Volume 47 Number 3 2016
ASEG-PESA 24th International Geophysical Conference and Exhibition: Special Issue on Case Studies
EGv47n3_EDASEG-PESA 24th International Geophysical Conference and Exhibition: Special Issue on Case Studies
EG15088Helicopter AFMAG (ZTEM) EM and magnetic results over sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits at Howard’s Pass in Selwyn Basin, Yukon
In 2008, a ZTEM natural field EM and magnetic survey was flown over the world-class, >250 Mt SEDEX deposits at Howard’s Pass in the Selwyn Basin, Yukon. The AEM data provide insights into regional structures and intrusions. They also reveal a correlation between enhanced conductivity along strike and the clustering of deposits at Howard’s Pass.
EG15080VTEM airborne EM, aeromagnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data over the Cerro Quema high sulphidation epithermal gold deposits, Panama
In March 2012, a helicopter-borne VTEM survey was flown over the Cerro Quema high sulphidation (HS) epithermal gold deposits. The geophysical data obtained were analysed for geophysical signatures characteristic of HS epithermal gold deposits. The success of this survey points to the applicability of EM-Mag-Spec surveys for the exploration of similar deposits.
EG15089Passive airborne EM and ground IP\resistivity results over the Romero intermediate sulphidation epithermal gold deposits, Dominican Republic
The Romero gold-copper-zinc-silver deposits in the Dominican Republic are of the intermediate sulphidation epithermal type. Ground IP\resistivity results are compared to ZTEM passive airborne electromagnetics over the deposit region. The ZTEM results show good correlation with ground IP\resistivity results and identify a previously unknown deep (>500 m) continuity between the Romero deposits.
EG15105Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia
Data from the Far South project were acquired using a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration. The galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were used to identify conductive responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted with some success, showing this method to be an effective reconnaissance tool.
The North Taranaki Basin contains widespread (2D) seismic coverage and numerous wells. The basin hydrocarbon potential remains unproven. An active petroleum system is conï¬rmed by hydrocarbon shows and non-commercial oil and gas discoveries (Karewa-1 and Kora-1). 3D seismic interpretation and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis support the renewed potential of the basin.
We present a study of prestack depth imaging for data from the South China Sea, including complex geologies, using an enhanced work flow. The imaging results and data analysis prove that the enhanced work flow consisting of cutting edge technologies is effective when complex geologies are present.
An airborne gravity gradiometry and high-resolution aeromagnetic survey conducted in Lake Tanganyika within the East African Rift System has been interpreted to demonstrate sedimentary sequences and structures prospective for petroleum. Numerous play types analogous to the Lake Albert oil discoveries further north in Uganda are revealed by further surveys.
We provide detailed geophysical characterisation of porphyry style Cu-Au mineralisation of the Atlántida project, located under 25–80 m post-mineral gravels of the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile. Clear geological controls on the geophysical signatures of the deposit are resolved via the use of petrophysical studies and incorporation of drill testing results.
The Eureka massive sulphide lens forms part of the Stockman Project in north-east Victoria. Eureka was discovered in early 2013, combining the interpretation of two subtle downhole electromagnetic anomalies with a robust geological model, with additional support from short-wave infrared and structural modelling.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
EG15006A seismic diffraction extraction method for the study of discontinuous geologies using a regularisation algorithm
By considering two constraints from the Sobolev penalty function and the difference operator, we have developed an optimised regularisation model for extracting seismic diffractions. An efficient iterative method based on projection onto a convex set has been developed to solve the minimisation problem. The proposed method has high-resolution capability for detecting small-scale discontinuities.
EG15012A simple method for depth determination from self-potential anomalies due to two superimposed structures
A method to determine the depth to two superimposed sources from a self-potential anomaly profile has been developed. The method uses a relationship between the depths to the two superimposed structures determined from a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the sources’ centre.
EG16003Converted-wave guided imaging condition for elastic reverse time migration with wavefield separation
Polarity reversals and cross-talk noises, which degrade the converted wave images (P-S, S-P, and S-S images) of elastic reverse time migration (ERTM), are addressed. To overcome these problems, we derive a new P-S converted wave imaging condition for ERTM based on wavefield separation techniques.
We provide a thorough review of all typical absorbing boundary conditions and derive their equations in a uniform mathematical form. We examine their performance via numerical experiments and qualitatively show their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we provide some suggestions on choosing different boundary conditions for practical applications.
