Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Spatiotemporal expression profile of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration

Juneo F. Silva A , Natália M. Ocarino B and Rogéria Serakides B C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Laboratório de Histologia Animal, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Km 16, 45662-900, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

B Laboratório de Patologia, Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Pampulha, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

C Corresponding author. Email: serakidesufmg@gmail.com

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29(9) 1774-1786 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD16280
Submitted: 14 July 2016  Accepted: 19 September 2016   Published: 14 October 2016

Abstract

The gene and/or protein expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators was evaluated in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration. The depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), interferon (IFN)-γ, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; also known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2) were evaluated. In addition, the expression of the Vegf, Flk1, placental growth factor (Pigf), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), placental lactogen 1 (Pl1), proliferin-related protein (rPlf), placental leptin (Lep), Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), Infg, Mif, tumour necrosis factor-α (Tnf), interleukin-10 (Il10), Nos2, caspase 3 (Casp3), Bax, Bcl2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) genes was determined by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. At 10 days gestation, gene expression of Tlr2, Tlr4, Tnf, Infg, Il10, Casp3, Pigf, sFlt1 and Lep (P < 0.05) were higher than at 14 and/or 19 days of gestation. The beginning of intrauterine trophoblast invasion, i.e., at 14 days of gestation, coincided with higher gene and/or protein expression of MMP9, VEGF, Flk1, NOS2, MIF, BAX and rPlf compared to days 10 and 19 (P < 0.05). In contrast, gene expression of Mmp2 and Pl1 was higher at the end of trophoblast invasion compared to 10 and 14 days of gestation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, before intrauterine trophoblast migration, expression of TLRs and immunological and pro-apoptotic mediators is higher, whereas the beginning of trophoblast migration is characterised by higher expression of the pro-angiogenic factors NOS2 and MMP9. In contrast, MMP2 and PL1 expression is higher at the end of intrauterine trophoblast migration.

Additional keywords: cytokines, factors, lactogenic, rodent, trophoblastic invasion, vascular.


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