The sharks and rays of the Solomon Islands: a synthesis of their biological diversity, values and conservation statusS. Hylton A B D , W. T. White C and A. Chin B
A Marine Science Program, School of the Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
B Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
C CSIRO Australian National Fish Collection, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7018, Australia.
D Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pacific Conservation Biology 23(4) 324-334 https://doi.org/10.1071/PC17012
Submitted: 12 April 2017 Accepted: 6 September 2017 Published: 12 October 2017
Journal compilation © CSIRO 2017 Open Access CC BY-NC-ND
Sharks and rays are facing increasing anthropogenic pressure globally, including in the Pacific. However, data on their status and biodiversity are lacking for many Pacific Large Ocean Island States. This study aimed to construct a species checklist for the sharks and rays occurring in the Solomon Islands, review the human interactions with these species, and present a synthesis of their conservation status. Given the paucity of available data, a wide range of data sources were used including fisheries data, citizen science, and ethnobiological studies. Results were validated through a review process involving expert informants. Fifty sharks and rays were identified from the Solomon Islands, of which 20 are assessed as Vulnerable or Endangered on the IUCN Red List, 10 in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 11 in the Convention for Migratory Species. The checklist also presents an eastwards range extension for the Endangered dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata. Fishing appears to be the main impact, though impacts from habitat loss and degradation are possible. This study provides a systematic synthesis and review of the biological diversity, uses, and cultural significance of Solomon Islands sharks and rays, and describes a process for assembling species checklists and reviews in data-poor contexts. However, this synthesis is based on limited information and a complete assessment of shark and ray status in the Solomon Islands will require primary fieldwork.
Additional keywords: biodiversity, citizen science, conservation management, extinction risk, legislation, population decline, predator
ReferencesAkimichi, T. (1978). The ecological aspect of Lau (Solomon Islands) ethnoichthyology. The Journal of the Polynesian Society (N. Z.) 87, 301–326.
Albert, J. A., Olds, A. D., Albert, S., Cruz-Trinidad, A., and Schwarz, A.-M. (2015). Reaping the reef: provisioning services from coral reefs in Solomon Islands. Marine Policy 62, 244–251.
| Reaping the reef: provisioning services from coral reefs in Solomon Islands.CrossRef |
Allen, G. R. (2008). Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo‐Pacific coral reef fishes. Aquatic Conservation 18, 541–556.
| Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo‐Pacific coral reef fishes.CrossRef |
Anonymous (1992). Solomon Islands Country Report Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.)
Banks, R. (2014). Fisheries improvement project for the Solomon Islands longline fishery, action plan, budget and guidance parameters. MRAG Americas.
Cavanagh, R. D., Kyne, P. M., Fowler, S. L., Musick, J. A., and Bennett, M. B. (2003). ‘The Conservation Status of Australasian Chondrichthyans.’ (The University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences: Brisbane.)
Chin, A. (2014). Hunting porcupines: citizen scientists contribute new knowledge about rare coral reef species. Pacific Conservation Biology 20, 48–53.
Chin, A., Lison de Loma, T., Reytar, K., Planes, S., Gerhardt, K., Clua, E., Burke, L., and Wilkinson, C. (2011). ‘Status of Coral Reefs of the Pacific and Outlook 2011.’ (Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network.)
CIA (2017). ‘The World Factbook: Solomon Islands.’ (Central Intelligence Agency.)
CITES (2017). Appendices I, II, and III on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).
Clarke, S. C., McAllister, M. K., Milner‐Gulland, E. J., Kirkwood, G., Michielsens, C. G., Agnew, D. J., Pikitch, E. K., Nakano, H., and Shivji, M. S. (2006). Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. Ecology Letters 9, 1115–1126.
| Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets.CrossRef |
Clarke, S. C., Harley, S. J., Hoyle, S. D., and Rice, J. S. (2013). Population trends in Pacific oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning. Conservation Biology 27, 197–209.
| Population trends in Pacific oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.CrossRef |
Clua, E., and Planes, S. (2014). Sharks and humans: how to reinforce the partnership. Regional workshop, CRIOBE, Moorea, French Polynesia. Fisheries Newsletter (Noumea) 145, 19–22.
CMS (2017). Appendices I and II on the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals).
Cohen, P., Evans, L., and Govan, H. (2015). Community-based, co-management for governing small-scale fisheries of the Pacific: a Solomon Islands’ case study. In ‘Interactive Governance for Small-Scale Fisheries. Vol. 13’. (Eds S. Jentoft and R. Chuenpagdee.) pp. 39–59. (Springer International Publishing.)
Cooper, M. (1970). Langalanga ethics. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University.
