Agrominerals are naturally occurring rocks and minerals that can be used for re-fertilising soils exhausted of macro- and micro-nutrients. Heightened concerns for limited world P and K resources and the potential for applying a large amount of agrominerals to mitigate global warming has renewed interest of the subject. This review highlights the state of knowledge and potential future directions.
Volume 56 Number 2 2018
SR17010Perennials but not slope aspect affect the diversity of soil bacterial communities in the northern Negev Desert, Israel
In desert ecosystems shrubs are viewed as resource islands, oases of higher fertility in the barren landscape, supporting biota above and below the ground. While the aboveground diversity was extensively studied, little is known about the belowground communities. Therefore, communities under two dominant shrubs and in barren soil located in opposing slopes were studied, revealing that shrubs alone could be linked to changes in soil bacterial diversity and community composition.
Subsoil compaction is a serious threat to soil functions. In this study we quantified the vertical stresses in the tyre–soil contact area and at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m depths of a sandy loam at field capacity. The machinery tested was a tractor–trailer system for slurry application with wheel loads up to 70 kN. The maximum stress measured at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m depths was approximately 300, 100 and 45 kPa respectively. Previous studies in the experimental plots have documented persistent effects on soil properties and functions to a depth of at least 0.7 m.
SR17091Effects of sugar cane bagasse biochar and spent mushroom compost on phosphorus fractionation in calcareous soils
The effects of sugar cane bagasse biochar and spent mushroom compost (SMC) on different phosphorus fractions and plant-available phosphorus was studied in three calcareous soils. The different P fractions were evaluated in the soil such. Application of SMC significantly increased Ca2-P in all soils compared with control, and had an increasing trend over time, but biochar only increased Ca2-P significantly in sandy loam soil. Application of SMC can enhance plant-available P and affect P fractions and distribution, with the degree of the increase being soil specific. In contrast, the effects of biochar on P availability, fractions and distribution need more time to become apparent.
SR16371The effectiveness of nitrification inhibitor application on grain yield and quality, fertiliser nitrogen recovery and soil nitrous oxide emissions in a legume–wheat rotation under elevated carbon dioxide (FACE)
Managing nitrogen supply to better match crop demand and reduce losses will be an important goal under future predicted elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Use of a nitrification inhibitor in a cereal–legume rotation may help to increase grain nitrogen concentration, increase the mobilisation of nitrogen towards the grain under elevated carbon dioxide, and may also help to compensate for decreases in grain copper concentration under elevated carbon dioxide. However, use of a nitrification inhibitor may not provide additional benefits for productivity or efficiency of nitrogen utilisation.
We assessed eight empirical methods on soil erodibility (K-factor) estimation and produced a harmonised high-resolution K-factor map for the entire state of NSW with improvements by using the recent digital soil maps (DSMs) and soil information. The modelled erodibility values were validated with field plots and further used along with other RUSLE factors to assess erosion risk which in turn provides useful information for erosion control and management.
SR16157Traditional manual tillage significantly affects soil redistribution and CO2 emission in agricultural plots on the Loess Plateau
Soil redistribution induced by traditional manual tillage can potentially affect the soil carbon cycle, but few studies have quantified soil CO2 emission under different manual tillage practices. The present study demonstrated that soil CO2 emission was reduced upslope but enhanced downslope of the tilled slopes. The results imply that subsistence farming on steep slopes using hand tools may have a large effect on regional C balance and estimates of C budgets.
SR17039Evidence for soil carbon enhancement through deeper mouldboard ploughing at pasture renovation on a Typic Fragiaqualf
Permanent pastures require periodic renewal (cultivation and re-sowing) to maintain their productive potential, which involves a short-term C loss. Normal cultivation (ploughing or discing) often involves only the top 10–15 cm, or less, of pasture soils. Deeper ploughing (below 20 cm; inversion tillage) at the time of renewing a permanent ryegrass plus clover-based pasture growing on an imperfectly drained Typic Fragiaqualf soil resulted in an overall increase in soil C mass to approximately 30 cm of 18%, or 13.9 Mg C ha–1, compared with not undertaking the re-grassing. This gain in soil C may be temporary but, over a period of 4 years, it significantly increased the net residence time of C in soil related to the soil inversion.
SR16358Effects of nitrogen addition on soil oxidisable organic carbon fractions in the rhizospheric and bulk soils of Chinese pines in north-western China
Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition caused by human activities has potentially important effects on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The present study investigated the differential effects of N deposition on oxidisable soil organic carbon (SOC) and its four fractions with different labilities in plant rhizospheric and bulk soils, and found that SOC in the rhizosphere became more recalcitrant at low levels (N2.8–N5.6) of N addition, but addition of high levels (N11.2–N44.8) of N resulted in accumulation of labile C that was less stable against chemical and biological degradation. This study provides a theoretical basis for increasing long-term soil C storage and the stabilising soil C pool in a changing global environment.
SR17093Changes in soil stress during repeated wheeling: A comparison of measured and simulated values
Changes in soil stress with repeated wheeling is an area that has not been effectively investigated. It was hypothesized that variations in rut depth resulting in reduction of distance between the soil-tire interface and stress transducer is the potential reason for stress variations with repeated wheeling which was supported with experimental measurements and analytical simulations. However, variations in soil stress with repeated wheeling must have also contributed to stress changes with repeated wheeling.
SR18023Response to ‘Comments on “Linking Land Use Capability classes and APSIM to estimate pasture growth for regional planning” in Soil Research 54, 94–110 (2016)'
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
SR16265Leaf and root production, decomposition and carbon and nitrogen fluxes during stand development in tropical moist forests, north-east India
Tropical forests are among the most threatened and important biomes for exchanging large quantities of carbon and nutrients every year through decomposition of leaf and root litters. In tropics, secondary forests have become dominant landscape to provide many ecosystem services including the potential to function as sinks for atmospheric carbon. Therefore, these secondary forests have strong potential to provide similar ecosystem services to that of natural forest within 2 decades by managing their litter carbon and nitrogen fluxes.
SR17193Soil erosion analysis by RUSLE and sediment yield models using remote sensing and GIS in Kelantan state, Peninsular Malaysia
The remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in this study for soil erosion analysis. There was a need to prioritise 82 watersheds according to high soil erosion in which two fell into the very high and high priority categories respectively. Very high and high priority areas were associated with high rainfall and agricultural activities on steep slopes which indicate the importance of remote sensing and GIS techniques in finding accurate causes of soil erosion.
SR17219Does 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate or N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide reduce nitrous oxide emissions from a rain-fed cropping system?
The use of DMPP significantly reduced N2O emission from soil, but NBPT did not in a rain-fed cropping system. A two-year field experiment failed to demonstrate positive crop yield response by using either DMPP or NBPT. Unless financial incentives for environmental benefits are provided, the lack of additional agronomic benefit and their additional cost will preclude the use of N inhibitors.
SR17205Soil organic carbon retention more affected by altitude than texture in a forested mountain range in Brazil
Soil organic C (SOC) retention is affected by texture, but it is not known how this relation is affected by altitude. Sampling coarse- and fine-textured soils at two altitudes, we found that texture affected SOC only at lower altitudes (1,060 m). SOC retention at >1,200 m is thus marked by weaker interaction with soil minerals, and probably less stable.
Soil salinity decreases plant water uptake and crop yields in arid and semiarid regions. We develop an approach to estimate soil salinity after irrigation or precipitation events. Knowledge the influence of soil salinity on the plant water uptake will become useful in designing of irrigation scheme and field management to achieve more crops.