EG14120Automatic first-arrival picking based on extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control procedure
We have developed an automatic first-arrival picking method that combines extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control. The field data examples show that the proposed method yields stacked sections of similar quality to those obtained by laborious and costly manual picking.
EG15121Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan
In order to evaluate the freshwater–saltwater interface of three sample areas in the Chugoku-Shikoku region of western Japan, we conducted CSAMT surveys at locations with varying hydrogeological features, and performed laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples from each site.
We have developed a new fast picking method, optimised for noisy microseismic data, using cross-correlation and stacking. In experiments with synthetic data and field data, this method produces reliable results and the computation time is dramatically reduced.
3D Fourier convolution is a fast method for forward modelling irregular magnetic bodies. A kernel consisting of the field of a single dipole, convolved over a random distribution of dipoles, simulates the heterogeneity of bulk material. A demonstration studies the depth information collected by different survey parameters.
We present a strategy for the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties from prestack seismic data based on Gassmann equations with deterministic optimisation techniques. Given poor-quality prestack seismic data, two regularisation parameters are introduced to control the trade-off between fidelity to the data and the smoothness of the solution.
Frequency-dependent seismic responses from a fractured sandstone layer show complex azimuthal variations due to anisotropic propagation and attenuation of transmission waves associated with fluid flow. It would be practical to investigate wavetrains reflected from the fractured layers that are regarded as integrated units.
We perform 3D joint inversion of surface and borehole data using cokriging. The examples presented demonstrate that the method is remarkable in its ability to include the geological information and physical property. Also, both depth and horizontal resolution of the recovered model can be improved by joint inversion.
EG14126Automatic detection of multiple UXO-like targets using magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering
A method for automatically detecting UXO-like targets based on magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering is proposed. Magnetic anomaly inversion methods are used to estimate the initial locations of targets. The self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is then used to cluster these initial locations, giving the number and locations of magnetic targets.
EG14083Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity
We investigated the range of sensitivity of five tools for measuring the conductivity or resistivity in drillholes and on drill core. Each tool has a limited range of sensitivity, so one or more tools should be used to cover the range of values expected on a particular project.
EG14121An efficient hybrid scheme for fast and accurate inversion of airborne transient electromagnetic data
We present a hybrid inversion scheme for airborne TEM data that introduces approximation only in the calculation of partial derivatives. The objective function is evaluated with a full nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) forward model.
EG15013Initialising reservoir models for history matching using pre-production 3D seismic data: constraining methods and uncertainties
A fundamental step in reservoir characterisation and modelling is the preconditioning of the initial reservoir model to honour both the geological knowledge and seismic data. In this paper, we analyse the issues that have significant impact on the (mis)match of the reservoir model with well logs and inverted seismic data.
EG15081Acquisition, processing and interpretation of high-resolution seismic data using a small-scale multi-channel system: an example from the Korea Strait inner shelf, south-east Korea
The results of the present study show that a small-scale multi-channel seismic system is an effective way to improve the quality of seismic records and to document the evolution of shallow sediment deposits. The shelf deposits in the Korea Strait inner shelf consist of three distinct seismic units formed during the late Quaternary.
EG150703D inversion of total magnetic intensity data for time-domain EM at the Lalor massive sulphide deposit
3D voxel inversion of HeliSAM data at the Lalor massive sulphide deposit suffers from: (1) contamination of early-time data by the near-surface infrastructure and (2) creation of a mathematically acceptable but non-geologic model from inversion of late-time data. We propose a procedure that incorporates the infrastructure in our inversion, and a warm-start approach to overcome the non-uniqueness.
EG16019An efficient waveform inversion using the common mid-point gather in the wavenumber-space-time domain
We introduce an efficient waveform inversion algorithm using common mid-point gathers. Since we perform both modelling and inversion in the wavenumber-space-time domain, it recovers only a one-dimensional velocity model. However, we can build a two-dimensional velocity model with moderate dips by assuming that reflectors are locally flat.
EG15041Fast inversion of gravity data using the symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm
We describe a new fast gravity inversion method to recover a 3D density model from gravity data. This gravity inversion method introduces a stabiliser model norm with a depth weighting function to produce smooth models and uses a new symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) iterative conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm.