Crossland, J., and Philipson, P. (1993). The rural fishing enterprise project in Solomon Islands: fish market and marketing study. Report prepared for the Delegation of the Commission of the European Communities in Solomon Islands, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
Davidson, L. N., Krawchuk, M. A., and Dulvy, N. K. (2016). Why have global shark and ray landings declined: improved management or overfishing? Fish and Fisheries 17, 438–458.
| Why have global shark and ray landings declined: improved management or overfishing?CrossRef |
Davies, T. K., Stevens, G., Meekan, M. G., Struve, J., and Rowcliffe, J. M. (2012). Can citizen science monitor whale-shark aggregations? Investigating bias in mark–recapture modelling using identification photographs sourced from the public. Wildlife Research 39, 696–704.
| Can citizen science monitor whale-shark aggregations? Investigating bias in mark–recapture modelling using identification photographs sourced from the public.CrossRef |
Dickinson, J. L., Shirk, J., Bonter, D., Bonney, R., Crain, R. L., Martin, J., Phillips, T., and Purcell, K. (2012). The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10, 291–297.
| The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement.CrossRef |
Doyle, B., Harper, S., Jacquet, J., and Zeller, D. (2012). Reconstructing marine fisheries catches in the Solomon Islands: 1950–2009. In ‘Fisheries Catch Reconstructions: Islands, Part III. Fisheries Centre Research Reports’. (Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia) 20(5), 119–134.
Dulvy, N. K., Fowler, S. L., Musick, J. A., Cavanagh, R. D., Kyne, P. M., Harrison, L. R., Carlson, J. K., Davidson, L. N., Fordham, S. V., Francis, M. P., Pollock, C. M., Simpfendorfer, C. A., Burgess, G. H., Carpenter, K. E., Compagno, L. J., Ebert, D. A., Gibson, C., Heupel, M. R., Livingstone, S. R., Sanciangco, J. C., Stevens, J. D., Valenti, S., White, W. T., and Baldwin, I. T. (2014). Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. eLife 3, e00590.
| Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays.CrossRef |
Famhi, , and White, W. T. (2015). Atelomycterus erdmanni, a new species of catshark (Scyliorhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) from Indonesia. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation 14, 14–27.
FAO (2010). ‘Commodity Production and Trade 1976–2008.’ (Food and Agriculture Organisation Fisheries Department: Rome.)
Feinberg, R. (2010). Marine resource conservation and prospects for environmental sustainability in Anuta, Solomon Islands. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 31, 41–54.
| Marine resource conservation and prospects for environmental sustainability in Anuta, Solomon Islands.CrossRef |
Feinberg, R. (2011). ‘ANUTA: Polynesian Lifeways for the Twenty-First Century.’ 2nd edn. (Kent State University Press: Kent, OH.)
Foale, S. (1998). What’s in a name? An analysis of the West Nggela (Solomon Islands) fish taxonomy. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 9, 13–19.
Foale, S., Cohen, P., Januchowski-Hartley, S., Wenger, A., and Macintyre, M. (2011). Tenure and taboos: origins and implications for fisheries in the Pacific. Fish and Fisheries 12, 357–369.
| Tenure and taboos: origins and implications for fisheries in the Pacific.CrossRef |
Gillett, R. (2010). ‘Marine Fishery Resources of the Pacific Islands.’ (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.)
Hammerschlag, N., Gallagher, A. J., Lazarre, D. M., and Slonim, C. (2011). Range extension of the endangered great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran in the Northwest Atlantic: preliminary data and significance for conservation. Endangered Species Research 13, 111–116.
| Range extension of the endangered great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran in the Northwest Atlantic: preliminary data and significance for conservation.CrossRef |
Harry, A. V., Tobin, A. J., Simpfendorfer, C. A., Welch, D. J., Mapleston, A., White, J., Williams, A. J., and Stapley, J. (2011). Evaluating catch and mitigating risk in a multispecies, tropical, inshore shark fishery within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 710–721.
| Evaluating catch and mitigating risk in a multispecies, tropical, inshore shark fishery within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnvFanurY%3D&md5=3419eee14c04e3798c40b742c835504bCAS |
Horton, D. C. (1965). Malaita. March–October 1938. In ‘The Happy Isles: a Diary of the Solomons’. Chapter 3. (Travel Book Club: London.)
Hviding, E. (1988). Marine tenure and resource development in Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands: traditional knowledge, use and management of marine resources, with implications for contemporary development. South Pacific Forum Fisheries No 88/35. Honiara, Solomon Islands.
IUCN (2017). ‘The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.’ (International Union for Conservation of Nature.)
Juncker, M., Robert, M., and Clua, E. (2006). Coastal shark fisheries in the Pacific: a brief overview of current knowledge. Coral Reef Initiatives for the Pacific, SPC, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Jupiter, S. D., Cohen, P. J., Weeks, R., Tawake, A., and Govan, H. (2014). Locally-managed marine areas: multiple objectives and diverse strategies. Pacific Conservation Biology 20, 165–179.
| Locally-managed marine areas: multiple objectives and diverse strategies.CrossRef |
Lack, M., and Meere, F. (2009). Pacific Islands regional plan of action for sharks: guidance for Pacific Island countries and territories on the conservation and management of sharks. FFA, SPC, SPREP.
Lack, M., and Sant, G. (2012). An overview of shark utilisation in the Coral Triangle region (TRAFFIC & WWF). Available at: http://www.wwf.se/source.php/1496117/-Shark%20coral%20triangle%202012.pdf [accessed 7 September 2017].
Last, P. R., and Stevens, J. D. (2009). ‘Sharks and Rays of Australia.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)
Nadon, M. O., Baum, J. K., Williams, I. D., McPherson, J. M., Zgliczynski, B. J., Richards, B. L., Schroeder, R. E., and Brainard, R. E. (2012). Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks. Conservation Biology 26, 493–503.
| Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.CrossRef |
Oreihaka, E. (2001). Domestic tuna fisheries in the Solomon Islands. The 14th Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish. Ministery of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
Pomeroy, R. S., and Andrew, N. (2011). ‘Small-scale Fisheries Management: Frameworks and Approaches for the Developing World.’ (CABI: Wallingford.)
Richards, A. H., Bell, L. J., and Bell, J. D. (1994). Inshore fisheries resources of Solomon Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, 90–98.
| Inshore fisheries resources of Solomon Islands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXjtFWjtr4%3D&md5=e97861b10828ff1b0f6b91b3fab1daf9CAS |
Roeger, J., Foale, S., and Sheaves, M. (2016). When ‘fishing down the food chain’ results in improved food security: evidence from a small pelagic fishery in Solomon Islands. Fisheries Research 174, 250–259.
| When ‘fishing down the food chain’ results in improved food security: evidence from a small pelagic fishery in Solomon Islands.CrossRef |
Ruddle, K., Hviding, E., and Johannes, R. E. (1992). Marine resources management in the context of customary tenure. Marine Resource Economics 7, 249–273.
| Marine resources management in the context of customary tenure.CrossRef |
Sabetian, A. (2002). The importance of ethnographic knowledge to fishery research design and management in the South Pacific: a case study from Kolombangara Island, Solomon Islands. Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 14, 22–34.
Sabetian, A., and Foale, S. (2006). Evolution of the artisanal fisher: case studies from Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 20, 3–10.
Skewes, T. (1990). Marine resource profiles: Solomon Islands. FFA Report 90/61. Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
Stobutzki, I., Miller, M., and Brewer, D. (2001). Sustainability of fishery bycatch: a process for assessing highly diverse and numerous bycatch. Environmental Conservation 28, 167–181.
| Sustainability of fishery bycatch: a process for assessing highly diverse and numerous bycatch.CrossRef |
Sulu, R., Hay, C., Ramohia, P., and Lam, M. (2000). ‘The Status of Solomon Islands’ Coral Reefs.’ (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement: New Caledonia.)
Thaman, R. R., Puia, T., Tongabaea, W., Namona, A., and Fong, T. (2010). Marine biodiversity and ethnobiodiversity of Bellona (Mungiki) Island, Solomon Islands. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 31, 70–84.
| Marine biodiversity and ethnobiodiversity of Bellona (Mungiki) Island, Solomon Islands.CrossRef |
MECDM (The Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management & Meteorology) and MFMR (Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources). (2013). Solomon Islands shark statement 2013.
Vianna, G. M. S., Meekan, M. G., Bornovski, T. H., and Meeuwig, J. J. (2014). Acoustic telemetry validates a citizen science approach for monitoring sharks on coral reefs. PLoS One 9, e95565.
| Acoustic telemetry validates a citizen science approach for monitoring sharks on coral reefs.CrossRef |
WCPFC (2015). Conservation and management measures and resolutions of the Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.
White, W. T., Appleyard, S. A., Sabub, B., Kyne, P. M., Harris, M., Lis, R., Baje, L., Usu, T., Smart, J. J., Corrigan, S., Yang, L., and Naylor, G. J. P. (2015). Rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea. PLoS One 10, e0140075.
| Rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.CrossRef |
Zeller, D., Palomares, M. L. D., Tavakolie, A., Ang, M., Belhabib, D., Cheung, W. W. L., Lam, V. W. Y., Sy, E., Tsui, G., Zylich, K., and Pauly, D. (2016). Still catching attention: Sea Around Us reconstructed global catch data, their spatial expression and public accessibility. Marine Policy 70, 145–152.
| Still catching attention: Sea Around Us reconstructed global catch data, their spatial expression and public accessibility.CrossRef |