Australian Systematic Botany Australian Systematic Botany Society
Taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of plants

Author Instructions

All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Publishing Policies
Australian Systematic Botany insists on high standards of ethical behaviour throughout the publication process. Our journal editors work within the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Further information on our policies can be found at

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Peer review
Australian Systematic Botany is a peer-reviewed journal that uses a single-blind peer-review. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible to maintain high-quality peer-review of papers submitted to the journal and works together with Associate Editors to ensure a thorough and fair peer-review and the highest scientific publishing standards. All submissions undergo preliminary assessment by the Editor-in-Chief, who may reject a paper before peer review when it is outside the journal’s scope or is of insufficient quality. Associate Editors select reviewers and after at least two review reports are received, they make the decision whether to accept/reject or send a manuscript for revision. The final decision is made by the Editor-in-Chief.

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The conditions around authorship for Australian Systematic Botany should follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), for more information see

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Licence to publish
For details regarding copyright, please see Copyright/Licence to Publish.

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Open access
Authors may choose to publish their paper Open Access on payment of a publication fee. See Open Access for more details.

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Journal policy and notes
Papers will be considered for publication in the Journal if they make an original contribution to any branch of systematic botany. Descriptive taxonomic papers should normally constitute a comprehensive treatment of a group. Short papers on individual species and nomenclatural papers must contain significant new information of broader interest to be considered. Papers dealing with groups of unrelated species or miscellaneous collections of species are not considered. Numbered series of papers are discouraged. Review articles will also be considered. Authors interested in publishing a review article are invited to contact the Editor-in-Chief or an appropriate member of the Editorial Board. All papers are refereed. There are no page charges.

Submission of a paper implies that the results have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. It also implies that all coauthors of the paper have consented to its submission. Authors of multi-authored papers may wish to assign relative values to their contributions, or to indicate that two or more authors contributed equally to a paper. This can be done in a note at the end of the address field on the paper. The Journal will use its best endeavours to ensure that work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that any published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. It takes no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the contributors.

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Distribution information and lodging specimens
In cooperation with other botanical institutions, distributional data for rare and threatened plant taxa will be masked. Precise distributional data are not published for species that are listed as known only from the type locality, or whose conservation status is given as E or V in the relevant State/Territory and Commonwealth legislation. Where specimen citations for rare taxa have been deliberately abbreviated to achieve less precision in order to protect the taxa, this should be stated. The Wildlife Protection (Regulation) of Exports and Imports Act of 1982 (amended in 1986) states that all type material and unicates collected in Australia must be lodged in an appropriate national or state institution. Consequently, Journal policy requires that type material of all of the taxa collected in Australia after 1982, and discussed by the author of a manuscript, be lodged in a suitable Australian herbarium.

For all papers, whether presenting morphological, cytological or molecular data, voucher specimens must be cited, along with the herbarium where lodged. For population studies where large series of specimens of one taxon are examined, citation of exemplar specimens is acceptable. In tables that list material examined, the voucher specimen (collection) and the herbarium where lodged are to be listed for each entry. If there are one or few herbaria involved, this can be indicated instead of in the materials and methods, or in the table caption.

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Data archiving policy
Australian Systematic Botany requires, as a condition for publication, that data supporting the results in the paper are archived in an appropriate public archive. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences must be deposited in GenBank (see or partnered database. Other types of data (e.g. sequence alignments and other phylogenetic matrices) should be submitted to a public archive, or provided as supplementary material for publication online. Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable for decades in the future. Authors may elect to have the data publicly available at the time of publication, or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period up to 1 year after publication. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the editor, especially for sensitive information such as the location of endangered species. It is recommended that authors finalise data archiving prior to submission of their manuscript, and make accession numbers and confidential reviewer links available during the peer-review process. Authors should take care to provide accurate and informative annotations and metadata. Once the manuscript is accepted for publication and bibliographic details are available, these details should be added to archived data records in order to enable correct citation of the data’s source.

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Online publication
Papers are published 'early access' online in the final paginated form ahead of assignment to an issue when possible.

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Paper categories
Full Papers are complete peer-reviewed reports of original research not previously published.

