Soil Research Soil Research Society
Soil, land care and environmental research
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Soil and landscape attributes interpret subsurface drainage clusters

A. Bakhsh A B and R. S. Kanwar B C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Irrigation and Drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

B Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

C Corresponding author. Email: rskanwar@iastate.edu

Australian Journal of Soil Research 46(8) 735-744 https://doi.org/10.1071/SR08065
Submitted: 28 March 2008  Accepted: 18 August 2008   Published: 2 December 2008

Abstract

Water in excess of evapotranspiration follows topographically defined flow paths and can affect spatial subsurface drainage patterns. This 1993–2003 field study was conducted near Nashua, Iowa, to delineate the subsurface drainage clusters and identify the landscape and hydrologic variables that contributed significantly in discriminating these clusters. A digital elevation model was developed using 6695 elevation data measurements collected with GPS navigation system across 36 field plots (0.4 ha in size each). A spherical model was used to interpolate the elevation data within a Spatial Analyst tool of ArcGIS software. Plot-scale average topographic attributes of elevation, slope, aspect, and curvature were derived using the Zonal function in the Spatial Analyst tool. Hydrologic attributes of flow direction, flow length, and flow accumulation were derived using the Hydrology module of Spatial Analyst tool after performing Fill function for the sink areas. Annual normalised subsurface drainage data and plot-scale derived soil and topographic attributes were used in the cluster and discriminant analysis, respectively, to investigate their relationships. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified elevation and flow accumulation as the variables that discriminated the subsurface drainage clusters of low, medium, and high categories significantly (P = 0.01). The role of elevation and flow accumulation was verified using discriminant functions that predicted all members of the high drainage cluster accurately with zero error rates. GIS data layer of subsurface drainage clusters also showed that high drainage clusters were located at the lower elevation levels and were in close agreement with the elevation and flow accumulation data layers. The results of this study indicate that elevation and flow accumulation GIS data layers can be used as a guideline to minimise nutrient losses through subsurface drainage water.

Additional keywords: cluster and discriminant analysis, hydrologic modeling, DEM, GIS.


References


Alexander RB , Smith RA , Schwarz GE (1995) The regional transport of point and nonpoint source nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. In ‘Proceedings Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Conference’. Kenner, LA, 5–6 Dec. 1995. USEPA Publ. 855R97001. (USEPA National Center for Environment Publication and Information: Washington, DC)

Baker JL , David MB , Lemke DW (2005) Understanding nutrient fate and transport, including the importance of hydrology in determining losses, and potential implications on management systems to reduce those losses. In ‘Proceedings of Gulf Hypoxia and Local Water Quality Concerns Workshop’. Iowa State University, 26–28 Sept. 2005. pp. 11–25.

Bakhsh A, Kanwar RS (2004) Using discriminant analysis and GIS to delineate subsurface drainage patterns. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 47, 689–699.

Bakhsh A, Kanwar RS (2005) Spatial clusters of subsurface drainage water NO3-N leaching losses. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41, 333–341.
CrossRef | CAS |

Bakhsh A, Kanwar RS, Bailey TB, Cambardella CA, Karlen DL, Colvin TS (2002) Cropping system effects on NO3-N losses with subsurface drainage water. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 45, 1789–1797.
CAS |


Bakhsh A, Kanwar RS, Karlen DL (2005) Effects of liquid swine manure applications on NO3-N leaching losses to subsurface drainage water. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 109, 118–128.
CrossRef |

Bjorneberg DL, Kanwar RS, Melvin SW (1996) Seasonal changes in flow and nitrate-N loss from subsurface drains. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 39, 961–976.

Chamran F, Gessler PE, Chadwick OA (2002) Spatially explicit treatment of soil-water dynamics along a semiarid catena. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 1571–1583.
CAS |


Changere A, Lal R (1997) Slope position and erosion effects on soil properties and corn production on a Mianian soil in central Ohio. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 11, 5–21.
CrossRef |

Colvin TS, Jaynes DB, Karlen DL, Laird DA, Ambuel JR (1997) Yield variability within a central Iowa field. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 40, 883–889.

Conacher AJ, Dalrymple JB (1977) The nine unit land surface model: An approach to pedogeomorphic research. Geoderma 18, 127–144.
CrossRef |

Cressie NA (1991) ‘Statistics for spatial data.’ (John Wiley & Sons Inc.: New York)

Dinnes DL, Karlen DL, Jaynes DB, Kaspar TC, Hatfield JL, Colvin TS, Cambardella CA (2002) Nitrogen management strategies to reduce nitrate leaching in tile-drained midwestern soils. Agronomy Journal 94, 153–171.

