Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

In vitro addition of docosahexaenoic acid improves the quality of cooled but not frozen–thawed stallion semen

D. M. Silva A B C , S. A. Holden B , A. Lyons B , J. C. Souza C and S. Fair B D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais – Campus Machado, Machado, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

B Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Co Limerick, Ireland.

C Department of Animal Science, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

D Corresponding author. Email: sean.fair@ul.ie

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29(10) 2021-2027 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD16473
Submitted: 1 September 2016  Accepted: 9 December 2016   Published: 8 February 2017

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the addition of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the in vitro quality of cooled and frozen–thawed stallion semen. In Experiment 1, semen from 10 stallions was collected (three ejaculates per stallion). Semen was diluted to 100 × 106 spermatozoa mL–1 with 0.02 mM vitamin E (VE) and 0, 1, 10 or 20 ng mL–1 DHA and frozen. Semen was thawed and total motility (TM), rapid progressive motility (PM), acrosome integrity, membrane fluidity and morphology were assessed. In Experiment 2, semen from three stallions was collected (three ejaculates per stallion) and frozen as in Experiment 1, but VE and DHA were added after thawing. TM and PM were assessed at 30, 60 and 120 min and viability, acrosome integrity and membrane fluidity were evaluated at 30 min. In Experiment 3, semen from five stallions was collected (one to three ejaculates per stallion), diluted to 20 × 106 spermatozoa mL–1 and stored at 4°C. After 1, 24, 48 and 72 h, TM, PM, viability, membrane fluidity and lipid peroxidation were assessed. The addition of DHA had no effect on frozen semen (Experiments 1 and 2) but improved TM, PM and membrane fluidity in cooled stallion semen.

Additional keywords: equine, fertility, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), spermatozoa.


References

Aitken, R. J., and Baker, M. A. (2004). Oxidative stress and male reproductive biology. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 16, 581–588.
Oxidative stress and male reproductive biology.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXlvVensLo%3D&md5=9b0529155b3ac8d55c8c28ed1b85e1a5CAS |

Aitken, R. J., De Iuliis, G. N., Gibb, Z., and Baker, M. A. (2012). The Simmet Lecture: new horizons on an old landscape – oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in the male germ line. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 47, 7–14.
The Simmet Lecture: new horizons on an old landscape – oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in the male germ line.CrossRef |

Aurich, J., and Aurich, C. (2006). Developments in European horse breeding and consequences for veterinarians in equine reproduction. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 41, 275–279.
Developments in European horse breeding and consequences for veterinarians in equine reproduction.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD28vkslOmtA%3D%3D&md5=3190fe8975742ce8a18e03921f29b11aCAS |

Barranco, I., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Perez-Pati, C., Alkmin, D. V., Ceron, J. J., Martinez, E. A., Rodriguez-Martinez, H., and Roca, J. (2015). The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility. Andrology 3, 315–320.
The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXntFSgtro%3D&md5=c9686a37b6097f0d57108d3afbadda32CAS |

Batellier, F., Vidament, M., Fauquant, J., Duchamp, G., Arnaud, G., Yvon, J. M., and Magistrini, M. (2001). Advances in cooled semen technology. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 68, 181–190.
Advances in cooled semen technology.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MnpslKnsg%3D%3D&md5=3c58f5789f5f852869c0f532e976ecb5CAS |

Brinsko, S. P., Varner, D. D., Love, C. C., Blanchard, T. L., Day, B. C., and Wilson, M. E. (2005). Effect of feeding a DHA-enriched nutriceutical on the quality of fresh, cooled and frozen stallion semen. Theriogenology 63, 1519–1527.
Effect of feeding a DHA-enriched nutriceutical on the quality of fresh, cooled and frozen stallion semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhslWnurs%3D&md5=e8b5c88b85af35ca8083ed482921c155CAS |

