Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography

Invertebrate Systematics

Invertebrate Systematics

Invertebrate Systematics publishes significant contributions and reviews on the systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of all invertebrate taxa. Read more about the journalMore

Editor-in-Chief: Gonzalo Giribet

Current Issue

Invertebrate Systematics

Volume 31 Number 3 2017

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Only few molecular phylogenies on scorpion are available, thereby impeding on the study of morphology evolution in these animals. Here, we evaluated, using molecular data for the first time at a family level, the morphology evolution of enigmatic scorpions with a parametric approach. Our results suggested that morphology in these scorpions has evolved repeatedly and independently several times. Photograph by Jan Ove Rein.

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Delimiting species in semisulcospirid freshwater snails has been problematic for widespread incongruence between morphological and mitochondrial markers. In the present study, we revealed significant morphological plasticity in Korean species and genealogical patterns that are indicative of mitochondrial paralogy and introgression. However, when accounting for these phenomena, the Korean taxa can be delineated essentially by means of comparative morphology.

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The study shows that many species of native land planarians, a poorly studied group of small predators inhabiting humid forest soils, remain to be discovered in Europe. Species are disguised often under a similar external appearance; however, after examination of molecular and morphological features, we discovered no less than seven new species. This improved knowledge on the diversity of these worms in Europe opens the door to detailed ecological and biogeographical studies.

IS16046Towards a dated molecular phylogeny of the Tanypodinae (Chironomidae, Diptera)

M. N. Krosch, P. S. Cranston, L. M. Bryant, F. Strutt and S. R. McCluen
pp. 302-316
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The subfamilies of the non-biting midges (Diptera : Chironomidae) are evolutionarily old, originating in the middle Triassic–Cretaceous period, with the monophyletic Tanypodinae diversifying from the late Jurassic. Within this subfamily, internal tribal relationships have been difficult to resolve despite much attention. Here, we use a multi-locus molecular phylogenetic approach and denser taxonomic sampling to test morphological hypotheses of tribal relationships. Photograph: ventral larval head of Zavrelimyia sp. (Chironomidae : Tanypodinae), by P. S. Cranston.

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Recently, taxonomic revisions of the Stygnopsidae have increased noticeably; however, phylogenetic relationships among the family remain unknown. Herein, we present the first total evidence hypothesis of the family, with a new taxonomic approach, proposing two subfamilies and some nomenclatural changes. Also, we identified that some relevant morphological characters are homoplastic and that they should be considered in future taxonomic revisions.

Paper By Paper

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online as it becomes available

Published online 27 July 2017

IS16061Molecular and morphological evidence for a new genus of small trapdoor spiders from arid Western Australia (Araneae : Mygalomorphae : Nemesiidae : Anaminae)

Mark A. Castalanelli, Joel A. Huey, Mia J. Hillyer and Mark S. Harvey
pp. 492-505

Our study using morphology and a multigene molecular analysis finds that three new species from arid Western Australia belong to a new and previously unrecognised genus, Hesperonatalius. It represents the sister-group to the diverse genus Aname, but differs by the lack of a prominent asetose ventral depression on the pedipalpal tibia and the medium-sized mating spur on tibia I of males. Photograph: Hesperonatalius maxwelli, by M. S. Harvey.

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A revision of the harvestman family Sironidae, which includes the oldest known members of Cyphophthalmi, is provided with an up-to-date molecular phylogenetic treatment. Five new taxa from the Iberian Peninsula and North America are described, including the second species in the genus Iberosiro, which has remained monotypic until now. We further revisit the male genitalic morphology for most genera by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Photograph: Siro ligiae, sp. nov. Scale bars = 0.05 mm.

Published online 23 June 2017

IS17005A molecular phylogeny of the Palaearctic and Oriental members of the tribe Boarmiini (Lepidoptera : Geometridae : Ennominae)

Nan Jiang, Xinxin Li, Axel Hausmann, Rui Cheng, Dayong Xue and Hongxiang Han
pp. 427-441

Boarmiini are an important group of Geometrid moths with a high number of species and distributed worldwide. The aim of our work is to reconstruct the first molecular phylogeny of the Palaearctic and Oriental members of Boarmiini, and infer the relationships among tribes within the ‘boarmiine’ lineage. Our results will provide insight into the evolutionary history of Boarmiini species.

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Some Neotropical crab-spiders show vivid body coloration, whereas other species are darker and cryptic. Herein, we present an evolutive hypothesis that shows the intrinsic and paraphyletic relationship between spiders of the genera Epicadus and Tobias. Our results justify taxonomic changes regarding the validity of one of these genera and provide an initial discussion about the behavioral aspects and evolution of the mimetism in this group. Photograph by Alfredo Colón.

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Christmas Island has long fascinated researchers and visitors alike owing to the mass migration phenomenon of its endemic Gecarcoidea natalis. Two species known from the Indian and Pacific oceans (G. humei and G. lalandii, respectively) also exist on Christmas Island. The findings suggest that Christmas Island sit at a distinct biogeographic confluence between the two oceans, with factors influencing the creation of endemic fauna on the island. Photograph by H. H. Tan.

Published online 06 June 2017

IS16089Mitochondrial and chemical profiles reveal a new genus and species of Neotropical termite with snapping soldiers, Palmitermes impostor (Termitidae : Termitinae)

Simon Hellemans, Thomas Bourguignon, Pavlína Kyjaková, Robert Hanus and Yves Roisin
pp. 394-405
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We describe a new species of Neotropical termite whose soldier closely resembles Termes species. However, worker anatomy as well as mitochondrial DNA and chemical analyses revealed that this species should be placed in a new genus, sister to Cavitermes. Our study highlights the importance of using an integrative taxonomic approach to describe new taxa. Photo credits: The Authors.

Published online 01 June 2017

IS16073New Australian Paronellidae (Collembola) reveal anomalies in existing tribal diagnoses

Feng Zhang, Yitong Ma and Penelope Greenslade
pp. 375-393
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Scaled Zhuqinia jingwanae, gen. & sp. nov. discovered from Australian Snowy Mountain range cannot be assigned to any tribes of Paronellinae (Collembola), but is strikingly similar to an unscaled genus Paronellides. These findings strongly question the current higher classification of Paronellidae, particularly tribal division based on body scales of independent origins. The present study improves our understanding of systematics of Paronellidae, as well as Entomobryoidea.

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Protonymphon larvae of numerous sea spiders have as yet not been described, and therefore it is not clear whether their sets of characters allow for differential diagnoses. Using the resolving power of scanning electron microscopy, our analysis of protonymphons of two closely related species of Pallenopsis reveals various species-specific larval characters. Protonymphon features are thus significant in the context of species delimitation and can be used as idependent sets of characters in addition to adult morphology and DNA sequences.

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