EG15052Gravity, magnetic and resistivity investigations of the Okauia Low Temperature Geothermal System in alluvial sediments of the Hauraki Depression, New Zealand
Gravity, ground magnetics, DC resistivity and TDEM measurements are used to delineate the near-surface extent of the Okauia Low Temperature Geothermal System, New Zealand. Potential permeable pathways mapped by the geophysical surveys are consistent with the geological environment.
EG15077Relationship between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation responses in iron oxide-copper-gold and porphyry copper mineralisation, northern Chile
We have studied the correlation between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation (IP) responses in iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry copper concealed mineralised systems in northern Chile. Data analyses show that bulk sulphide concentration is the first order factor that explains variation in the IP effect, even for the case of magnetite-related IOCG mineralisation.
Rayleigh wave experiments were performed in homogeneous and lateral inhomogeneous models using acoustic and seismoelectric measurements, respectively. The experimental results suggest a potential application of the seismoelectric conversion effect to improve spatial resolution and meet the requirement of dispersion measurement in the laboratory acoustic experiments involving Rayleigh waves.
EG15021Radiogenic heat production in Rudeis Formation, Lower Miocene, Belayim marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt
This study describes radiogenic heat production (RHP) estimated from two sets of well logging data recorded in Rudeis Formation, Belayim marine oil field. Cross-correlation of the estimated RHP (AR and ABR) yielded a moderate fit of 0.75. The three-dimensional (3D)-slicing of the reservoir shows that the northern and north-western parts of the study area have higher RHP compared to other parts.
EG15118Rapid depth estimation for compact magnetic sources using a semi-automated spectrum-based method
An object program provides hands-on searching through magnetic survey data. The power spectrum is remapped on-screen so that any isolated compact body appears as a straight line in a spectrum of depths. Results are typically noisy, so facilities are provided to change parameters to track down an elusive depth signal.
EG15095Short-offset grounded-wire TEM method for efficient detection of mined-out areas in vegetation-covered mountainous coalfields
The objective of this study was to overcome the limitations in using the loop-source TEM method and realise the efficient detection of mined-out areas using the short-offset grounded-wire TEM (SOTEM) method in vegetation-covered mountainous coalfields. The feasibility of SOTEM is verified by the drilling result in the field test.
An analysis of three approaches for estimating 3D PS statics is presented. These include a surface-consistent inversion algorithm, PPS refraction statics, and a robust statistical method. This analysis is achieved through the use of synthetic models, and a coal-scale 3D-3C survey acquired in the Bowen Basin.
Accuracy and resolution of velocity spectra are very important in seismic data processing, as they have considerable impact on the quality of the final seismic section. We improve the accuracy and resolution of velocity spectra by introducing two weighting functions to the traditional semblance velocity analysis.
The spatial distribution and characteristics of gas hydrates in the Kumano Forearc Basin of the Nankai Trough were investigated by using logging data and 3D seismic data. This study demonstrates that tectonic activity of the underlying accretionary prism at the plate convergent margin is responsible for hydrate formation.
A new parameterisation using P-wave velocity, Poisson’s ratio and density is proposed for multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for isotropic elastic media. By introducing Poisson’s ratio, the virtual source for the P-wave velocity generates additional S-waves in the partial derivative wavefields, which increases the spatial resolution of FWI.
EG16031Separation of prestack seismic diffractions using an improved sparse apex-shifted hyperbolic Radon transform
We have developed an improved sparse apex-shifted hyperbolic Radon transform with Fourier-kernel Stolt-based modelling and imaging operators to separate seismic diffractions from reflections. The time axis is stretched to overcome the limitation of the multi-velocity model and a sparsity-promoting inversion is implemented to enhance the resolution of the Radon panel.
EG16014Joint inversions of two VTEM surveys using quasi-3D TDEM and 3D magnetic inversion algorithms
We present the results of a joint quasi-3D inversion of two VTEM datasets, flown over a VMS-Au prospect in northern Ontario, Canada, six years apart from one another. The TDEM data were inverted jointly using the spatially constrained inversion (SCI) approach and verified against known geology.
We obtained the shallow S-wave velocity profile distributions in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia, from the inversion of the observed Rayleigh wave phase velocity spectra using a microtremor survey. The profiles will be used for calculation of the average S-wave velocity of the upper 30 m and site amplification factors for seismic hazard evaluation in the area.