Review articles are encouraged, and should critically summarise relevant work in a specific field and indicate fruitful lines of further research. Reviews should be submitted in the same way as research papers and are subject to peer-review. It is advisable to discuss the review with the Editor-in-Chief or a member of the Editorial Board before submission.

Notes and Commentary submissions on new research methods and equipment, short survey results, and commentaries or opinions on topical issues are welcome. Of particular interest are papers that challenge perceptions and are likely to stimulate constructive responses and discussion. Submissions for this section should be short [less than 2000 words] and will not be subject to [full] peer review. However as with all papers published by Australian Systematic Botany, citations and references to published sources must be included as appropriate.

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L.A.S. Johnson Review Series
Australian Systematic Botany publishes critical state-of-the-art evaluations that advance knowledge in current key areas of research in systematic botany. The series - The L. A. S. Johnson Reviews - is commissioned by invitation, and is numbered in sequence. We appreciate suggestions on prospective reviews for this important series. The journal will publish these papers as Open Access, free of charge. Please note that these papers are subject to peer-review and the editors reserve the right not to publish any material.

L. A. S. (Lawrie) Johnson (1926–1997) was an Australian systematic botanist notable for his studies of the eucalypts (Eucalyptus, Angophora and Corymbia), cycads, Juncaceae, Oleaceae, Restionaceae and phylogenetic studies of Myrtaceae, Myrtales and Proteaceae. His career was at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, as Botanist (1948–1972), Director (1972–1985) and Honorary Research Associate (1986–1997). During his directorship the Royal Botanic Gardens saw major developments and broadening of its scientific programs. Alone or with colleagues, he distinguished and described many genera and species, as well as reclassifying numerous further taxa. He contributed to the theory of systematics during the early development of phylogenetics and to understanding of the evolution of southern hemisphere floras. The hypotheses of relationships developed through Johnson's phylogenetic studies have served as starting points for much further investigation by others, especially through molecular systematics. He was noted for the breadth of his scientific interests and expertise and his forthright expression of scientific conclusions.

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Supplementary material
Supplementary material of a detailed nature that may be useful to other workers, but which is not essential to the printed paper, may be lodged with the Editor-in-Chief, provided that it is submitted with the manuscript for inspection by the referees. Such material will be made available online.

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General presentation
The work should be presented concisely and clearly in English. Introductory material, including a review of the literature, should not exceed what is necessary to indicate the reason for the work and the essential background. Authors are advised to note the typographical conventions and the layout of headings, tables, and illustrations exemplified in recent issues of the Journal. Observance of these and the following requirements will shorten the interval between submission and publication.

Corresponding authors will be sent a free PDF of their paper upon publication. The conditions under which the paper is distributed is as follows:
Authors may

  • Print out the PDF
  • Store the PDF on their personal hard disk
  • Send copies to individual colleagues for non-commercial purposes
  • Include the PDF in a course pack, subject to the usual copyright licencing agency fees
  • Post the PDF on their personal website.

Authors may not

  • Aggregate the PDF with other papers on related topics (other than the author´s own papers).

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Submission and preparation of manuscripts
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.

A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the journal, and that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Suggestions of possible referees are required during submission. Suggested referees should be independent experts in the field. Authors should be aware that approaching suggested reviewers is at the discretion of the Editor. Intentionally falsifying reviewer details will result in rejection of a manuscript.

If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
Australian Systematic Botany
CSIRO Publishing
Locked Bag 10
Clayton South, Vic. 3169
Telephone +[61 3] 9545 2994
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Authors are advised to read recent issues of the journal to note details of the scope of papers, headings, tables, illustrations, style, and general form. Observance of these and the following details will shorten the time between submission and publication. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted.

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Large papers
Authors of large papers are requested to contact the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission to negotiate arrangements to accommodate them.

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This should be concise and informative and should contain all keywords necessary to facilitate retrieval by modern searching techniques. Titles including generic or specific names should also contain the name of taxa at higher rank, e.g. Division, Class, Order or Family. Nomenclatural authorities should be omitted from the title. An abridged title that does not exceed 50 characters should also be supplied for use as a running head.

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This should state concisely, preferably in fewer than 200 words, the scope of the work and the principal findings, and should be suitable for use by abstracting services. Species names mentioned in the abstract should include nomenclatural authorities. Acronyms and references should be avoided.

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This should normally be divided into sections, e.g. Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Taxonomy, Acknowledgements, References. These sections should use Times New Roman font, with 12 point size, except as otherwise specified, and should be typed with 1.5 or 2.0 line spacing. All main headings should be bold type, with the first letter capitalised, aligned at the left. Minor headings should be unbolded italics. The following also should be adhered to: spell out numbers lower than 10 unless accompanied by a unit, e.g. 2 mm, 15 mm, two plants, 15 plants, but 5 out of 15 plants; leave a space between a numeral and its unit; use the ´ise´ construction, not ´ize´; indicate approximate positions of figures and tables in the text.

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Nomenclature and Taxonomy
Nomenclature and taxonomic citations must follow the rules and recommendations of the most recent edition of the International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN; currently McNeill et al. 2012; available online at

Abbreviations for taxonomic ranks should follow ICN Rec. 5A.1. Abbreviations indicating taxonomic circumscription should be formatted as follows: aff., cf., p.p. max., p.p. min., sens. lat., sens. strict.

Book titles must be abbreviated following Taxonomic literature II (TL2; Stafleu and Cowan 1976–1986; available online in a searchable format at and also via the Biodiversity Heritage Library at, and journal citations in the synonymy must follow abbreviations in Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum (online at

Taxon authorities must follow the standard forms in the International Plant Names Index (IPNI; online at and/or Index Fungorum (IF; online at author databases but should have minimal spacing (e.g. K.R.Thiele, not 'K. R. Thiele' or 'K.R. Thiele'). The first time that a taxon name of the rank of genus or below is given the authority should be cited in its standard form, with subsequent mentions using the taxon name only. For suprageneric ranks, authors should only be cited if the text is related to a taxonomic concept, there is ambiguity in the taxonomic concept being applied, or if there is an issue of authorship. For example, 'The Orchidaceae are the largest plant family on Earth.' vs 'Traditionally, this group of orchids has been classified as subtribe Drakaeinae Schltr.'

Designations of herbaria should follow Index Herbariorum (online at

If a publication, authority, or herbarium code is not listed in the above sources the details should be provided in full in the text (e.g. give author surname in full, preceded by all initials, each followed by a full stop, e.g. 'A.H.L.Jones'). These may be abbreviated during the editorial process.

Taxonomy Section
In the Taxonomy section, provide information in the following order as known or required:
Accepted name and typification; synonymy; description; illustration citations; specimens examined, distribution; habitat and ecology; phenology; conservation status; etymology; notes.

Accepted names
Include the authority in its standard form and a protologue citation after the name (see Examples).

New names
New scientific names should be in bold italics, followed by the author citation in normal type, then an indication of the nomenclatural action in bold italics, e.g. Lecidella flavovirens Kantvilas and Elix, sp. nov.; Acacia amputata Maslin, nom. et stat. nov.

Following the acceptance of a paper with new scientific names for fungi, authors must provide a MycoBank registration number for each name.

Any newly-published phrase names should follow the standard format specified in Barker (2005).

Descriptions and diagnoses
Under ICN Art. 39.1 (Melbourne Code, 2012), a description or diagnosis must be provided in English or in Latin in order to validly publish a new scientific name. Full descriptions in English are preferred; authors are discouraged from including Latin descriptions or diagnoses. There is no need to include both a description and a diagnosis, but a thorough comparison of the taxon against similar and/or related taxa should be provided in the Notes.

Synonymy and typification
Synonymies should be indicated by use of 11 point font size and paragraphs should be indented from the left hand margin by 2 cm. Synonyms must be listed in chronological order, with nomenclatural synonyms of the accepted name (i.e. those based on the same type) first and taxonomic synonyms of the accepted name (i.e. those based on different types) in succeeding paragraphs. Works cited merely to list the place of publication of a name do not need to be listed in the references unless they have also been cited elsewhere in the paper.

Nomenclatural synonyms
Nomenclatural synonyms of the accepted name (if any) should be listed in the first paragraph, followed by details of the type (see Examples 2 and 4).

Taxonomic synonyms
The citation details for taxonomic synonyms of the accepted name, given in the second and subsequent paragraphs of the synonymy, should follow the same conventions used for the first paragraph (see Examples 1 and 2).

Type citations
The verbatim type citation may be included if it differs from the label information on the type specimen/s (see Examples 3 and 4). Enclose the verbatim citation in single quotation marks.

Type specimens and status
Details of the type specimen(s) should always be cited where these exist, with an indication of their type status. This may include an initial 'Type citation' sentence from the protologue (if applicable; see Examples 2, 4–7), but must include a separate 'Type' sentence with full citation of details from the relevant specimen(s). Authors should avoid combining type information from the protologue or subsequent publications with label details from type specimens.

For any existing lectotypes, reference should be given to the publication in which they were designated. Author/s should also indicate which of the type specimens they have seen (noted by an !). The location and accession numbers of type specimens (where available) must be included. If a type specimen is no longer extant, this should be indicated by explanatory text (e.g. ‘destroyed’ or ‘missing’), rather than symbols.

The type section of the synonymy should give only the necessary details. More details of typification should be treated in a separate Notes subsection.

Misapplied names
List misapplied names chronologically in paragraphs following the last taxonomic synonym paragraph (see Examples 1, 2 and 4).

Orthographic variants
Orthographic variants that have been widely used in the literature should be included, in the format shown in Example 3.

Examples of formatting

Example 1

Seringia cacaobrunnea C.F.Wilkins, sp. nov.

Type: Western Australia: Norseman to Esperance Road [exact locality withheld for conservation reasons], C.F.Wilkins & J.A.Wege CW2399, 22 Sep. 2010 (holo: PERTH 08345686!; iso: CANB!, K!, MEL!).

Keraudrenia cacaobrunnea C.F.Wilkins ms, FloraBase
(, accessed 28 May 2015).

Keraudrenia velutina subsp. cacaobrunnea C.F.Wilkins ms, FloraBase
(, accessed 28 May 2015).

[Keraudrenia integrifolia auct. non Steud.: B.J.Grieve, How to Know W. Aust. Wildfl. 2: 631 (1998)].

Example 2

Coronidium gunnianum (Hook.) N.G.Walsh, comb. nov.

Helichrysum gunnianum Hook. in W.J.Hooker (ed.), Icon. pl. 4: t. 320 (1841);
Gnaphalium gunnianum (Hook.) Sch.Bip., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 3: 172 (1845). Type citation: ‘Van Diemen's Land. Mr. R. Gunn (n. 502)’. Type: R.Gunn 502 (holo: K 910320, photo MEL!; iso: MEL 2161044!).

Helichrysum erosum Schltdl., Linnaea 20: 295 (1847). Type: South Australia. H.Behr s.n., 1884–1845 (holo: HAL 98323, photo seen JSTOR 2000–2013).

Helichrysum aff. rutidolepis (Lowland Swamps), N.G.Walsh and V.Stajsic, Census vasc. pl. Victoria, 8th edn: 55, 209 (2007).

Coronidium sp. Lowland Swamps (V.Stajsic 4226) Vic. Herbarium, M.L.Baker and M.F.Duretto in M.L.Baker and M.F.Duretto (eds), Census vasc. pl. Tasmania 11 (2011).

[Helichrysum rutidolepis auct. non DC.: SGAP Inc., Fl. Melbourne 114 (1991); D.L.Jones and B.Jones, Native pl. Melbourne 132 (1999); J.A.Jeanes in N.G.Walsh and T.J.Entwisle (eds), Fl. Victoria 4: 785 (1999), p.p.]

[Helichrysum scorpioides auct. non Labill.: W.M.Curtis, Stud. fl. Tasmania 2: 328 (1963), p.p.]

Example 3

Calytrix involucrata J.M.Black, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 52: 225 (1928), as ‘Calythrix’.

Type: South Australia. Eyre Peninsula, Cummins, 30 Aug. 1928, J.Stopp s.n. (lecto: AD; isolecto: BRI n.v., MEL, fide L.A.Craven, Brunonia 10(1): 33 (1987)).

Example 4

Wollastonia uniflora (Willd.) Orchard, Nuytsia 23: 393–396, fig. 36, map 2 (2013).

Buphthalmum uniflorum G.Forst., Fl. ins. austr. 91 (1786), nom. inval., nom. nud.

Buphthalmum uniflorum Willd., Sp. pl. 4th edn, 3(3): 2235 (1803); Buphthalmum uniflorum Spreng., Syst. veg. 16th edn, 3: 605 (1826), isonym; Wedelia forsteriana Endl., Prodr. fl. Norfolk. 51 (1833), nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Wollastonia forsteriana (Endl.) DC., Prodr. 5: 548 (1836), nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Wedelia uniflora (Willd.) W.R.B.Oliv., Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 49: 155 (1917). Type citation: 'Habitat in insula Norfolciae.' Type: Habitat in insula Norfolck [sic; Norfolk Island], s. dat., ex herb. Sprengel (syn: B-W 16422, IDC microfiche!); Norfolk Island, Oceani Pacifici, s. dat., J.A. & G. Forster s.n. (syn: BM 820296!); s. loc., s. dat., Forster s.n., ex herb. Sprengel (no. 1673), ex herb Schultz Bip., ex herb. Cosson (syn: P 698454, photo!).

[Wedelia biflora auct. non (L.) DC.: T.D.Stanley in E.M.Ross and T.D.Stanley (eds), Fl. SE Queensland 2: 562, Fig. 58B (1986)]

[Wollastonia biflora auct. non (L). DC.: P.S.Green, Fl. Australia 49: 284, Fig. 65, 389, 89B (1994)]

[Melanthera biflora auct. non (L.) Willd: L.Murray, Fl. New South Wales 3: 276 (1992)]

Example 5

Seringia adenolasia F.Muell., Fragm. 10: 96 (1877), as 'Seringea'.

Keraudrenia adenolasia (F.Muell.) F.M.Bailey, Queensl. fl. 1: 150 (1899). Type citation: 'Ad flumen Robertson's River, Armit; ad Gilbert's River, Daintree.' Type: Robertson's [= Robertson] River, Armit s.n. (lecto, here designated: MEL 236392!); Armit 745 (isolecto: MEL 236391!, MEL 236393!); Armit s.n. (isolecto: BRI AQ0022709); Gilbert's [= Gilbert] River, Daintree s.n. (syn: MEL 236389!).

Keraudrenia adenolasia F.Muell., Fragm. 10: 96 (1877), nom. inval., pro syn.

Example 6

Mychodea carnosa Hook.f. & Harv., London J. Bot. 6: 408 (1847).

Type citation: 'Tasmania, Mr. Gunn.' Type: s. loc., s. dat., leg. ign. s.n. (lecto: BM 001039609, fide G.T.Kraft, Austral. J. Bot. 26: 520 (1978)).

Mychodea mallardiae Harv. ex Kütz., Tab. phycol. 16(1): 27; 16(2): pl. 77c–d (1866). Type citation: 'Port Philipp: Harvey.' Type: F.T.Kützing, Tab. phycol. 16(2): pl. 77c–d (1866) (holo).

Example 7

Eucalyptus globulus var. bicostata (Maiden, Blakely & Simmonds) Ewart, Fl. Victoria 804 (1931) ['1930'].

Eucalyptus bicostata Maiden, Blakely & Simmonds in J.H.Simmonds, Trees other lands, Eucalypts 133 (1927). Type citation: 'N.S.W., V., in rich soil, frequently on limestone ridges surrounded by high hills.' Type: n.v.

Taxon descriptions
Taxon descriptions should immediately follow the synonymy block. The main morphological characters should be italicised in the taxon description:

Perianth segments 10–17 mm long, 4–10 mm wide, concave, apex acute to obtuse, often shortly apiculate; dorsal sepal ovate; lateral sepals lanceolate to ovate, slightly asymmetric; petals ovate; labellum elliptic to oblanceolate, usually slightly smaller than other segments.

Specimens examined
Specimens examined should be listed under a separate minor heading at the end of the taxon description using 11 point font size. No more than 20 specimens per taxon should be cited. The following sequence for listing the details of specimens should be followed: location; collector's name and number; date of collection; list of herbaria where lodged. Material from different countries is arranged alphabetically by country. Different states and/or counties are separated by a full stop. Within Australia, specimens should be listed by State/Territory in the following order: Western Australia, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Ashmore Reef, Cartier Island, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, Coral Sea Islands, New South Wales, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, Tasmania, Heard Island, McDonald Island and Macquarie Island. Citations for specimens collected within the same Australian State/Territory should be separated by a semicolon, listed alphabetically by the surname of the first member of the collecting team. For other countries, citations for specimens collected within the same geographical division should be separated by a semicolon. Collectors' names and collecting numbers should be in italics. Use leg. ign. where the collector/s are unknown and s.n. to indicate where no collecting number was used. Do not include collecting dates unless they are needed to distinguish between specimens (it is preferable to use herbarium accession numbers for this purpose). If provided, collecting dates should be formatted as 'day.month.year', with the month given in Roman numerals or using an English abbreviation if no day is listed on the specimen, e.g. 10.iv.2013 or Mar. 1960. Standard herbarium codes (from Index Herbariorum; online at should be listed in brackets after the specimen citation, in alphabetical order. Where accession numbers are cited, these should be listed following the code for the herbarium in which the specimens are held, in ascending numerical order.

For example:

          Specimens examined: QUEENSLAND. Mundubbera, 1.5 km W of 'Mimosa'
   Homestead, D.I.Turner 2243 & R.T.Gott (BRI, MEL). VICTORIA. Victoria Gap, N of Gap Track,
   A.C.Beauglehole 17343 & M.Corrick (MEL); corner of Serra and Syphon tracks, P.Matthews
(MEL 524561).

Conservation status
Conservation status should be listed under a separate minor heading using 11 point font size. In order to help protect vulnerable populations, precise distribution data of rare or threatened taxa should not be given in the designation of types, nor listed under Specimens examined.

Etymology should be listed under a separate minor heading using 11 point font size. Authors are strongly encouraged to include etymology statements for new and replacement names to assist with the interpretation of orthography.

Notes should be listed under a separate minor heading using 11 point font size. These may include detailed information on nomenclatural decisions and interpretation (e.g. reasons for choice of a lectotype or neotype, matters of orthography and priority etc.). For newly described or recircumscribed taxa information on their affinities with related taxa should be outlined. Authors are also encouraged to include affinity information for existing taxa when publishing revisions of a taxonomic group.

Other relevant information not included under any of the other minor headings of the Taxonomy section can also be included in the Notes.

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Conflicts of Interest
A ´Conflicts of Interest´ section should be included at the end of the manuscript. It should identify any financial or non-financial (political, personal, professional) interests/relationships that may be interpreted to have influenced the manuscript. If there is no conflict of interest, please include the statement "The authors declare no conflicts of interest".

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In the text, references should be listed by author and date and are not numbered. Where multiple references are cited these should be listed in chronological order separated by semi-colons. Where two or more of these references were published in the same year these should be ordered by the first author’s surname. Multiple references published in the same year by the same author/s should be distinguished by addition of a lower-case letter (e.g. Murphy (2007a); Murphy (2007b) and so on) in the order that they appear in the text. In the text the surnames of two co-authors are linked by ´and´; for three or more co-authors, only the first author´s surname is listed followed by ´et al´. Do not use a comma between the author´s surname and the date. References occurring only in synonymy should not be given in the reference list. Make sure that all other references cited in the text are listed at the end of the paper and vice versa. At the end of the paper, list references in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname and within that by ascending date. Give titles of books and names of journals in full. Papers that have not been accepted for publication may not be included in the list of references and must be cited in the text either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´pers. comm.´; although the use of such citations is discouraged.


  • Journal article
    Woelkerling WJ, Irvine LM, Harvey AS (1993) Growth-forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 6, 277-293.
  • Chapter in a book
    Andrew CS (1978) Mineral characterisation of tropical forage legumes. In ´Mineral nutrition of legumes in tropical and subtropical soils´. (Eds CS Andrew, EJ Kamprath) pp. 93-111. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)
  • Whole book
    Simmonds DH (1989) ´Wheat and wheat quality in Australia.´ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)
  • Report or bulletin
    Chippendale GM, Wolf L (1981) The natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Special Publication No. 6, Canberra.
  • Web pages
    Referencing from web pages is acceptable and should give the author´s names, year of publication and title as for a report, followed by the URL, and access date.

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Use of referencing software
If using ´EndNote*´ software, you can obtain the style file for this journal at

*You will find the style file under the ´Botany´ category, listed as Australian Systematic Botany.

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Use the SI system where appropriate and especially for exact measurement of physical qualities. Non-SI units such as day and year are acceptable. Measurements of radiation should be given as irradiance or photon flux density, or both, and the waveband of the radiation should be specified. Luminous flux density units (e.g. lux) should not be used. Do not use the double solidus in complex groupings of units, e.g. mmol/m2/s; use the negative index system instead, i.e. mmol m-2 s-1.

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Mathematical formulae
Correctly align and adequately space all symbols. Avoid two-line mathematical expressions wherever possible, especially in the running text. Display each long formula on a separate line with at least two lines of space above and below it.

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Enzyme nomenclature
Names should conform to Recommendations (1992) of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes as published in ´Enzyme Nomenclature 1992´ (Academic Press: San Diego). If you wish to use a name other than the recommended name, at the first mention of the alternative name identify it by giving the recommended name and its EC number.

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Chemical nomenclature
The recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed when naming compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, vitamins, etc. Refer to other biologically active compounds, such as metabolic inhibitors, plant growth regulators, buffers (in accordance with IUPAC Rules of Chemical Nomenclature), once and then by their most widely accepted common name.

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The heading should be in bold upper and lower case and should be in a separate paragraph from the headnote. Include in the headnote, any information relevant to the table as a whole, and where applicable, the levels of probability attached to statistics in the body of the table. Use *, **, *** only to define probability levels. Use footnotes only to refer to specific items in the body of the table; use A and B etc. for footnotes. Insert horizontal rules above and below the column headings and across the bottom of the table; do not use vertical rules. If using Microsoft Word, use table formatting to prepare tables (i.e. use table cells, not tabs), otherwise use tabs, not spaces to align columns. The first letter only of headings of rows and columns should be capitalised. Include the symbols for the units of measurement in parentheses below the column heading. Each table must be referred to in the text. Author citations for taxon names should be omitted from tables, unless there is ambiguity in the taxonomic concept being applied.

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Line diagrams and photographs must be prepared using either a draw or chart/graph program such as MacDraw, Illustrator, CorelDraw, Excel, Sigmaplot, Harvard Graphics or Cricket Graph and files should be saved in one of the following formats: encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Illustrator or Excel (provided the Excel files have been saved with the chart encapsulated in it). The submission of scanned images or illustrations prepared in a paint program, e.g. Photoshop (and PICT and JPEG files) is discouraged, because of the difficulty in making editorial corrections to these files. If illustrations are created in a paint program, save the file as a TIFF or EPS (these files should be 600 dpi for line drawings and 300 dpi for halftone figures).

Refer to each figure in the text, and number each according to the order in which it appears in the text. All lettering must be of a standard suitable for reduction (if necessary) and reproduction. Use a sans-serif typeface (e.g. Helvetica, Univers, Futura) that contrasts with its background, and which will be 1.5-2 mm high when printed. Use hatching not shading in bar graphs.

Author citations for taxon names should be omitted from figure captions, unless there is ambiguity in the taxonomic concept being applied.

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These must be of the highest quality possible. Arrange photographs so that they abut each other without gaps, but allow 2-3 mm for the printer to insert a ´gutter´. Figures should be sized to fit either on 1 column (8.5 cm width) or over 2 columns (17.5 cm width). Length of figures should not exceed 22 cm. Include a scale bar on all micrographs. Important features mentioned in the text should be indicated. Lettering should be in sans-serif type that contrasts with its background. Colour photographs will be accepted, but the cost of production must be borne by the author.

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Line drawings
The following symbols should not be used: +, x or *. Explain the symbols used in the caption of the figure or in a legend. State on the axes of a graph what is being measured and give the appropriate units in parentheses.

Dense stippling does not reproduce well, and should be avoided. Lettering should be in sans-serif type (Helvetica is ideal) with only the first letter of the first word and any proper names capitalised, and should not be in bold type. Grid marks should point inwards.

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