‘Parna’ the clayey loess of southeastern Australia, is assumed to have been transported by wind as fine sand- and silt-sized pellets, but little direct evidence of such pellets has been shown. The micromorphological and granulometric properties of several soils derived from parna have been investigated. In upper (younger) subsoils derived from parna, prolate fine sand-sized pellets are identifiable and have a distinctive mosaic-speckled b-fabric. However, in lower subsoils derived from older parna deposits, abundant illuviation features and a lack of identifiable pellets suggest that weathering and various pedologic processes have destroyed them.
Volume 56 Number 3 2018
SR17116Liming improves soil microbial growth, but trash blanket placement increases labile carbon and nitrogen availability in a sugarcane soil of subtropical Australia
Liming and trash blanket are commonly used for remediating soil acidity and managing trash residues. This study has shown that liming improves soil microbial growth, but trash blanket placement increases labile carbon and nitrogen availability in a sugarcane soil of subtropical Australia.
Extensive areas with low clay soils will be converted to agriculture to meet global food demand, and K is prone to leaching in these soils. We compared a conventional K fertilizer with a fertilizer coated with humic substances, and showed that the protected fertilizer, although not avoiding K leaching, is an adequate fertilizer in low clay soils with very low K content.
SR17029Role of soil quality in declining rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea yields in the Clanwilliam area, South Africa
Global demand for rooibos tea is increasing whereas yields are decreasing in the primary production area of Clanwilliam, South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate soil quality and plant properties in cultivated rooibos plantations of various ages (1–60 years) and adjacent, wild rooibos stands in pristine fynbos. Long-term rooibos production resulted in declines in soil organic matter, basic cations and accumulation of phosphorus which correlated with rooibos yield declines and suppressed mycorrhizal colonization.
Soil salinity decreases plant water uptake and crop yields in arid and semiarid regions. We develop an approach to estimate soil salinity after irrigation or precipitation events. Knowledge the influence of soil salinity on the plant water uptake will become useful in designing of irrigation scheme and field management to achieve more crops.
Few studies considered the effect of soil pH on nitrification at the microsite scale which is associated with mineralization. The aim of the research was to investigate how increasing pH affected mineralization and then nitrification in the subtropical acid forest soil. Results suggested that pH-induced increase in N mineralization provided more microsites surrounded with NH4+ substrate and favorable pH for the development of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria populations and their nitrifying activity. A good understanding the synergistic effects of soil pH and mineralization on nitrification will improve our knowledge about the effects of land management practices on the subtropical acid forest soils and underlying mechanisms.
SR17205Soil organic carbon retention more affected by altitude than texture in a forested mountain range in Brazil
Soil organic C (SOC) retention is affected by texture, but it is not known how this relation is affected by altitude. Sampling coarse- and fine-textured soils at two altitudes, we found that texture affected SOC only at lower altitudes (1,060 m). SOC retention at >1,200 m is thus marked by weaker interaction with soil minerals, and probably less stable.
SR17219Does 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate or N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide reduce nitrous oxide emissions from a rain-fed cropping system?
The use of DMPP significantly reduced N2O emission from soil, but NBPT did not in a rain-fed cropping system. A two-year field experiment failed to demonstrate positive crop yield response by using either DMPP or NBPT. Unless financial incentives for environmental benefits are provided, the lack of additional agronomic benefit and their additional cost will preclude the use of N inhibitors.
SR16265Leaf and root production, decomposition and carbon and nitrogen fluxes during stand development in tropical moist forests, north-east India
Tropical forests are among the most threatened and important biomes for exchanging large quantities of carbon and nutrients every year through decomposition of leaf and root litters. In tropics, secondary forests have become dominant landscape to provide many ecosystem services including the potential to function as sinks for atmospheric carbon. Therefore, these secondary forests have strong potential to provide similar ecosystem services to that of natural forest within 2 decades by managing their litter carbon and nitrogen fluxes.
SR17171Change in soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks eight years after conversion of sub-humid grassland to Pinus and Eucalyptus forestry
Soil carbon stock is about four times more than in vegetation and about three times more than in the atmosphere, yet remains understudied upon land use change. This paper quantified soil organic carbon in a grassed catchment before and eight years after commercial afforestation, indicating that Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus nitens decreased, and Pinus patula slightly increased soil organic carbon. This provides a valuable southern hemisphere reference for global carbon calculations and highlights the impact of land use change.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
SR16344Ratio of CO2 and O2 as index for categorising soil biological activity in sugarcane areas under contrasting straw management regimes
The sugarcane mechanical harvesting with maintenance of straw improve soil carbon stock and soil protection, decreasing soil CO2 emission. ARQ can be used as an index to categorise biological activity in soil, with ARQ values close to 1 considered a reflection of aerobic activity with balance between CO2 production and O2 consumption. Sugarcane straw should be maintained on soil and ARQ values can be used to determine soil biological activity.
A numerical model of soil texture is required for quick perception, making digital maps and facilitating flexible classification of soil. The study aim was to develop a numerical model that reflected soil texture and showed relationships with soil properties along with extended applicability in soil research. The model might further be useful for developing other models of soil.
SR17282Assessment of efficacy of biocides in different soil types for use in sorption studies of low molecular weight organic compounds
The abiotic protection of dissolved organic carbon in soils may be an important regulator of C cycling, but its mechanistic study is hampered by biological activity. Here, we investigated the use of biocides to reduce biological activity in batch sorption experiments. We found that although in sandy soils minimal biocide concentrations are effective, in clay-rich soils high concentrations of toxic biocidal compounds are required for complete microbial inhibition, and not using biocides could compromise findings where sorption of dissolved organic carbon is studied.