EG16012The amplitude and phase of the derivatives of the magnetic anomalies of thin dykes and contacts
If the horizontal and vertical derivatives of the total field magnetic anomalies of thin dykes and contacts are put into an amplitude-phase form, then this can aid in their interpretation. In addition, the relationships between local wavenumber and source-distance semi-automatic interpretation methods are clarified.
EG15117Testing cluster analysis on combined petrophysical and geochemical data for rock mass classification
We demonstrate the usefulness of fuzzy clustering for semi-automated rock mass classification and the importance of data preconditioning prior to analysis. We also show the impact of choosing different subsets and combinations of the available data on the classification result.
EG160273D numerical modelling of negative apparent conductivity anomalies in loop-loop electromagnetic measurements: a case study at a dacite intrusion in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan
Under certain geological conditions, low induction number electromagnetic instruments are known to produce negative apparent conductivity responses. This is particularly the case when the subsurface is characterised by highly conductive bodies. We present 3D numerical modelling results of dacite dike intrusions in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan.
Gamma-ray tools are used heavily in borehole logging, both in oil and gas, as well as in mining applications. For proper functioning, these tools need to be calibrated against a source of known activity and geometry. In this paper, we present a holistic approach to tool calibration, aiming to interlink several calibration facilities around the world, allowing quantitative interpretation of data.
EG16036Microtremor exploration for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at stations in local strong motion network in Bursa, Yalova, and Kocaeli in north-western Turkey
We conducted microtremor array surveys for shallow Vs profiles at strong motion stations in Bursa, Yalova and Kocaeli provinces in Turkey. The Vs profiles to a depth of 100 m were deduced from Rayleigh wave phase velocities in frequencies from 1 to 30 Hz. Site amplification factors were discussed with the profiles.
EG15074Divergence correction schemes in finite difference method for 3D tensor CSAMT in axial anisotropic media
This paper presents a study on divergence correction in the finite difference method for 3D tensor controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) in an axial anisotropic media. We show how divergence correction can be performed more efficiently and the study results can be used to help accelerate a whole 3D tensor CSAMT forward modelling and inversion.
Depth variation of scattering attenuation by applying single events to multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) was recently shown; however, this application inevitably combined several events due to insufficient data. This study demonstrated that a flexible range window can be applied successfully to solely single events in MLTWA.
EG16020Identification of small-scale discontinuities based on dip-oriented gradient energy entropy coherence estimation
We have proposed a dip-oriented gradient energy entropy (DOGEE) coherence method to detect subtle faults and structural features. Theoretical synthetic datasets and a real dataset show that our proposed method is not only robust to noise, but also improves the clarity of small-scale discontinuities.
EG15039A Monte Carlo approach to constraining uncertainties in modelled downhole gravity gradiometry applications
In this paper, we describe the utilisation of numerical models to simulate the downhole application of gravity gradiometry in order to benchmark the impact of a density contrast at depth, with specific application to monitor a density contrast consistent with the sequestration of CO2 displacing brine water in an abandoned oil reservoir.
EG16015Airborne IP: examples from the Mount Milligan deposit, Canada, and the Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe, Russia
There has been evidence of the IP effect in TDEM data. This phenomenon is known to be responsible for incorrect inversion modelling of electrical resistivity, lower DOI and lost information about chargeability. In the current paper, we show the possibility of extracting IP information from VTEM data using Cole-Cole modelling.
Subsurface-property estimation from remote geophysical measurements is subject to non-Gaussian errors. We propose to minimise the misfit with a robust error measure, which is based on a generalised Gaussian distribution. A suboptimal solution is proposed through a mixed-norm functional combination of the l1 and l2 norms.
EG15097Simultaneous seismic interpolation and denoising based on sparse inversion with a 3D low redundancy curvelet transform
This paper introduces a low redundancy curvelet transform which can reduce the redundancy to 10 for three dimensional data and simultaneously interpolate and denoise. Numerical experiments on synthetic and field data demonstrate that the low redundancy transform can provide reliable results while at the same time improving the computational efficiency.
Benefitting from the forward modelling studies, the phenomenon of spatial mispositioning in apparent reflections caused by the symmetry axis orientation of the TI overburden was demonstrated. Numerical manipulations show the imaging problems can be well described by the TERF method and properly handled by the RAKTM method.
EG15059Ground resistivity method and DCIP2D forward and inversion modelling to identify alteration at the Midwest uranium deposit, northern Saskatchewan, Canada
Forward and inverse modelling are used to demonstrate that the resistivity method can detect alteration above the Midwest uranium deposit in Canada. The inverse section of the field data is similar to the inverse section of a synthetic model when alteration is present, but dissimilar when there is no alteration.
EG15053New comprehensive standard seismic noise models and 3D seismic noise variation for Morocco territory, North Africa, obtained using seismic broadband stations
New comprehensive seismic noise models and 3D seismic noise variation are constructed for Morocco, North Africa, using 23 broadband stations. The results bring a new perception to noise models and can be considered as a significant contribution. This study supplements the Peterson models and allows future permanent stations to be sited in Morocco.
In environments of suitable conductivity contrast, airborne electromagnetic surveys can map variations in the depth to bedrock for mine infrastructure planning. A survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure.
EG15035Fast residual static correction method using first arrivals in the 3D shot–receiver united domain
We introduce a residual static correction method using first arrivals. Since we fit and smooth the first breaks in a 3D shot–receiver united domain, this method has a lower sensitivity to first arrivals and performs better than traditional methods.
EG15112Improved reservoir characterisation using fuzzy logic platform: an integrated petrophysical, seismic structural and poststack inversion study
In this study, petrophysical properties, seismic structural and poststack seismic inversion results are integrated using the fuzzy logic AND operator to characterise the Tensleep Sandstone Formation at Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. The 3D seismic cube and logging datasets of 17 wells are used for enhancing the seismic and petrophysical evaluation.
EG15107Analysis of crooked-line 2D seismic reflection data recorded in areas with complex surface and subsurface conditions
A crooked-line 2D seismic reflection dataset recorded in the northern part of the Eastern Pannonian Basin was processed to obtain a high-resolution seismic image for the area of interest. Refraction interferometry was used to enhance the first arrivals and to compute static corrections with good accuracy.
A new noise reduction method that iteratively projects data to a lower height and upward continuing the data back to the survey height is described. This method can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of noisy gravity gradient data, and has been successfully applied to both synthetic and real data.
EG16039Amplification characteristics of seismic observation sites from S-wave energy, coda waves and background noise from the Fukuoka earthquake series
This study applied a method that uses the H/V spectral ratio of ground motions to analyse site amplification characteristics. Its application was extended to S-waves, coda waves, and background noise. Analysis of data at seismic stations in Korea suggested consistent site amplification characteristics among the three types of seismic energies despite a logarithmic difference in the Fourier transform values.
EG15014A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform
Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform, a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. The response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency.
EG15078Near-surface high resolution imaging of a metallogenic zone in the northern fringe of Dalma volcanics in eastern India using electrical resistivity tomography
An ERT survey was conducted over a defined conducting zone through a magnetotelluric survey in the Dalma volcanics, India. The resistivity models resolved four major zones and the results corroborate well with the geological succession. The resistivity values of less than 1 Ωm at a depth of ~25 m correspond to the deposit.
EG16035Three-dimensional inversion of in-line resistivity data for monitoring a groundwater recharge experiment in a pyroclastic plateau
An artificial groundwater recharge experiment was conducted in a pyroclastic plateau in Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan, and time-efficient in-line resistivity surveys were performed along four intersecting lines. The zones of decreased resistivity shifted with time, indicating non-uniform penetration of water from the recharge areas and a horizontal flow of the recharged water.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Shallow Subsurface Structure Estimated from Dense Aftershock Records and Microtremor Observations in Furukawa District, Miyagi Japan
Applying multi âwavelength, -polarimetric and interferometric airborne radar data for geological mapping in densely forested NW Tasmania
Regional magnetic lithologies and structures as controls on porphyry copper deposits: Evidences from Iran
New constraints on the neotectonic stress pattern of the Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia
Travel Times and Conversion-Point Positions for P-SV Converted Waves propagation in a Transversely Isotropic Medium - Numerical Calculations and Physical Model Studies
Seismic data decomposition and reconstruction with sparse Gaussian beams and sparse optimization method
S-WAVE REFLECTION AND SURFACE WAVE SURVEYS IN LIQUEFACTION AFFECTED AREAS - A CASE STUDY OF THE HINODE AREA, ITAKO, IBARAKI, JAPAN -
Radiogenic Heat Production in Rudeis Formation, Lower Miocene, Belayim Marine Oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt
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