Bustamante-Filho, I. C., Rosa, A. P., Linden, L. S. V., Pederzolli, C. D., Neves, A. P., Dutra-Filho, C. S., Jobim, M. I. M., and Mattos, R. C. (2014). Enzymatic scavengers in the epididymal fluid: comparison between pony and miniature breed stallions. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 151, 164–168.
Enzymatic scavengers in the epididymal fluid: comparison between pony and miniature breed stallions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhvFSmsr3E&md5=47b67b99ac6976660b0110f6fe3d646bCAS |

Büyükleblebici, S., Taşdemir, U., Tuncer, P. B., Durmaz, E., Özgürtaş, T., Büyükleblebici, O., Coşkun, E., and Gürcan, İ. S. (2014). Can linoleic acid improve the quality of frozen thawed bull sperm? Cryo Letters 35, 473–481.

Chanapiwat, P., Kaeoket, K., and Tummaruk, P. (2009). Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen. Asian J. Androl. 11, 600–608.
Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtV2jtbzJ&md5=2c2c859948f4c712f6702f45d69b86feCAS |

Chung, K.-H., Kim, I.-C., and Son, J.-H. (2015). Antioxidant supplementation enhances the porcine semen preservation capacity. Reprod. Dev. Biol. 39, 7–11.
Antioxidant supplementation enhances the porcine semen preservation capacity.CrossRef |

Darin-Bennett, A., and White, I. G. (1977). Influence of the cholesterol content of mammalian spermatozoa on susceptibility to cold-shock. Cryobiology 14, 466–470.
Influence of the cholesterol content of mammalian spermatozoa on susceptibility to cold-shock.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXltlWmtr4%3D&md5=0861e6475b0708921293539b3dfa6d34CAS |

Fair, S., Doyle, D. N., Diskin, M. G., Hennessy, A. A., and Kenny, D. A. (2014). The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen. Theriogenology 81, 210–219.
The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsFOgt7fO&md5=8aeb5e9d0ead46476288ca1c34a9cc27CAS |

Gamboa, S., Machado-Faria, M., and Ramalho-Santos, J. (2009). Seminal traits, suitability for semen preservation and fertility in the native Portuguese horse breeds Puro Sangue Lusitano and Sorraia: implications for stallion classification and assisted reproduction. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 113, 102–113.
Seminal traits, suitability for semen preservation and fertility in the native Portuguese horse breeds Puro Sangue Lusitano and Sorraia: implications for stallion classification and assisted reproduction.CrossRef |

Gürler, H., Calisici, O., Calisici, D., and Bollwein, H. (2015). Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 160, 97–104.
Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.CrossRef |

Haadem, C. S., Nødtvedt, A., Farstad, W., and Thomassen, R. (2015). A retrospective cohort study on fertility in the Norwegian Coldblooded trotter after artificial insemination with cooled, shipped versus fresh extended semen. Acta Vet. Scand. 57, 77.
A retrospective cohort study on fertility in the Norwegian Coldblooded trotter after artificial insemination with cooled, shipped versus fresh extended semen.CrossRef |

Johnson, L. A., Weitze, K. F., Fiser, P., and Maxwell, W. M. C. (2000). Storage of boar semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 62, 143–172.
Storage of boar semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXlt1Kgsbc%3D&md5=e6025ce3d5a46f2569855a6f3a1fb0b9CAS |

Kaeoket, K., Sang-urai, P., Thamniyom, A., Chanapiwat, P., and Techakumphu, M. (2010). Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on quality of cryopreserved boar semen in diferente breeds. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 45, 458–463.
Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on quality of cryopreserved boar semen in diferente breeds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXnvFGrtbg%3D&md5=9c64a6cecced1a99f464488670e5081cCAS |

Kaka, A., Haron, W., Yusoff, R., Yimer, N., Khumran, A. M., Behan, A. A., and Ebrahimi, M. (2015a). Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation in Tris extender can improve frozen–thawed bull semen quality. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 50, 29–33.
Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation in Tris extender can improve frozen–thawed bull semen quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsVWktro%3D&md5=e069c25f62ea7d743f33bd5654b7c743CAS |