Few studies considered the effect of soil pH on nitrification at the microsite scale which is associated with mineralization. The aim of the research was to investigate how increasing pH affected mineralization and then nitrification in the subtropical acid forest soil. Results suggested that pH-induced increase in N mineralization provided more microsites surrounded with NH4+ substrate and favorable pH for the development of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria populations and their nitrifying activity. A good understanding the synergistic effects of soil pH and mineralization on nitrification will improve our knowledge about the effects of land management practices on the subtropical acid forest soils and underlying mechanisms.
SR17029Role of soil quality in declining rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea yields in the Clanwilliam area, South Africa
Global demand for rooibos tea is increasing whereas yields are decreasing in the primary production area of Clanwilliam, South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate soil quality and plant properties in cultivated rooibos plantations of various ages (1–60 years) and adjacent, wild rooibos stands in pristine fynbos. Long-term rooibos production resulted in declines in soil organic matter, basic cations and accumulation of phosphorus which correlated with rooibos yield declines and suppressed mycorrhizal colonization.
Extensive areas with low clay soils will be converted to agriculture to meet global food demand, and K is prone to leaching in these soils. We compared a conventional K fertilizer with a fertilizer coated with humic substances, and showed that the protected fertilizer, although not avoiding K leaching, is an adequate fertilizer in low clay soils with very low K content.
SR17116Liming improves soil microbial growth, but trash blanket placement increases labile carbon and nitrogen availability in a sugarcane soil of subtropical Australia
Liming and trash blanket are commonly used for remediating soil acidity and managing trash residues. This study has shown that liming improves soil microbial growth, but trash blanket placement increases labile carbon and nitrogen availability in a sugarcane soil of subtropical Australia.
ToC Abstract: ‘Parna’ the clayey loess of southeastern Australia, is assumed to have been transported by wind as fine sand- and silt-sized pellets, but little direct evidence of such pellets has been shown. The micromorphological and granulometric properties of several soils derived from parna have been investigated. In upper (younger) subsoils derived from parna, prolate fine sand-sized pellets are identifiable and have a distinctive mosaic-speckled b-fabric. However, in lower subsoils derived from older parna deposits, abundant illuviation features and a lack of identifiable pellets suggest that weathering and various pedologic processes have destroyed them.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Assessment of efficacy of biocides in different soil types for use in sorption studies of low molecular weight organic compounds
Farming systems productivity and soil organic carbon stocks following fertilisers, no-tillage or legumes on a fertility-depleted soil in semi-arid subtropical region
Modeling of Soil Texture and Its Verification with Related Soil Properties Numerical Model of Soil Texture
Quantifying total and labile pools of organic carbon in cultivated and uncultivated soils in eastern India
Geogenic CO2 affects inorganic soil properties and the composition of soil organic matter in physical fractions
Ratio of CO2 and O2 as index for categorizing soil biological activity in sugarcane areas under contrasting management regimes
Change in soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks eight years after conversion of sub-humid grassland to Pinus and Eucalyptus forestry
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Effects of sugar cane bagasse biochar and spent mushroom compost on phosphorus fractionation in calcareous soilsSoil Research 56 (2)Arzhang Fathi Gerdelidani, Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini
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Parent material and climate affect soil organic carbon fractions under pastures in south-eastern AustraliaSoil Research 55 (8)Susan E. Orgill, Jason R. Condon, Mark K. Conyers, Stephen G. Morris, Brian W. Murphy, Richard S. B. Greene
Soil properties and organic matter quality in relation to climate and vegetation in southern Indian tropical ecosystemsSoil Research 56 (1)Shanmugam Mani, Agustín Merino, Felipe García-Oliva, Jean Riotte, Raman Sukumar
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Effects of nitrogen addition on soil oxidisable organic carbon fractions in the rhizospheric and bulk soils of Chinese pines in north-western ChinaSoil Research 56 (2)Hongfei Liu, Sha Xue, Guoliang Wang, Guobin Liu
Perennials but not slope aspect affect the diversity of soil bacterial communities in the northern Negev Desert, IsraelSoil Research 56 (2)Ahuva Vonshak, Menachem Y. Sklarz, Ann M. Hirsch, Osnat Gillor
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