SR17227Comparison of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in a pine forest soil and an agricultural soil
The diversity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are markers that evaluate the health and quality of the soil. Here, PGPR diversity and the physicochemical properties of the soil were used to determine the effects of land use changes. Our results demonstrated that the PGPR correlated with the physicochemical properties of the soil, exhibiting differences between the soils caused by their use.
Di- and tripeptides are nitrogen-containing compounds that plants can take up and use for growth. Despite this, the ecological importance of these compounds for plant growth is a knowledge gap. This is because of their unknown occurrence in soil mainly due to the lack of robust analytical methods. This study optimises an analytical method for potential future use in quantification of soil di- and tripeptides to unravel their role.
It is crucial to understand how surface topography controls soil water movement. This study aimed to evaluate such effects under various hydrologic conditions through laboratory experiments and numerical modelling, and revealed two distinct soil water movement stages: topography-dominated two-dimensional flow and uniform one-dimensional flow. The findings are useful for better understanding of soil-water processes and agricultural water management.
SR17283Geogenic CO2 affects inorganic soil properties and the composition of soil organic matter in physical fractions
Geogenic CO2, originating from volcanic and seismic activities, affects a variety of processes in soil. This study demonstrates a previously unknown effect on exchangeable cations, total element contents, and on the composition of physical fractions of soil organic matter, derived from infrared spectroscopy. These findings are potentially transferrable to other sites with similarly enhanced CO2 concentrations in the soil atmosphere.
SR17193Soil erosion analysis by RUSLE and sediment yield models using remote sensing and GIS in Kelantan state, Peninsular Malaysia
The remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in this study for soil erosion analysis. There was a need to prioritise 82 watersheds according to high soil erosion in which two fell into the very high and high priority categories respectively. Very high and high priority areas were associated with high rainfall and agricultural activities on steep slopes which indicate the importance of remote sensing and GIS techniques in finding accurate causes of soil erosion.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Why copper and zinc are ineffective in reducing soil urease activity in New Zealand dairy-grazed pasture soils?
Comparing traditional and digital soil mapping at a district scale using residual maximum likelihood analysis
Assessing the vulnerability of organic matter to C mineralisation in pasture and cropping soils of New Zealand
Stocks, composition and vulnerability to loss of soil organic carbon predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy
Farming systems productivity and soil organic carbon stocks following fertilisers, no-tillage or legumes on a fertility-depleted soil in semi-arid subtropical region
Quantifying total and labile pools of organic carbon in cultivated and uncultivated soils in eastern India
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Soil Research 56 (2)Xihua Yang, Jonathan Gray, Greg Chapman, Qinggaozi Zhu, Mitch Tulau, Sally McInnes-Clarke
Enhanced nitrogen fertiliser technologies support the ‘4R' concept to optimise crop production and minimise environmental lossesSoil Research 55 (6)Clifford S. Snyder
Soil Research 55 (6)Cargele Masso, Fredrick Baijukya, Peter Ebanyat, Sifi Bouaziz, John Wendt, Mateete Bekunda, Bernard Vanlauwe
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Soil Research 55 (6)J. F. Angus, P. R. Grace
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The effectiveness of nitrification inhibitor application on grain yield and quality, fertiliser nitrogen recovery and soil nitrous oxide emissions in a legume–wheat rotation under elevated carbon dioxide (FACE)Soil Research 56 (2)Humaira Sultana, Helen C. Suter, Roger Armstrong, Marc E. Nicolas, Deli Chen
Liming improves soil microbial growth, but trash blanket placement increases labile carbon and nitrogen availability in a sugarcane soil of subtropical AustraliaSoil Research 56 (3)X. Y. Liu, M. Rezaei Rashti, M. Esfandbod, B. Powell, C. R. Chen
Effects of nitrogen addition on soil oxidisable organic carbon fractions in the rhizospheric and bulk soils of Chinese pines in north-western ChinaSoil Research 56 (2)Hongfei Liu, Sha Xue, Guoliang Wang, Guobin Liu
Soil Research 56 (1)Rebecca Whetton, Yifan Zhao, Abdul M. Mouazen
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Effects of sugar cane bagasse biochar and spent mushroom compost on phosphorus fractionation in calcareous soilsSoil Research 56 (2)Arzhang Fathi Gerdelidani, Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini
Does 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate or N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide reduce nitrous oxide emissions from a rain-fed cropping system?Soil Research 56 (3)Guangdi D. Li, Graeme D. Schwenke, Richard C. Hayes, Hongtao Xing, Adam J. Lowrie, Richard J. Lowrie
Soil organic carbon retention more affected by altitude than texture in a forested mountain range in BrazilSoil Research 56 (3)Y. L. Zinn, A. B. Andrade, M. A. Araujo, R. Lal
Soil mineral nitrogen benefits derived from legumes and comparisons of the apparent recovery of legume or fertiliser nitrogen by wheatSoil Research 55 (6)Mark B. Peoples, Antony D. Swan, Laura Goward, John A. Kirkegaard, James R. Hunt, Guangdi D. Li, Graeme D. Schwenke, David F. Herridge, Michael Moodie, Nigel Wilhelm, Trent Potter, Matthew D. Denton, Claire Browne, Lori A. Phillips, Dil Fayaz Khan
Perennials but not slope aspect affect the diversity of soil bacterial communities in the northern Negev Desert, IsraelSoil Research 56 (2)Ahuva Vonshak, Menachem Y. Sklarz, Ann M. Hirsch, Osnat Gillor
Soil Research 55 (8)José G. de A. Sousa, Maurício R. Cherubin, Carlos E. P. Cerri, Carlos C. Cerri, Brigitte J. Feigl
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