Kaka, A., Haron, W., Yusoff, R., Yimer, N., Khumran, A. M., Sarsaifi, K., Behan, A. A., Kaka, U., Memon, A. A., and Ebrahimi, M. (2015b). Effect of docosahexanoic acid on quality of frozen–thawed bull semen in BioXcell extender. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. , .
Effect of docosahexanoic acid on quality of frozen–thawed bull semen in BioXcell extender.CrossRef |

Kiernan, M., Fahey, A. G., and Fair, S. (2013). The effect of the in vitro supplementation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids on bovine sperm cell function. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 25, 947–954.
The effect of the in vitro supplementation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids on bovine sperm cell function.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtFSrtrzI&md5=310eb3f293c0ea361b3ba2f724e08d1eCAS |

Klein, U., Gimpl, G., and Fahrenholz, F. (1995). Alteration of the myometrial plasma membrane cholesterol content with beta-cyclodextrin modulates the binding affinity of the oxytocin receptor. Biochemistry 34, 13784–13793.
Alteration of the myometrial plasma membrane cholesterol content with beta-cyclodextrin modulates the binding affinity of the oxytocin receptor.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXotl2htbs%3D&md5=abcc9de43d24ed923b74015402e551e9CAS |

Lewis, S. E. M. (2007). Is sperm evaluation useful in predicting human fertility? Reproduction 134, 31–40.
Is sperm evaluation useful in predicting human fertility?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXpvFGisrk%3D&md5=0bdcd1018270e7f44d1a55d0eba73897CAS |

Lindahl, J., Dalin, A.-M., Stuhtmann, G., and Morrell, J. M. (2012). Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination. Acta Vet. Scand. 54, 40.
Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination.CrossRef |

Liu, Q., Zhou, Y. F., Duan, R. J., Wei, H. K., Jiang, S. W., and Peng, J. (2015). Effects of dietary n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 162, 11–19.
Effects of dietary n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsFGgsLvJ&md5=f832a17c4da58bd2d78d4bb83c500f05CAS |

Meryman, H. T. (1966). The interpretation of freezing rates in biological materials. Cryobiology 2, 165–170.
The interpretation of freezing rates in biological materials.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaF287gt1yqtw%3D%3D&md5=3c3b96e9f3cee98990d49e2011fac7ffCAS |

Miller, C. D. (2008). Optimizing the use of frozen–thawed equine semen. Theriogenology 70, 463–468.
Optimizing the use of frozen–thawed equine semen.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1cvhs12itg%3D%3D&md5=84a7e7aa3a5b5b41c00b8249c1682d02CAS |

Moallem, U., Neta, N., Zeron, Y., Zachut, M., and Roth, Z. (2015). Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen–thawed bull semen. Theriogenology 83, 1110–1120.
Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen–thawed bull semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXos1ejtw%3D%3D&md5=37eb930f33e1f4a80fcc93ee1ec7272eCAS |

Moran, D. M., Jasko, D. J., Squires, E. L., and Amann, R. P. (1992). Determination of temperature and cooling rate which induce cold shock in stallion spermatozoa. Theriogenology 38, 999–1012.
Determination of temperature and cooling rate which induce cold shock in stallion spermatozoa.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD283pvF2muw%3D%3D&md5=259ae9976fb9331accaf08175b1eb06bCAS |

Murphy, C., English, A. M., Holden, S. A., and Fair, S. (2014). Cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins improve the post-thaw quality of stallion sperm. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 145, 123–129.
Cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins improve the post-thaw quality of stallion sperm.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXjsFyrtbc%3D&md5=54a42b9cd9f72d7d59f40ca70028feb9CAS |

