods are focused on this challenge by using capacitive carbon electrodes whose optimisation will certainly help in developing salinity difference energy.

Abstract. One of the most powerful marine renewable resources is salinity difference energy, also termed blue energy. Numerous techniques have been investigated to harvest this energy but, recently, the capmix proposal has increased in importance due to its easy implementation and use of low cost materials, very often activated carbon. Two methods based on this principle are tested in this work, namely CDLE (energy production by double layer expansion in bare electrodes) and SE (the electrodes are made ‘soft’ by polyelectrolyte coating). The characteristics of the carbon materials play a central role in capmix energy production. In this work, we focus on understanding the required pore structure that might be demanded from carbon samples. The balance between micro- and mesopores, the wettability of the material and its electrical resistance are explored by using hierarchical carbons, and their combination with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. It is found that the CDLE technique requires a large fraction of mesopores for easy solution exchange, while SE performance improves with a large amount of micropores. The addition of carbon nanotubes to the activated carbon reduces the capmix cycle duration, increasing the extracted power. In the case of electrodes containing graphene the internal resistance decreases, but the hydrophobicity of graphene oxide works against the improvement in energy extraction.

Additional keywords: activated carbon particles, capacitive energy extraction, carbon nanotubes, graphene, pore size distribution, salinity difference energy.


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