Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
RESEARCH FRONT

Physico-chemical behaviour and algal toxicity of nanoparticulate CeO2 in freshwater

Nicola J. Rogers A B D , Natasha M. Franklin A , Simon C. Apte B , Graeme E. Batley A B , Brad M. Angel A B , Jamie R. Lead C and Mohammed Baalousha C

A Nanosafety Theme, CSIRO Future Manufacturing Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia.

B Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia.

C School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

D Corresponding author. Email: nicola.rogers@csiro.au

Environmental Chemistry 7(1) 50-60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN09123
Submitted: 1 October 2009  Accepted: 22 December 2009   Published: 22 February 2010

Environmental context. It cannot be assumed that nanomaterials entering aquatic environments will have the same impacts on aquatic biota as their macroscopic particle equivalents. If their toxicities are different, this will have implications for the way in which nanomaterial usage is regulated. Algae, at the bottom of the food chain, are likely to be a sensitive indicator of toxic effects. Understanding the physical and chemical factors controlling nanoparticle toxicity to algae will assist in evaluating their ecological risk.

Abstract. In assessing the risks posed by nanomaterials in the environment, the overriding research challenges are to determine if nanomaterials are more toxic than the bulk forms of the same material, and the extent to which toxicity is governed by particle size and reactivity. In this study, the toxicity of nanoparticulate CeO2 (nominally 10–20 nm) to the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was compared to the same material at the micron size (nominally <5 μm). Growth inhibition experiments revealed inhibitory concentration values, giving 50% reduction in algal growth rate after 72 h (IC50), of 10.3 ± 1.7 and 66 ± 22 mg L–1 for the nanoparticles and bulk materials respectively. Cells exposed to CeO2 particles were permeable to the DNA-binding dye SYTOX® Green in a concentration-dependent manner indicating damage to the cell membrane. Screening assays to assess the oxidative activity of the particles showed that the light illumination conditions used during standard algal bioassays are sufficient to stimulate photocatalytic activity of CeO2 particles, causing the generation of hydroxyl radicals and peroxidation of a model plant fatty acid. No oxidative activity or lipid peroxidation was observed in the dark. These findings indicate that inhibitory mode of action of CeO2 to P. subcapitata is mediated by a cell-particle interaction causing membrane damage. The effect is most likely photochemically induced and is enhanced for the nanoparticulate form of the CeO2.

Additional keywords: cerium oxide, microalgae, nanoparticle, photocatalytic activity.


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