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Table of Contents
Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 11 Number 6 2014

SH14015Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected populations: review of current status and future perspectives

Lars Toft, Martin Tolstrup, Merete Storgaard, Lars Østergaard and Ole S. Søgaard
pp. 511-523

This paper reviews the current knowledge about with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in HIV-infected populations. Current knowledge is limited; however, vaccination against HPV infection may be appropriate in certain HIV-infected populations.

SH14031Who‘s cheating? Agreements about sexual exclusivity and subsequent concurrent partnering in Australian heterosexual couples

Juliet Richters, Wendy Heywood, Marian K. Pitts, Julia M. Shelley, Judy M. Simpson, Kent Patrick and Anthony M. A. Smith
pp. 524-531

An Australian national representative sample of people aged 16–64 years in regular relationships completed telephone interviews, including questions about sexual exclusivity (i.e. whether they would have sex with anyone else). The vast majority (96%) expected their relationship to be exclusive (monogamous). However, only 48% of men and 64% of women had discussed the matter and explicitly agreed. Only 1% reported open relationships. A year later, most respondents (93%) were still in the same relationship, among whom 4% of men and 2% of women had had sex with someone else; most of them were in relationships that were expected to be monogamous.

SH14093Tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in TB-HIV co-infected patients in Malaysia: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment outcomes

Hong Yien Tan, Yean Kong Yong, Sin How Lim, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah F. S. Omar, Yong Kek Pang, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Patricia Price, Suzanne M. Crowe and Martyn A. French
pp. 532-539

This is the first reported study to examine the incidence of, risk factors for, and consequences of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in HIV patients from Malaysia. Approximately 9% of HIV-TB patients who commenced antiretroviral therapy developed TB-IRIS. Disseminated TB was the major risk factor. Patient survival and recovery of CD4 T cell counts were similar in TB-IRIS patients and HIV/TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS.

SH14075Influence of sexual sensation-seeking on factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among African-American female adolescents

Tiarney D. Ritchwood, Dolly C. Penn, Ralph J. DiClemente, Eve S. Rose and Jessica M. Sales
pp. 540-546

The following study sought to explicate the influence of sexual sensation-seeking, partner age and communication, and sexual attitudes on African-American adolescent females’ reports of sexual risk behaviours. Our results demonstrated the significance of antecedents of sexual risk to subsequent sexual risk behaviours. Future research is needed to further understand how contextual factors, such as relationship status, dynamics, and sexual decision-making influence the identified relations.

SH13155‘Living a life less ordinary’: exploring the experiences of Australian men who have acquired HIV overseas

Graham Brown, Jeanne Ellard, Julie Mooney-Somers, Garrett Prestage, Gemma Crawford and Trish Langdon
pp. 547-555

In Australia, increasing rates of HIV infections acquired overseas have been reported, particularly among men. This qualitative study explored experiences and risk perceptions of 14 Australian men who acquired HIV while living or travelling overseas. Four domains of experience were identified: (1) a fantasy realised, (2) escaping and finding a new self or life, (3) living a life less ordinary, and (4) living local but still an outsider. Appealing to desired experiences, such as connection to local culture or sustaining a new or adventurous life, may provide important implications for health promotion programs and policy.

SH13188Income inequality and Neisseria gonorrhoeae notifications in females: a country-level analysis

Amie L. Bingham, Anne M. Kavanagh, Christopher Kit Fairley, Louise A. Keogh, Rebecca J. Bentley and Jane S. Hocking
pp. 556-560

Social determinants may influence population susceptibility to sexually transmissible infections. Income inequality is one such determinant that has been found to be associated with various health outcomes. This analysis examines income inequality and notifications of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among women in 11 countries, finding that income inequality measured at the country level is associated with national STI notifications, Higher income inequality is associated with higher gonorrhoea notification rates among women.


The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) continuity and change and young adult sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Decreasing BMI was linked with greater sexual risk; however, it was not just women’s weight status, but also self-perception, that increased their risk for STDs. While a negative change in weight contentment from adolescence to young adulthood was related to incidence of STD, low self-esteem posed enduring harm by increasing women’s risk for STDs.

SH14165Risk and vulnerability of key populations to HIV infection in Iran; knowledge, attitude and practises of female sex workers, prison inmates and people who inject drugs

Razieh Khajehkazemi, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Soodabeh Navadeh, Hamidreza Setayesh, Leily Sajadi, Mehdi Osooli and Ehsan Mostafavi
pp. 568-574

In this study data of three national surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 and included 2546 people who inject drugs (PWID), 872 female sex workers (FSW) and 5530 prison inmates were compared in relation to knowledge, attitude, and practises towards HIV. Approximately 20% of prisoners and FSW had a history of injecting drugs. Among all participants who have injected drugs, prisoners had the highest unsafe injecting behaviour at the last injection (61%), followed by FSW (11%) and PWID (3%). Despite major efforts to control the HIV epidemic in Iran, the level of risk and vulnerability among prisoners, FSW and PWID is still high.

SH14055Comparative performance of the Kalon and HerpeSelect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in Papua New Guinea

Claire E. Ryan, Cassey S. Simbiken, Paul A. Agius, Joyce Allen, Joyce Sauk, Petronia Kaima, Zure Kombati, Peter Siba, John M. Kaldor and Andrew Vallely
pp. 575-579

In this investigation we compared the performance of two commercially available kits, the Kalon and HerpeSelect glycoprotein G2 assays, to detect antibodies to HSV-2 in patients attending sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea. A high HSV-2 prevalence was observed in this population. Our longitudinal data indicate the higher prevalence of HSV-2 detected with the HerpeSelect ELISA was likely due to false positives rather than a higher sensitivity in the early stages of infection.

SH14130C-reactive protein as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals

Clare L. V. Westhorpe, Hans G. Schneider, Mandy Dunne, Tracey Middleton, Vijaya Sundararajan, Tim Spelman, Vanessa Carter, Suzanne M. Crowe, Anthony Dart, Anne Mijch, Despina Kotsanas and Ian Woolley
pp. 580-582

The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) for cardiac events in HIV-infected individuals. We retrospectively analysed CRP levels in stored plasma samples from HIV-infected patients who did or did not experience a coronary event in a case-controlled manner. All CRP measurements were performed using a high-sensitivity assay. Of the study participants with samples available, we found slightly elevated hs-CRP levels in the cardiac cases (median 3.5, IQR 1.6–14.4, n = 23) compared with controls (median 2.6, IQR1.2 8.3, n = 49) which were shown to not be statistically significant P = 0.20.


There has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australia over the past 3 years mainly in men who have sex with men. The ASK HIM study looks at the association between HIV cases diagnosed in Victoria between 2011 and 2013 in men who have sex with men (MSM) and methamphetamine use by comparing usage rates in this group with usage rates in a control group.

SH14095Lessons learnt from the first Australian ‘pop-up' HIV testing site

Marianne Gale, Jo Holden, Samara Kitchener, Vickie Knight, Anna McNulty, Karen Price, Craig Leeman, Philip Cunningham, Andrew Hayen and C. Raina MacInytre
pp. 585-586

Lessons learnt from the first ‘pop-up’ HIV testing site in Australia suggest that highly visible testing activity was acceptable in the context of inner Sydney and that pop-up sites may be a useful adjunct to clinic-based models. Further evaluation of alternative testing models is needed to inform the scale up of HIV testing in Australia.

SH14147Mycoplasma genitalium and its resistance to azithromycin in incarcerated men from Far North Queensland

Gemma Maree Daley, Darren B. Russell, Sepehr N. Tabrizi, Jimmy Twin and William J. H. McBride
pp. 587-589

This study examined the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in incarcerated men from Far North Queensland. Of 140 participants, eight tested positive (5.7%) and of these positive samples two carried a gene associated with macrolide resistance. Seven of these eight positive participants were treated while in the correctional facility


In 2013 a public metropolitan sexual health service alerted HIV- positive patients to the availability of free influenza vaccination using Short Message Service broadcasting This resulted in a significant increase in uptake of the vaccination when compared with the previous year when individual telephone calls were made.


Sexually transmissible infection (STI) history, prevalence, and seroprevalence among lifetime exclusive women who have sex with women (WSW) (n = 21) and an age-matched group of women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42) was evaluated. WSWM were more likely to report a history of prior STIs and be seropositive for chlamydia and HSV-2; prevalent STIs were less common among WSW. While lifetime exclusive WSW are at risk for STIs, WSWM are disproportionally affected. Healthcare providers should consider routine STI screening among WSW.

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