Murphy, C., Hoden, S. A., Murphy, E. M., Cromie, A. R., Lonergan, P., and Fair, S. (2015). The impact of storage temperature on the sperm number on the fertility of liquid-stored bull semen. Reprod. Fertil. Dev , .
The impact of storage temperature on the sperm number on the fertility of liquid-stored bull semen.CrossRef |

Nasiri, A. H., Towhidi, A., and Zeinoaldini, S. (2012). Combined effect of DHA and α-tocopherol supplementation during bull semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and fatty acid composition. Andrologia 44, 550–555.
Combined effect of DHA and α-tocopherol supplementation during bull semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and fatty acid composition.CrossRef |

Odhiambo, J. F., DeJarnette, J. M., Geary, T. W., Kennedy, C. E., Suarez, S. S., Sutovsky, M., and Sutovsky, P. (2014). Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen. Biol. Reprod. 91, 97.
Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen.CrossRef |

Parks, J. E., and Lynch, D. V. (1992). Lipid composition and thermotropic phase behavior of boar, bull, stallion, and rooster spermatozoa membranes. Cryobiology 29, 255–266.
Lipid composition and thermotropic phase behavior of boar, bull, stallion, and rooster spermatozoa membranes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38Xitlaktr0%3D&md5=03071c34c331e7f07fd6f18831e4239fCAS |

Peña, F. J., Macías García, B., Samper, J. C., Aparicio, I. M., Tapia, J. A., and Ortega Ferrusola, C. (2011). Dissecting the molecular damage to stallion spermatozoa: the way to improve current cryopreservation protocols? Theriogenology 76, 1177–1186.
Dissecting the molecular damage to stallion spermatozoa: the way to improve current cryopreservation protocols?CrossRef |

Radomil, L., Pettitt, M. J., Merkies, K. M., Hickey, K. D., and Buhr, M. M. (2011). Stress and dietary factors modify boar sperm processing. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46, 39–44.
Stress and dietary factors modify boar sperm processing.CrossRef |

Rodrigues, M. P., Tarragó, O. F. B., Arruda, R. P., Oliveira, L. Z., Pimenta, R. B., Nichi, M., and Barnabe, V. H. (2015). Oxidative and functional status of bovine semen cryopreserved in different seasons. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 52, 134–140.
Oxidative and functional status of bovine semen cryopreserved in different seasons.CrossRef |

Sampaio, B. F. B., Bender, E. S. C., Costa-e-Silva, E. V., and Zúccari, C. E. S. N. (2015). Effect of oleic–linoleic acid and β-sitosterol to freezing extender of bulls and stallions semen. Semin. Cienc. Agrar. 36, 1369–1384.
Effect of oleic–linoleic acid and β-sitosterol to freezing extender of bulls and stallions semen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xntlaht74%3D&md5=1c147ff60f2e0cba58a5048b72bfa32eCAS |

Schmid-Lausigk, Y., and Aurich, C. (2014). Influences of a diet supplemented with linseed oil and antioxidants on quality of equine semen after cooling and cryopreservation during winter. Theriogenology 81, 966–973.
Influences of a diet supplemented with linseed oil and antioxidants on quality of equine semen after cooling and cryopreservation during winter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXjsF2gsrs%3D&md5=b41ff028c1fee7fd89f1248442c93a84CAS |

Towhidi, A., and Parks, J. E. (2012). Effect of n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol on post-thawed parameters and fatty acid composition of bovine sperm. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 29, 1051–1056.
Effect of n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol on post-thawed parameters and fatty acid composition of bovine sperm.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38fmtVSjsQ%3D%3D&md5=5698f83fe33be293c64dfe982a001d69CAS |

Wathes, D. C., Abayasekara, D. R. E., and Aitken, R. J. (2007). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in male and female reproduction. Biol. Reprod. 77, 190–201.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids in male and female reproduction.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXot1OnsL0%3D&md5=8d91c0ebdfe6625463b68e2bf9b4f2ccCAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation