Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Australian carbon tetrachloride emissions in a global context

Paul J. Fraser A I , Bronwyn L. Dunse A , Alistair J. Manning B , Sean Walsh C , R. Hsiang J. Wang D , Paul B. Krummel A , L. Paul Steele A , Laurie W. Porter E J , Colin Allison A , Simon O’Doherty F , Peter G. Simmonds F , Jens Mühle G , Ray F. Weiss G and Ronald G. Prinn H

A Centre for Australian Weather & Climate Research, CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research, 107-121 Station Street, Aspendale, Vic. 3195, Australia.

B UK Met Office, Fitzroy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK.

C Monitoring & Assessment, EPA Victoria, Ernest Jones Drive, Macleod, Vic. 3085, Australia.

D School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340, USA.

E Centre for Australian Weather & Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins Street, Docklands, Vic. 3008, Australia.

F Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.

G Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, 8675 Discovery Way, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244, USA.

H Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.

I Corresponding author. Email: paul.fraser@csiro.au

J Deceased.

Environmental Chemistry 11(1) 77-88 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN13171
Submitted: 6 September 2013  Accepted: 12 November 2013   Published: 19 February 2014

Environmental context. Carbon tetrachloride in the background atmosphere is a significant environmental concern, responsible for ~10 % of observed stratospheric ozone depletion. Atmospheric concentrations of CCl4 are higher than expected from currently identified emission sources: largely residual emissions from production, transport and use. Additional sources are required to balance the expected atmospheric destruction of CCl4 and may contribute to a slower-than-expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone ‘hole’.

Abstract. Global (1978–2012) and Australian (1996–2011) carbon tetrachloride emissions are estimated from atmospheric observations of CCl4 using data from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) global network, in particular from Cape Grim, Tasmania. Global and Australian emissions are in decline in response to Montreal Protocol restrictions on CCl4 production and consumption for dispersive uses in the developed and developing world. However, atmospheric data-derived emissions are significantly larger than ‘bottom-up’ estimates from direct and indirect CCl4 production, CCl4 transportation and use. Australian CCl4 emissions are not a result of these sources, and the identification of the origin of Australian emissions may provide a clue to the origin of some of these ‘missing’ global sources.

Additional keywords: atmospheric and ‘bottom-up’ emissions estimates, Australian carbon tetrachloride emissions, emission estimates by inverse calculations and interspecies correlation, global carbon tetrachloride emissions.


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