Drury CF, McKenny DJ, Findlay WI, Gaynor JD (1993) Influence of tillage on nitrate loss in surface runoff and tile drainage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 797–802.
CAS |


Fiez TE, Miller BC, Pan WL (1994) Winter wheat yield and grain protein across varied landscape positions. Agronomy Journal 86, 1026–1032.

Fraisse CW, Sudduth KA, Kitchen NR (2001) Delineation of site specific management zones by unsupervised classification of topographic attributes and soil electrical conductivity. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 44, 155–166.

Gessler PE, Chadwick OA, Chamran F, Althouse L, Holmes K (2000) Modeling soil–landscape and ecosystem properties using terrain attributes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 2046–2056.
CAS |


Hatfield JL , Jaynes DB , Prueger JH (1998) Environmental impacts of agricultural drainage in the Midwest. In ‘Drainage in the 21st Century: Food production and the environment. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Drainage Symposium’. Orlando, FL, 8–10 March 1998. pp. 28–35.

Iqbal J, Reed JR, Thomasson AJ, Jenkins JN (2005) Relationship between soil-landscape and dryland cotton lint yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 872–882.
CrossRef | CAS |

Jackson WA, Asmussen LE, Hauser EW, White AW (1973) Nitrate in surface and subsurface flow from a small agricultural watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality 2, 480–482.
CAS |


Jaynes DB, Colvin TS, Kaspar TC (2005) Identifying potential soybean management zones from multi-year yield data. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 46, 309–327.
CrossRef |

Jaynes DB, Hatfield JL, Meek DW (1999) Water quality in Walnut Creek watershed: Herbicides and nitrate in surface waters. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 45–59.
CAS |


Jaynes DB, Hunsaker DJ (1989) Spatial and temporal variability of water content and infiltration on a flood irrigated field. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 32, 1229–1238.

Kanwar RS, Bjorneberg D, Baker D (1999) An automated system for monitoring the quality and quantity of subsurface drain flow. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 73, 123–129.
CrossRef |

Kanwar RS, Colvin TS, Karlen DL (1997) Ridge, moldboard, chisel, and no-till effects on subsurface drainage water quality beneath two cropping system. Journal of Production Agriculture 10, 227–234.

Kanwar RS, Cruse R, Ghaffarzadeh M, Bakhsh A, Karlen D, Bailey T (2005) Corn-soybean and alternative cropping systems effects on NO3-N leaching losses in subsurface drainage water. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21, 181–188.

Kravchenko AN, Bollero GA, Omonode RA, Bullock DG (2002) Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 235–243.
CAS |


Kravchenko AN, Bullock DG (2000) Correlation of corn and soybean grain yield with topography and soil properties. Agronomy Journal 92, 75–83.
CrossRef |

Omernik JM (1977) Nonpoint source stream nutrient level relationships: a nationwide study. Ecological Research Series Sept. 1977, 600/3-77-105–150.

Pennock D, Walley F, Solohub M, Si B, Hnatowich G (2001) Topographically controlled yield response of canola to nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 1838–1845.
CAS |


Pilesjo P, Persson A, Harrie L (2006) Digital elevation data for estimation of potential wetness in ridged fields—Comparison of two different methods. Agricultural Water Management 79, 225–247.
CrossRef |

Rabalais NN, Turner RE, Scavia D (2002) Beyond science into policy: Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and the Mississippi River. Bioscience 52, 129–142.
CrossRef |

Randall GW, Mulla DJ (2001) Nitrate nitrogen in surface waters as influenced by climatic conditions and agricultural practices. Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 337–344.
CAS | PubMed |


SAS (2003) ‘The SAS systems for windows. Release 9.1.’ (SAS Institute: Cary, NC)

Schneider SM , Boydston RA , Han S , Evans RG , Campbell RH (1997) Mapping of potato yield and quality. In ‘Precision Agriculture.’97: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Precision Agriculture’. (Ed. JV Stafford) pp. 253–261. (BIOS Scientific Publishers: Oxford, UK)

Si BC, Farrell RE (2004) Scale-dependent relationship between wheat yield and topographic indices: a wavelet approach. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 872–882.

Sinai G, Zaslavsky D, Golany P (1981) The effect of soil surface curvature on moisture and yield – Beer Sheba observations. Soil Science 132, 367–375.
CrossRef |

Tim US, Jolly R (1994) Evaluating agricultural nonpointsource pollution using integrated geographic information system and hydrologic/water quality model. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 25–35.

Turner RE, Rabalais NN (2003) Linking landscape and water quality in the Mississippi River Basin for 200 years. Bioscience 53, 563–572.
CrossRef |

Voy KD (1995) ‘Soil survey of Floyd County, Iowa.’ USDA-SCS in cooperation with Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station. (Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service: Ames, IA)








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (1)