Australian Systematic Botany Australian Systematic Botany Society
Taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of plants
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Phylogenetic measures of neo- and palaeo-endemism in the indigenous vascular flora of the New Zealand archipelago

Peter B. Heenan A B , Timothy R. Millar A , Rob D. Smissen A , Matt S. McGlone A and Aaron D. Wilton A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Landcare Research, PO Box 69040, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand.

B Corresponding author. Present address: Wildland Consultants, 238 Barrington Street, Spreydon, Christchurch 8244, New Zealand. Email: peter.heenan@wildlands.co.nz

Australian Systematic Botany 30(2) 124-133 https://doi.org/10.1071/SB17009
Submitted: 20 February 2017  Accepted: 12 April 2017   Published: 17 August 2017

Abstract

Categorical analysis of neo- and palaeo-endemism (CANAPE), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic weighted endemism (PWE) were used to explore patterns of diversity, endemism and biogeography in the indigenous vascular flora of the New Zealand archipelago. Distributional data comprising 213 142 records for 436 genera and 2187 species and a phylogeny based mainly on rbcL sequences were used to calculate neo- and palaeo-endemism biodiversity metrics for 0.12° grid cells. Genus- and species-level analyses of PD revealed few significantly high-value cells mostly scattered in the northern North Island, and, for PWE, significantly high-value cells were concentrated in the northern North Island and northern offshore islands. CANAPE analyses suggested that palaeo-endemism is concentrated in northern North Island and the northern offshore islands, whereas neo-endemism is concentrated in South Island and the southern offshore islands. The areas of endemism highlighted by our analyses are compared with earlier biogeographic studies of endemism in the New Zealand flora. Some revision of previously suggested biogeographic boundaries is proposed, with the boundaries of the central South Island alpine gap being further north than previous studies have inferred, and the possibility that Pliocene marine transgression contributed to shaping the central North Island palaeo-endemism boundary is discussed.

Additional keywords: Biodiverse, biogeography, CANAPE, hotspot, islands, phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, spatial analysis, taxonomic rank.


References

Barrell DJA (2011) Quaternary glaciers of New Zealand. Developments in Quaternary Science 15, 1047–1064.
Quaternary glaciers of New Zealand.CrossRef |

Buckley TR, Leschen RAB (2013) Comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals long-term isolation of lineages on the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 108, 361–377.
Comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals long-term isolation of lineages on the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand.CrossRef |

Burrows CJ (1965) Some discontinuous distributions of plants within New Zealand and their ecological significance. II. Disjunctions between Otago-Southland and Nelson-Marlborough and related distributional patterns. Tuatara 13, 9–29.

Campbell H, Hutching G (2007) ‘In Search of Ancient New Zealand.’ (Penguin Group: Auckland, New Zealand)

Climo FM (1975) The land snail fauna. In ‘Biogeography and Ecology in New Zealand’. (Ed. G Kuschel) Monographiae Biologicae 27, pp. 459–492. (Dr W. Junk: The Hague, Netherlands)

Cockayne L (1928) ‘The vegetation of New Zealand’, 2nd edn. (W. Engelmann: Leipzig, Germany)

Crisp MD, Laffan SW, Linder HP, Monro A (2001) Endemism in the Australian flora. Journal of Biogeography 28, 183–198.
Endemism in the Australian flora.CrossRef |

Faith DP (1992) Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biological Conservation 61, 1–10.
Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity.CrossRef |

Faith DP (1994) Phylogenetic diversity: a general framework for the prediction of feature diversity. In ‘Systematics and Conservation Evaluation’. (Eds PL Forey, CJ Humphries, RI Vane-Wright) pp. 251–268. (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK)

Fleming CA (1979) ‘The Geological History of New Zealand and its Biota.’ (Auckland University Press: Auckland, New Zealand)

Ford KA, Ward JM, Smissen RD, Wagstaff SJ, Breitwieser I (2007) Phylogeny and biogeography of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on ITS, ETS and psbA–trnH sequence data. Taxon 56, 783–794.
Phylogeny and biogeography of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on ITS, ETS and psbA–trnH sequence data.CrossRef |

Gleeson DM, Howitt RLJ, Ling N (1999) Genetic variation, population structure and cryptic species within the black mudfish, Neochanna diversus, an endemic galaxiid from New Zealand. Molecular Ecology 8, 47–57.
Genetic variation, population structure and cryptic species within the black mudfish, Neochanna diversus, an endemic galaxiid from New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjtVOgur8%3D&md5=c37e4062e17c60849c469a57d402335bCAS |

Heads MJ (1997) Regional patterns of biodiversity in New Zealand: one degree grid analysis of plant and animal distributions. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 27, 337–354.
Regional patterns of biodiversity in New Zealand: one degree grid analysis of plant and animal distributions.CrossRef |

Heenan PB, McGlone MS (2013) Evolution of New Zealand alpine and open-habitat plant species during the late Cenozoic. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37, 105–113.

Heenan PB, Mitchell AD, de Lange PJ, Keeling J, Paterson AM (2010) Late Cenozoic origin and diversification of Chatham Islands endemic plant species revealed by analyses of DNA sequence data. New Zealand Journal of Botany 48, 83–136.
Late Cenozoic origin and diversification of Chatham Islands endemic plant species revealed by analyses of DNA sequence data.CrossRef |

Joly S, Heenan PB, Lockhart PJ (2009) A Pleistocene inter-tribal allopolyploidization event precedes the species radiation of Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) in New Zealand. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51, 365–372.
A Pleistocene inter-tribal allopolyploidization event precedes the species radiation of Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) in New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXltFemuro%3D&md5=29ab6e652e4aaca471e1e90b66f8406bCAS |

Knapp M, Mudaliar R, Havell D, Wagstaff SJ, Lockhart PJ (2007) The drowning of New Zealand and the problem of Agathis. Systematic Biology 56, 862–870.
The drowning of New Zealand and the problem of Agathis.CrossRef |

Laffan SW, Crisp MD (2003) Assessing endemism at multiple spatial scales, with an example from the Australian vascular flora. Journal of Biogeography 30, 511–520.
Assessing endemism at multiple spatial scales, with an example from the Australian vascular flora.CrossRef |

Laffan SW, Lubarsky E, Rosauer DF (2010) Biodiverse, a tool for the spatial analysis of biological and related diversity. Ecography 33, 643–647.
Biodiverse, a tool for the spatial analysis of biological and related diversity.CrossRef |

Landis CA, Campbell HJ, Begg JG, Mildenhall DC, Paterson AM, Trewick SA (2008) The Waipounamu erosion surface: questioning the antiquity of the New Zealand land surface and terrestrial fauna and flora. Geological Magazine 145, 173–197.
The Waipounamu erosion surface: questioning the antiquity of the New Zealand land surface and terrestrial fauna and flora.CrossRef |

Lee DE, Lee WG, Mortimer N (2001) Where and why have all the flowers gone? Depletion and turnover in the New Zealand Cenozoic angiosperm flora in relation to palaeogeography and climate. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 341–356.
Where and why have all the flowers gone? Depletion and turnover in the New Zealand Cenozoic angiosperm flora in relation to palaeogeography and climate.CrossRef |

Lockhart PJ, McLenachan PA, Havell D, Glenny D, Huson D, Jensen U (2001) Phylogeny, radiation, and transoceanic dispersal of New Zealand alpine buttercups: molecular evidence under split decomposition. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88, 458–477.
Phylogeny, radiation, and transoceanic dispersal of New Zealand alpine buttercups: molecular evidence under split decomposition.CrossRef |

McGlone MS (1985) Plant biogeography and the late Cenozoic history of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 23, 723–749.
Plant biogeography and the late Cenozoic history of New Zealand.CrossRef |

McGlone MS, Mildenhall DC, Pole MS (1996) History and palaeoecology of New Zealand Nothofagus forests. In ‘The Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forests’. (Eds TT Veblen, RS Hill, J Read) pp. 83–130. (Yale University Press: New Haven, CT, USA)

McGlone MS, Duncan RP, Heenan PB (2001) Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand. Journal of Biogeography 28, 199–216.
Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand.CrossRef |

Meudt HM, Prebble JM, Lehnebach CA (2015) Native New Zealand forget-me-nots (Myosotis, Boraginaceae) comprise a Pleistocene species radiation with very low genetic divergence. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301, 1455–1471.
Native New Zealand forget-me-nots (Myosotis, Boraginaceae) comprise a Pleistocene species radiation with very low genetic divergence.CrossRef |

Millar TR, Heenan PB, Wilton AD, Smissen RD, Breitwieser I (2017) Spatial distribution of species, generic and phylogenetic endemism in the vascular flora of New Zealand, and implications for conservation. Australian Systematic Botany 30, 134–147.
Spatial distribution of species, generic and phylogenetic endemism in the vascular flora of New Zealand, and implications for conservation.CrossRef |

Mishler BD, Knerr NJ, Gonzalez-Orozco CE, Thornhill AH, Laffan S, Miller JT (2014) Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and palaeo-endemism in Australian Acacia. Nature Communications 5, 4473
Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and palaeo-endemism in Australian Acacia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXksVCjtL0%3D&md5=e3f2595fa94eb45bfbd3771b7df6461fCAS |

Molina-Venegas R, Aparicio A, Lavergne S, Arroyo J (2017) Climatic and topographical correlates of plant palaeo- and neoendemism in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Annals of Botany 119, 229–238.
Climatic and topographical correlates of plant palaeo- and neoendemism in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.CrossRef |

Morgan-Richards M, Trewick SA, Wallis GP (2001) Chromosome races with Pliocene origins: evidence from mtDNA. Heredity 86, 303–312.
Chromosome races with Pliocene origins: evidence from mtDNA.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmtlSgur4%3D&md5=bcf9c1cf228a09e8c7be458fe45a5879CAS |

Nelson G (1975) Biogeography, the vicariance paradigm, and continental drift. Systematic Zoology 24, 490–504.
Biogeography, the vicariance paradigm, and continental drift.CrossRef |

Pole M (1994) The New Zealand flora: entirely long-distance dispersal? Journal of Biogeography 21, 625–635.
The New Zealand flora: entirely long-distance dispersal?CrossRef |

Rogers GM (1989) The nature of the lower North Island floristic gap. New Zealand Journal of Botany 27, 221–241.
The nature of the lower North Island floristic gap.CrossRef |

Rogers G, Walker S (2005) Evolution of the New Zealand vascular flora: regional and provincial patterns of richness, radiation, and endemism. New Zealand Journal of Botany 43, 381–414.
Evolution of the New Zealand vascular flora: regional and provincial patterns of richness, radiation, and endemism.CrossRef |

Rosauer D, Laffan SW, Crisp MD, Donnellan SC, Cook LG (2009) Phylogenetic endemism: a new approach for identifying geographical concentrations of evolutionary history. Molecular Ecology 18, 4061–4072.
Phylogenetic endemism: a new approach for identifying geographical concentrations of evolutionary history.CrossRef |

Schmidt-Lebuhn AN, Knerr NJ, Miller JT, Mishler BD (2015) Phylogenetic diversity and endemism of Australian daisies (Asteraceae). Journal of Biogeography 42, 1114–1122.
Phylogenetic diversity and endemism of Australian daisies (Asteraceae).CrossRef |

Smissen RD, Breitwieser I, Ward JM (2004) Phylogenetic implications of trans-specific chloroplast DNA sequence polymorphism in New Zealand Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 249, 37–53.
Phylogenetic implications of trans-specific chloroplast DNA sequence polymorphism in New Zealand Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptV2jurs%3D&md5=a6de2651697a31ac858c0926e47ef741CAS |

Suggate RP, Stevens GR, Te Punga MT (1978) ‘The Geology of New Zealand.’ (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research: Wellington, New Zealand)

Thornhill AH, Mishler BD, Knerr NJ, González-Orozco CE, Costion CM, Crayn DM, Laffan SW, Miller JT (2016) Continental-scale spatial phylogenetics of Australian angiosperms provides insights into ecology, evolution and conservation. Journal of Biogeography 43, 2085–2098.
Continental-scale spatial phylogenetics of Australian angiosperms provides insights into ecology, evolution and conservation.CrossRef |

Trewick SA, Bland KJ (2012) Fire and slice: palaeogeography for biogeography at New Zealand’s North Island/South Island juncture. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 42, 153–183.
Fire and slice: palaeogeography for biogeography at New Zealand’s North Island/South Island juncture.CrossRef |

Wagstaff SJ, Heenan PB, Sanderson MJ (1999) Classification, origins, and patterns of diversification in New Zealand Carmichaelia (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 86, 1346–1356.
Classification, origins, and patterns of diversification in New Zealand Carmichaelia (Fabaceae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmsFOltL4%3D&md5=2dfd30ddb3e3a308d60b94659fd0b2a2CAS |

Wagstaff SJ, Breitwieser I, Ito M (2011) Evolution and biogeography of Pleurophyllum (Astereae, Asteraceae), a small genus of megaherbs endemic to the subantarctic islands. American Journal of Botany 98, 62–75.
Evolution and biogeography of Pleurophyllum (Astereae, Asteraceae), a small genus of megaherbs endemic to the subantarctic islands.CrossRef |

Wallis GP, Trewick SA (2009) New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent. Molecular Ecology 18, 3548–3580.
New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent.CrossRef |

Wardle P (1963) Evolution and distribution of the New Zealand flora, as affected by Quaternary climates. New Zealand Journal of Botany 1, 3–17.
Evolution and distribution of the New Zealand flora, as affected by Quaternary climates.CrossRef |

Wardle P (1988) Effects of glacial climates on floristic distribution in New Zealand. 1. A review of the evidence. New Zealand Journal of Botany 26, 541–555.
Effects of glacial climates on floristic distribution in New Zealand. 1. A review of the evidence.CrossRef |

Wardle P (1991) ‘Vegetation of New Zealand.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Winkworth RC, Wagstaff SJ, Glenny D, Lockhart PJ (2005) Evolution of the New Zealand mountain flora: origins, diversification and dispersal. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5, 237–247.
Evolution of the New Zealand mountain flora: origins, diversification and dispersal.CrossRef |



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (116 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)

View Altmetrics