Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The systematics of land crabs of the genus Gecarcoidea and recognition of a pseudocryptic species, G. humei, from the eastern Indian Ocean (Crustacea : Decapoda : Gecarcinidae)

Joelle C. Y. Lai A C , Hsi-Te Shih B D and Peter K. L. Ng A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, National University of Singapore, 2 Conservatory Drive, Singapore 117377, Singapore.

B Department of Life Science and Research Center for Global Change Biology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

C College of Alice and Peter Tan, National University of Singapore, 8 College Avenue East, #B1-50, Singapore 138615, Singapore.

D Corresponding author. Email: hitshih@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

Invertebrate Systematics 31(4) 406-426 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS16052
Submitted: 24 July 2016  Accepted: 13 January 2017   Published: 9 June 2017

Abstract

The gecarcinid genus Gecarcoidea H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is currently represented by two species from the Indo-West Pacific – the widely distributed purple land crab, G. lalandii H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and the red crab endemic to Christmas Island, G. natalis (Pocock, 1889). One species, G. humei (Wood-Mason, 1874), described from the Nicobar Islands, has had a confused taxonomic history, but was treated as a junior synonym of G. lalandii by Türkay (1974) in his revision of the family. In this study, using molecular as well as morphological characters, we show that G. humei is a valid species. Gecarcoidea lalandii and G. humei have distinct non-overlapping distributions throughout much of their range, with G. lalandii occurring in most of South-east Asia and the West Pacific, while G. humei is known only from the eastern Indian Ocean. On Christmas Island, in the eastern Indian Ocean, however, all three species are present. As a result, Christmas Island is the only locality where all extant species of Gecarcoidea are found. The three species can also be separated by differences in live colours and patterns, as well as proportions of the carapace, male abdomen, ambulatory legs and third maxillipeds, and details of the orbits and male first gonopods.

Additional keywords: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, endemic species, sympatry.


References

Adamczewska, A. M., and Morris, S. (1994). Exercise in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis. I. Blood gas transport. The Journal of Experimental Biology 188, 235–256.
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2sjnsFyrsw%3D%3D&md5=ebef2157f27736dd8ad320cf6fc57751CAS | open url image1

Adamczewska, A. M., and Morris, S. (1998). Strategies for migration in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis: intermittent versus continuous locomotion. The Journal of Experimental Biology 201, 3221–3231. open url image1

Adamczewska, A. M., and Morris, S. (2001). Ecology and behavior of Gecarcoidea natalis, the Christmas Island red crab, during the annual breeding migration. The Biological Bulletin 200, 305–320.
Ecology and behavior of Gecarcoidea natalis, the Christmas Island red crab, during the annual breeding migration.CrossRef | open url image1

Alcock, A. (1900). Materials for a carcinological fauna of India. No. 6. The Brachyura Catometopa or Grapsoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta 69, 279–456. open url image1

Andrews, C. W. (1900). Land Crustacea. In ‘A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): Physical Features and Geology, with Descriptions of the Fauna and Flora by Numerous Contributors’. (Ed. C. W. Andrews.) pp. 163–165. (British Museum (Natural History): London, UK.)

Balss, H. (1934). Die Krabben der Reise J. W. Harms’ nach der Christmas-Insel und dem Malaiischen Archipel. Zoologischer Anzeiger 106, 225–237. open url image1

Bouvier, M. E. L. (1906). Sur une petite collection de Crustacés (Décapodes et Stomatopodes) recueillies par M. Charles Gravier à L’ìle San Thome (Afrique Occidentale). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 9, 491–498. open url image1

Bright, D. B., and Hogue, C. L. (1972). A synopsis of the burrowing land crabs of the world and list of their arthropod symbionts and burrow associates. Contributions in Science 220, 1–58. open url image1

Bullock, A. (1964). A note on the arthropod fauna of Pulau-Jarak, Straits of Malacca. Malayan Naturalist 18, 30–36. open url image1

Burggren, W. W., and McMahon, B. R. (1988). ‘Biology of the Land Crabs.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Calman, W. T. (1909). On decapod Crustacea from Christmas Island, collected by Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., F.Z.S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909, 703–713. open url image1

Carson, H. L., and Wheeler, M. R. (1973). A new crab fly from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Pacific Insects 15, 199–208. open url image1

Chen, W.-J., and Lo, L.-C. (2014). ‘Some Brachyura and Anomura Fauna from Siaolioucious, Taiwan.’ (Pingtung County Government: Pingtung, Taiwan.) [In Chinese]

Chia, D. G. B., and Ng, P. K. L. (1994). Die Riesenlandkrabben von Malaysia. Das Aquarium und Terrarium Zeitschrift 47, 30–34. open url image1

Christmas Island National Park (2008). ‘Red Crabs.’ (Christmas Island National Park: Christmas Island, Australia.)

Cornils, A., and Held, C. (2014). Evidence of cryptic and pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus species complex (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida). Frontiers in Zoology 11, 19–35.
Evidence of cryptic and pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus species complex (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida).CrossRef | open url image1

Cuesta, J. A., Liu, H.-C., and Schubart, C. D. (2002). First zoeal stages of Epigrapsus politus Heller, E. notatus (Heller) and Gecarcoidea lalandii H. Milne Edwards, with remarks on zoeal morphology of the Gecarcinidae Macleay (Crustacea: Brachyura). Journal of Natural History 36, 1671–1685.
First zoeal stages of Epigrapsus politus Heller, E. notatus (Heller) and Gecarcoidea lalandii H. Milne Edwards, with remarks on zoeal morphology of the Gecarcinidae Macleay (Crustacea: Brachyura).CrossRef | open url image1

Dai, A.-Y., and Yang, S.-L. (1991). ‘Crabs of the China Seas.’ (China Ocean Press: Beijing, China and Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany.)

Dai, A.-Y., Yang, S.-L., Song, Y.-Z., and Chen, G.-X. (1986). ‘Crabs of the China Seas.’ (China Ocean Press: Beijing, China.) [In Chinese]

Davie, P. J. F., Shih, H.-T., and Chan, B. K. K. (2010). A new species of Mictyris (Decapoda, Brachyura, Mictyridae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Crustaceana Monographs 11, 83–105. open url image1

De Haan, W. (1833–1850). Crustacea. In ‘Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio Animalium, Quae in Itinere per Japoniam, Jussu et Auspiciis Superiorum, qui Summum in India Batava Imperium Tenent, Suscepto, Annis 1823–1830 Collegit, Noitis, Observationibus et Adumbrationibus Illustravit. Leiden: Lugduni-Batavorum’. (Ed. P. F. von Siebold.) pp. i–xvii, i–xxxi, ix–xvi, 1–243, Plates A–J, L–Q, 1–55, circ. Table 2. (Amstelodami apud J. Müller et Co.: Lugduni-Batavorum=Leiden.)

De Man, J. G. (1879). On some new and imperfectly known Podophthalmus Crustacea of the Leyden Museum. Notes of the Leyden Museum 1, 53–73. open url image1

De Man, J. G. (1929a). Decapoda and Stomatopoda from Pulau Berhala. Miscellanea Zoologica Sumatra, Medan 36, 1–3. open url image1

De Man, J. G. (1929b). On a collection of decapod and stomatopod Crustacea from Pulau Berhala, an islet situated in the Straits of Malacca. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 26, 1–26. open url image1

DNP (Director of National Parks) (2014). ‘Christmas Island Biodiversity Conservation Plan (Draft Discussion Document).’ (Director of National Parks: Canberra, Australia.)

Duncan, F. M. (1937). On the Dates of Publication of the Society’s ‘Proceedings,’ 1859–1926. With an Appendix containing the dates of Publication of ‘Proceedings,’ 1830–1858, compiled by the late F. H. Waterhouse, and of the ‘Transactions,’ 1833–1869, by the late Henry Peavot, originally published in P. Z. S. 1893, 1913. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Series A (General and Experimental) 1937, 71–84.

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R., and Vrijenhoek, R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3, 294–299.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXjt12gtLs%3D&md5=301bf4945988b7429a8e829133746d39CAS | open url image1

Fransen, C. H. J. M., Holthuis, L. B., and Adema, J. P. H. M. (1997). Type-catalogue of the decapod Crustacea in the collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, with appendices of pre-1900 collectors and material. Zoölogische Verhandelingen 311, 1–344. open url image1

Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1947). Field notes on the terrestrial crab. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 18, 48–52. open url image1

Green, P. T. (1997). Red crabs in rain forest on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: activity patterns, density and biomass. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13, 17–38.
Red crabs in rain forest on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: activity patterns, density and biomass.CrossRef | open url image1

Green, P. T. (2004a). Burrow dynamics of the red land crab Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) in rain forest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of Crustacean Biology 24, 340–349.
Burrow dynamics of the red land crab Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) in rain forest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean).CrossRef | open url image1

Green, P. T. (2004b). Field observations of moulting and moult increment in the red land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura, Gecarcinidae), on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Crustaceana 77, 125–128.
Field observations of moulting and moult increment in the red land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura, Gecarcinidae), on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean).CrossRef | open url image1

Green, P. T., O’Dowd, D. J., and Lake, P. S. (1997). Control of seedling recruitment by land crabs in rain forest on a remote oceanic island. Ecology 78, 2474–2486.
Control of seedling recruitment by land crabs in rain forest on a remote oceanic island.CrossRef | open url image1

Green, P. T., O’Dowd, D. J., and Lake, P. S. (2008). Recruitment dynamics in a rainforest seedling community: context-independent impact of a keystone consumer. Oecologia 156, 373–385.
Recruitment dynamics in a rainforest seedling community: context-independent impact of a keystone consumer.CrossRef | open url image1

Guindon, S., and Gascuel, O. (2003). A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology 52, 696–704.
A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood.CrossRef | open url image1

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., and Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 1–9. open url image1

Harms, J. W. (1933). Der Individualzyklus bei Gecarcinus lagostomus M. Enw. Nebst Beobachtungen zur Autotomie. Zoologischer Anzeiger 104, 65–70. open url image1

Hartnoll, R. G. (1988). Evolution, systematics, and geographical distribution. In ‘Biology of the Land Crabs.’ (Eds W. W. Burggren and B. R. McMahon.) pp. 6–54. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Herklots, J. A. (1861). Catalogue de Crustacés qui ont servi de base au système carcinogique de M. W. de Haan, rédigé d’après la collection du Musée des Pay-Bas et les Crustacés de la faune du Japon. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 4, 116–156. open url image1

Hicks, J. W., Rumpff, H., and Yorkston, H. (1984). ‘Christmas Crabs.’ 1st edn. (Christmas Island Natural History Association: Christmas Island, Australia.)

Hicks, J. W., Rumpff, H., and Yorkston, H. (1990). ‘Christmas Crabs.’ 2nd edn. (Christmas Island Natural History Association: Christmas Island, Australia.)

Ho, P.-H. (2003). ‘Land Crabs in the Coastal Forest of Kenting National Park.’ (Kenting National Park: Pingtung, Taiwan.) [In Chinese]

Holthuis, L. B. (1953). Enumeration of the decapod and stomatopod Crustacea from Pacific coral islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 24, 1–66.
Enumeration of the decapod and stomatopod Crustacea from Pacific coral islands.CrossRef | open url image1

Holthuis, L. B. (1977). The Grapsidae, Gecarcinidae and Palicidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) of the Red Sea. Israel Journal of Zoology 26, 141–192. open url image1

Johnson, D. S. (1965). Land crabs. Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 38, 43–66. open url image1

Kimura, M. (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111–120.
A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXmtFSktg%3D%3D&md5=dc7bdd6a9298ee97783bfe0f1ad7e7ecCAS | open url image1

Knowlton, N. (1993). Sibling species in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24, 189–216.
Sibling species in the sea.CrossRef | open url image1

Knowlton, N. (2000). Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Hydrobiologia 420, 73–90.
Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXktlSktLw%3D&md5=aa2a72b7003efd5162c3e81a14e99b7aCAS | open url image1

Lee, J.-H. (2008). ‘A Field Guide to Crabs in Taiwan.’ (Bigtrees Company: Taipei, Taiwan.) [In Chinese]

Li, J.-J., and Chiu, Y.-W. (2013). ‘Land Crabs of Hengchun Peninsula.’ (National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium: Pingtung, Taiwan.) [In Chinese]

Lister, J. J. (1889). On the natural history of Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888, 512–531. open url image1

Liu, H.-C., and Jeng, M.-S. (2007). Some reproductive aspects of Gecarcoidea lalandii (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in Taiwan. Zoological Studies (Taipei, Taiwan) 46, 347–354. open url image1

Marumura, M., and Kosaka, A. (2003). ‘Catalogue of the Brachyuran and Anomuran Crabs Donated by the Late Mr. Seiji Nagai to the Wakayama Prefectural Museum of Natural History.’ (Wakayama Prefectural Museum of Natural History: Wakayam, Japan.) [In Japanese]

McLay, C. L., and Ryan, P. L. (1990). The terrestrial crabs of Sesarma (Sesarmops) impressum and Geograpsus crinipes (Brachyura, Grapsidae, Sesarminae) recorded from the Fiji Islands. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 20, 107–118.
The terrestrial crabs of Sesarma (Sesarmops) impressum and Geograpsus crinipes (Brachyura, Grapsidae, Sesarminae) recorded from the Fiji Islands.CrossRef | open url image1

Milne Edwards, H. (1837). ‘Histoire Comprenant l’Anatomie, la Physiologie et la Classification de ces Animaux, 2.’ pp. 1–531, atlas 1–32, pls 1–42. (Roret: Paris.)

Milne Edwards, H. (1853). Mémoire sur la famille des Ocypodides. Suite (1). Deuxiéme Tribu Principale. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Comprenant la Zoologie, la Botanique, l’Anatomie et la Physiologie comparées des deux Régnes et l’Histoire des Corps Organisés Fossiles, Librairie de Victor Masson, Paris, Series 3 Zoology (Jena, Germany) 20, 163–228. open url image1

Milne Edwards, H. (1855). Crustaees nouveaux ou peu connus. Archives du Museum d’Histoire naturelle, Paris 7, 145–192. open url image1

Milne-Edwards, A. (1890). Note sur les Crustacés du genre Pelocarcinus. Nouvelle Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2, 169–176. open url image1

Minemizu, R. (2000). ‘Marine Decapod and Stomatopod Crustaceans Mainly from Japan.’ (Bun-Ichi Sogo Shuppan: Tokyo, Japan.) [In Japanese]

Miyake, S. (1983). ‘Brachyura (Crabs). Japanese Crustacean Decapods and Stomatopods in Color, 2.’ (Hoikusha: Osaka, Japan.) [In Japanese]

Morris, S. (2002). The ecophysiology of air-breathing in crabs with special reference to Gecarcoidea natalis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 131, 559–570.
The ecophysiology of air-breathing in crabs with special reference to Gecarcoidea natalis.CrossRef | open url image1

Morris, S., Postel, U., Mrinalini, , Turner, L. M., Palmer, J., and Webster, S. G. (2010). The adaptive significance of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in daily and seasonal migratory activities of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis. The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3062–3073.
The adaptive significance of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in daily and seasonal migratory activities of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtl2ksrjJ&md5=c0939415b68571ecfce907ca5ec8af49CAS | open url image1

Nagai, S., and Nomura, K. (1988). ‘Crustacea (Brachyura). The Guide Book of Marine Organisms of Okinawa, 7.’ (Shinsei Tosho: Okinawa, Japan.)

Naiyanetr, P. (1998). ‘Checklist of Crustacean Fauna in Thailand (Decapoda, Stomatopoda, Anostraca, Myodocopa and Isopoda).’ (Office of Environmental Policy and Planning: Bangkok, Thailand.)

Naiyanetr, P. (2007). ‘Checklist of Crustacean Fauna in Thailand (Decapoda, Stomatopoda, Anostraca, Myodocopa and Isopoda).’ (Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning: Bangkok, Thailand.)

Ng, P. K. L. (1998). Crabs. In ‘FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 2. Cephalopods, Crustaceans, Holothurians and Sharks’. (Eds K. E. Carpenter and V. H. Niem.) pp. 1045–1155. (Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO): Rome, Italy.)

Ng, P. K. L., and Davie, P. J. F. (2002). A checklist of brachyuran crabs of Phuket and western Thailand. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 23, 369–384. open url image1

Ng, P. K. L., and Davie, P. J. F. (2012a). Christmas Island – a very crabby history. In ‘Crabs of Christmas Island’. (Ed. M. Orchard.) pp. 8–19. (Christmas Island Natural History Association: Christmas Island, Australia.)

Ng, P. K. L., and Davie, P. J. F. (2012b). The blue crab of Christmas Island, Discoplax celeste, new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60, 89–100. open url image1

Ng, P. K. L., and Shih, H.-T. (2014). The systematics of the land crabs of the Discoplax hirtipes (Dana, 1851) species-group (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae), with description of a new species from the eastern Indian Ocean. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. 30, 109–135. open url image1

Ng, P. K. L., Wang, C.-H., Ho, P.-H., and Shih, H.-T. (2001). An annotated checklist of brachyuran crabs from Taiwan (Crustacea: Decapoda). National Taiwan Museum Special Publication Series Taipei, Taiwan 11, 1–86. open url image1

Ng, P. K. L., Guinot, D., and Davie, P. J. F. (2008). Systema Brachyurorum: Part 1. An annotated checklist of extant brachyuran crabs of the world. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17, 1–286. open url image1

Niering, W. A. (1956). Bioecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands: terrestrial aspects. Atoll Research Bulletin 49, 1–32.
Bioecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands: terrestrial aspects.CrossRef | open url image1

Nobili, G. (1899). Contribuzioni alla conoscenza della fauna carcinologica della Papuasia, delle Molluche e dell’ Australia. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova “Giacomo Doria” Genova Series 2 20, 230–282. open url image1

Orchard, M. (2012). ‘Crabs of Christmas Island.’ (Christmas Island Natural History Association: Christmas Island, Australia.)

Ortmann, A. E. (1894). Abtheilung: Brachyura (Brachyura genuina Boas), III. Unterabtheilung: Cancroidea. 2. Section: Cancrinea, 2. Gruppe: Catametopa. Die Decapoden-Krebse des Strassburger Museums mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der von Herrn Dr. Döderlein bei Japan und bei den Liu-Kiu-Inseln gesammelten und zur Zeit im Strassburger Museum aufbewahrten Formen. Theil VIII. Zoologische Jahrbucher. Abteilung fur Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 7, 683–772.
Abtheilung: Brachyura (Brachyura genuina Boas), III. Unterabtheilung: Cancroidea. 2. Section: Cancrinea, 2. Gruppe: Catametopa. Die Decapoden-Krebse des Strassburger Museums mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der von Herrn Dr. Döderlein bei Japan und bei den Liu-Kiu-Inseln gesammelten und zur Zeit im Strassburger Museum aufbewahrten Formen. Theil VIII.CrossRef | open url image1

Paulay, G., Kropp, R., Ng, P. K. L., and Eldredge, L. G. (2003). The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35–36, 456–513. open url image1

Pocock, R. I. (1889). On the Arachnida, Myriopoda and land-Crustacea of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888, 556–564. open url image1

Posada, D. (2008). jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 1253–1256.
jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXotlKgsb4%3D&md5=869b4e34c8c120fdc84b0dfe320c7928CAS | open url image1

Postel, U., Thompson, F., Barker, G., Viney, M., and Morris, S. (2010). Migration-related changes in gene expression in leg muscle of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis: seasonal preparation for long-distance walking. The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 1740–1750.
Migration-related changes in gene expression in leg muscle of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis: seasonal preparation for long-distance walking.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXovVGhtbc%3D&md5=09a4554d7c6834da0b3d33774a044516CAS | open url image1

Poupin, J. (1996). Crustacea Decapoda of French Polynesia (Astacidea, Palinuridea, Anomura, Brachyura). Atoll Research Bulletin 442, 1–114. open url image1

Ragionieri, L., Fratini, S., Vannini, M., and Schubart, C. D. (2009). Phylogenetic and morphometric differentiation reveal geographic radiation and pseudo-cryptic speciation in a mangrove crab from the Indo-West Pacific. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52, 825–834.
Phylogenetic and morphometric differentiation reveal geographic radiation and pseudo-cryptic speciation in a mangrove crab from the Indo-West Pacific.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXosVaqtbs%3D&md5=cbcc13efaf7b273f1cf52250c75eb70aCAS | open url image1

Ragionieri, L., Fratini, S., and Schubart, C. D. (2012). Revision of the Neosarmatium meinerti species complex (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae), with descriptions of three pseudocryptic Indo-West Pacific species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60, 71–87. open url image1

Raman, T., Mudappa, D., Khan, T., Mistry, U., Saxena, A., Varma, K., Ekka, N., Lenin, J., and Whitaker, R. (2013). An expedition to Narcondam: observations of marine and terrestrial fauna including the island-endemic hornbill. Current Science 105, 346–360. open url image1

Rambaut, A., and Drummond, A. J. (2009). Tracer v. 1.5. Available at http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer [verified 15 February 2017].

Rathbun, M. J. (1918). The grapsoid crabs of America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 97, 1–461. open url image1

Ronquist, F., and Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572–1574.
MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXntlKms7k%3D&md5=551961d8686b21e6a8f449a4435c2cfdCAS | open url image1

Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J. P., and van der Mark, P. (2005). ‘MrBayes 3.1 Manual.’ Available at http://mrbayes.csit.fsu.edu/manual.php [verified 15 February 2017].

Sakai, T. (1939). ‘Studies on the Crabs of Japan. IV. Brachygnatha, Brachyrhyncha.’ (Yokendo Co.: Tokyo, Japan.)

Sakai, T. (1940). Bio-geographic review on the distribution of crabs in Japanese waters. Records of Oceanographic Works in Japan 11, 27–63. open url image1

Sakai, T. (1976). ‘Crabs of Japan and the Adjacent Seas.’ (Kodansha: Tokyo, Japan.)

Schubart, C. D., and Huber, M. G. J. (2006). Genetic comparisons of German populations of the stone crayfish, Austropotamobius torrentium (Crustacea: Astacidae). Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture 380–381, 1019–1028.
Genetic comparisons of German populations of the stone crayfish, Austropotamobius torrentium (Crustacea: Astacidae).CrossRef | open url image1

Serène, R. (1968). The Brachyura of the Indo-West Pacific region. In ‘Prodromus for a Check List of the Non–Planktonic Marine Fauna of South East Asia’. Singapore National Academy of Science Special Publication 1 33–112.

Shaw, A. K., and Kelly, K. A. (2013). Linking El Niño, local rainfall, and migration timing in a tropical migratory species. Global Change Biology 19, 3283–3290. open url image1

Shen, C.-J., and Liu, J.-Y. (1963). Preliminary studies on the characteristics of the crab fauna of China seas. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 5, 139–153. open url image1

Shih, H.-T. (2013). Introduction of the gecarcinid land crabs of the world. Taiwan Natural Science 119, 22–37. open url image1

Shih, H.-T., and Suzuki, H. (2008). Taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography of the endemic mudflat crab Helice/Chasmagnathus complex (Crustacea: Brachyura: Varunidae) from East Asia. Zoological Studies (Taipei, Taiwan) 47, 114–125.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXksFKitL0%3D&md5=d5e2b13bb56a9816c7b8456527b4198bCAS | open url image1

Shih, H.-T., Naruse, T., and Ng, P. K. L. (2010). Uca jocelynae sp. nov., a new species of fiddler crab (Crustacea: Brachyura: Ocypodidae) from the western Pacific. Zootaxa 2337, 47–62. open url image1

Shih, H.-T., Ng, P. K. L., Wong, K. J. H., and Chan, B. K. K. (2012). Gelasimus splendidus Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Ocypodidae), a valid species of fiddler crab from the northern South China Sea and Taiwan Strait. Zootaxa 3490, 30–47. open url image1

Shih, H.-T., Ng, P. K. L., Davie, P. J. F., Schubart, C. D., Türkay, M., Naderloo, R., Jones, D., and Liu, M.-Y. (2016). Systematics of the family Ocypodidae Rafinesque, 1815 (Crustacea: Brachyura), based on phylogenetic relationships, with a reorganization of subfamily rankings and a review of the taxonomic status of Uca Leach, 1814, sensu lato and its subgenera. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 64, 139–175. open url image1

Srivathsana, A., and Meier, R. (2011). On the inappropriate use of Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) divergences in the DNA-barcoding literature. Cladistics 27, 1–5. open url image1

Swofford, D. L. (2003). ‘PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), version 4.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.)

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. (2011). MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28, 2731–2739.
MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1eiu73K&md5=3f090ed3d6651d2e6c024dc921d7da05CAS | open url image1

Tan, H. H., Orchard, M., Davie, P. J. F., and Ng, P. K. L. (2014). Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands: biodiversity and management challenges. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. 30, 1–468. open url image1

Tavares, M. D. S. (1989). Sistemática filogenética dos Gecarcinidae H. Milne Edwards (Crustacea. Brachyura). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Taylor, H., and Greenaway, P. (2002). Osmoregulation in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae): modulation of branchial chloride uptake from the urine. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 3251–3260.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XptV2mu7k%3D&md5=7aa8c15a63d5b3ef5da9bba160ea0346CAS | open url image1

Tesch, J. J. (1918). Hymenosomatidae, Retropilumnidae, Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Gecarcinidae. Siboga Expéditie 39, 1–148. open url image1

Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., and Gibson, T. J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673–4680.
CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXitlSgu74%3D&md5=7a4dbc9010a7ab4a2765206161239d6bCAS | open url image1

Türkay, M. (1973). Bemerkungen zu einigen Landkrabben (Crustacea, Decapoda). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 142, 969–979. open url image1

Türkay, M. (1974). Die Gecarcinidae Asiens und Ozeaniens (Crustacea: Decapoda). Senckenbergiana Biologica 55, 223–259. open url image1

Türkay, M., and Sakai, K. (1976). Die Gecarcinidae von Japan (Crustacea, Decapoda). Crustacean Research 7, 11–22. open url image1

Tweedie, M. W. F. (1947). On the Brachyura of Christmas Island. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 18, 27–42. open url image1

Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950a). A collection of crabs from Aor Island, South China Sea. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 21, 83–96. open url image1

Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950b). The fauna of the Cocos-Keeling Islands, Brachyura and Stomatopoda. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 22, 105–148. open url image1

Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950c). A note on the crabs. In ‘A survey of Jarak Island, Straits of Malacca’. (Eds J. R. Audy, J. L. Harrison, J. Wyatt-Smith and M. W. F. Tweedie)’. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 23, 251.

Tweedie, M. W. F. (1954). Notes on grapsoid crabs from the Raffles Museum, nos. 3, 4 and 5. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 25, 118–128. open url image1

Ward, M. (1935). Notes on a collection of crabs from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 9, 5–28. open url image1

Webb, G. E. (1922). Note on some young stages of Gecarcoidea lalandii, Milne Edwards. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 10, 530–534.
Note on some young stages of Gecarcoidea lalandii, Milne Edwards.CrossRef | open url image1

Weeks, A. R., Smith, M. J., van Rooyen, A., Maple, D., and Miller, A. D. (2014). A single panmictic population of endemic red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, on Christmas Island with high levels of genetic diversity. Conservation Genetics 15, 909–919. open url image1

White, A. (1847). ‘List of species in the collections of the British Museum.’ (British Museum: London.)

Widjaya, I. (2011). VIDEO: Geger Kepiting ‘Ular Kobra’ di Pacitan. Available at http://nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/269374-video-geger-kepiting-ular-kobra-di-pacitan [accessed 20 July 2016].

Wong, K. J. H., Chan, B. K. K., and Shih, H.-T. (2010). Taxonomy of the sand bubbler crabs Scopimera globosa De Haan, 1835, and S. tuberculata Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dotillidae) in East Asia, with description of a new species from the Ryukyus, Japan. Zootaxa 2345, 43–59. open url image1

Wong, K. J. H., Shih, H.-T., and Chan, B. K. K. (2012). The ghost crab Ocypode mortoni George, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae): redescription, distribution at its type locality, and the phylogeny of East Asian Ocypode species. Zootaxa 3550, 71–87. open url image1

Wood-Mason, J. (1874a). On a new genus and species (Hylaeocarcinus humei) of landcrabs from the Nicobar Island. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 42, 258–262. open url image1

Wood-Mason, J. (1874b). On a new genus and species (Hylaeocarcinus humei) of landcrabs from the Nicobar Islands. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 14, 187–191.
On a new genus and species (Hylaeocarcinus humei) of landcrabs from the Nicobar Islands.CrossRef | open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation