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Invertebrate Systematics publishes significant contributions and reviews on the systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of all invertebrate taxa. More

Editor-in-Chief: Andy Austin


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Volume 28 Number 4 2014
Arachnology in Space and Time: Novel Research on Arachnid Systematics and Biogeography

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Arachnology in space and time: novel research on arachnid systematics and biogeography 
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Gonzalo Giribet and Andrew Austin
pp. i-i

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Molecular phylogenetics of Caribbean Micrathena (Araneae : Araneidae) suggests multiple colonisation events and single island endemism 
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Anne McHugh , Carol Yablonsky , Greta Binford and Ingi Agnarsson
pp. 337-349

One of the most intriguing questions in island biogeography is how organisms colonise archipelagos and diversify within and among islands. We studied patterns of colonisation and speciation in the spider genus Micrathena, finding that Caribbean ancestors likely arrived 20–35 million years ago over a land bridge, and subsequently new species formed on each island, resulting in many island endemics. This work highlights preliminary evidence of the roles of rare dispersal coupled with island vicariance in generating the unique Caribbean Micrathena fauna.


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The first phylogenetic analysis of Palpigradi (Arachnida) – the most enigmatic arthropod order 
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Gonzalo Giribet , Erin McIntyre , Erhard Christian , Luis Espinasa , Rodrigo L. Ferreira , Óscar F. Francke , Mark S. Harvey , Marco Isaia , Ĺubomír Kováč , Lynn McCutchen , Maysa F. V. R. Souza and Maja Zagmajster
pp. 350-360

Palpigradi are a group of minute arachnids, often found in caves or other subterranean habitats. Concomitantly, a phylogenetic tree has eluded researchers for decades. Here we present a phylogeny of palpigrades based on specimens from different subterranean habitats. Analyses of three molecular markers found monophyly of Palpigradi and Eukoeneniidae, the latter divided into four main clades, three including samples from multiple continents.


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From Gondwana to Europe: inferring the origins of Mediterranean Macrothele spiders (Araneae : Hexathelidae) and the limits of the family Hexathelidae 
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Vera Opatova and Miquel A. Arnedo
pp. 361-374

The European spiders of the genus Macrothele are of conservation concern and uncertain origins, with the closest relatives restricted to the Old World tropics. We uncover their phylogenetic relationships and colonisation pathways into the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that the present-day genus distribution reflects the tectonic movements following the Gondwana break-up and that the two European endemics colonised the Mediterranean basin independently.


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Barcoding of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae : Mygalomorphae) in the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia reveals a highly diverse biota 
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Mark A. Castalanelli , Roy Teale , Michael G. Rix , W. Jason Kennington and Mark S. Harvey
pp. 375-385

The Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia contains vast mineral deposits and unique ecosystems. To assess mygalomorph diversity, DNA barcoding sequences were obtained from 1134 specimens; these data provided evidence of numerous new species, resulting in an increase in species richness of 191%. This study shows that barcoding provides a rapid, objective method to help quantify mygalomorph species identifications and distributions.

    | Supplementary Material (144 KB)

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Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Western Australian troglobitic chthoniid pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones : Chthoniidae) points to multiple independent subterranean clades 
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Sophie E. Harrison , Michelle T. Guzik , Mark S. Harvey and Andrew D. Austin
pp. 386-400

The subterranean aquatic fauna of the Western Australian calcrete aquifers has been well studied; however, little is known about the subterranean terrestrial fauna. We found that two subterranean terrestrial pseudoscorpion genera display similar patterns to the aquatic fauna, in that each calcrete aquifer generally contains its own discreet lineages, with evidence for multiple subterranean incursions into the aquifers. This supports the theory that these aquifers have been isolated for millions of years, with little to no gene flow occurring between them.


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Phylogeography and species delimitation in the New Zealand endemic, genetically hypervariable harvestman species, Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) 
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Rosa Fernández and Gonzalo Giribet
pp. 401-414

Aoraki denticulata, a widespread mite harvestman endemic to the NW South Island of New Zealand, was postulated to constitute an old lineage with deep genetic history. Expanding on previous studies, we explored its phylogeography and diversification patterns. Our results show high geographic structure and low genetic connectivity among modern populations, depicting the deep evolutionary history of the A. denticulata lineage.

    | Supplementary Material (490 KB)

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Evolution of host use, group-living and foraging behaviours in kleptoparasitic spiders: molecular phylogeny of the Argyrodinae (Araneae : Theridiidae) 
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Yong-Chao Su and Deborah Smith
pp. 415-431

Spiders in the subfamily Argyrodinae are known for their associations with other spiders as web usurpers, spider predators or kleptoparasites, including approximately 20 group-living kleptoparasitic species. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicates the most likely evolutionary scenario is from free-living predatory behaviour→ araneophagy → a single origin of kleptoparasitism, and that group-living behaviour is associated with specialisation on large hosts.


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On the New World spiders previously misplaced in Leptopholcus: molecular and morphological analyses and descriptions of four new species (Araneae : Pholcidae) 
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Bernhard A. Huber , Leonardo S. Carvalho and Suresh P. Benjamin
pp. 432-450

The phylogenetic relationships of Caribbean and South American spiders traditionally assigned to the genus Leptopholcus have long been unclear. We studied morphological and molecular characters of representatives from three Caribbean islands and from Brazil and found strong evidence for a closer relationship with Micropholcus than with Leptopholcus. Our results support the idea that identical microhabitats (such as the undersides of leaves as in the spiders studied) may result in potentially misleading convergences.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    IS14026  Accepted 29 October 2014
    Protosternini (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) corroborated as monophyletic and its larva described for the first time: a review of the myrmecophilous genus Sphaerocetum
    Martin Fikacek, Munetoshi Maruyama, Takashi Komatsu, Christoph von Beeren, Dominik Vondracek, Andrew Short

    IS14041  Accepted 23 October 2014
    Total evidence analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Lycosoidea spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae)
    Daniele Polotow, Anthea Carmichael, Charles Griswold

    IS14033  Accepted 20 October 2014
    Morphology and DNA barcodes reveal the presence of the non-native land planarian Obama marmorata (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Europe
    Domingo Lago-Barcia, Fernando Ángel Fernández-Álvarez, Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa, Cristina Damborenea, Cristina Grande, Carolina Noreña

    IS14028  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Revision and Phylogeny of the Shore-Fly Genus Rhysophora Cresson (Diptera: Ephydridae).
    Daniel Costa, Wayne Mathis, Luciane Marinoni

    IS14018  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Discordance between morphological species identification and mtDNA phylogeny in the flesh fly genus Ravinia (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).
    Evan Wong, Gregory Dahlem, Trevor Stamper, Ronald DeBry

    IS14035  Accepted 15 September 2014
    Shining a light into the world’s deepest caves: Phylogenetic systematics of the troglobiotic scorpion genus Alacran Francke, 1982 (Typhlochactidae: Alacraninae).
    Carlos Santibanez, Oscar Francke, Lorenzo Prendini

    IS13046  Accepted 15 September 2014
    Phylogenetic relationships of Australian Scirtidae (Coleoptera) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences
    Steven Cooper, Christopher Watts, Kathleen Saint, Remko Leys

    IS14003  Accepted 07 September 2014
    Phylogenetic relationships within the flatworm genus Choeradoplana Graff (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) inferred from molecular data after the description of two new sympatric species from Araucaria Forest
    Virgínia Lemos, Guilherme Cauduro, Victor Valiati, Ana Leal-Zanchet

    IS14030  Accepted 05 September 2014
    A molecular phylogenetic approach to the New Zealand species of Enantiobuninae (Opiliones : Eupnoi : Neopilionidae)
    Sebastian Velez, Rosa Fernandez, Gonzalo Giribet

    IS14029  Accepted 05 September 2014
    Linking genetic diversity and morphological disparity: biodiversity assessment of a highly unexplored family of harvestmen (Arachnida : Opiliones : Neopilionidae) in New Zealand
    Rosa Fernandez, Sebastian Velez, Gonzalo Giribet

    IS14023  Accepted 28 August 2014
    Genetic data confirm the species status of Sepsis nigripes Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Sepsidae) and adds one species to the Alpine fauna while questioning the synonymy of Sepsis helvetica Munari, 1985
    Patrick Rohner, Yuchen Ang, Lei Zhao, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Rudolf Meier

    IS14017  Accepted 12 July 2014
    Testing mitochondrial marker efficacy for DNA barcoding in spiders: a test case using the dwarf spider genus Oedothorax (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae)
    Lara Lopardo, Gabriele Uhl

    IS13064  Accepted 26 June 2014
    Monophyly and phylogenetic origin of the gall crab family Cryptochiridae (Decapoda: Brachyura)
    Sancia van der Meij, Christoph Schubart

    IS14001  Accepted 05 June 2014
    Verification of the cryptic species Penaeus pulchricaudatus in the commercially important kuruma shrimp P. japonicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) using molecular taxonomy
    Kwok Ho Tsoi, Ka Yan Ma, Tsz Huen Wu, Sean Fennessy, Ka Hou Chu, Tin-Yam Chan

    IS13063  Accepted 20 May 2014
    Systematics and host plant associations of a new genus of Acacia-inhabiting plant bugs from arid Australia (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae)
    Gerasimos Cassis, Celia Symonds

    IS13062  Accepted 16 May 2014
    Integrative taxonomy of Acrapex stem borers (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini): combining morphology and Poisson Tree Process analyses.
    BRUNO LE RU, Claire Capdevielle Dulac, Emmanuel Toussaint, Desmond Conlong, Johnnie Van den Berg, Beatrice Pallangyo, George Ong'amo, Gilson Chipabika, Richard Molo, William Overholt, James Cuda, Gaël Kergoat

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Rank Paper Details
1. Published 20 March 2014
Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters

Rüdiger Bieler, Paula M. Mikkelsen, Timothy M. Collins, Emily A. Glover, Vanessa L. González, Daniel L. Graf, Elizabeth M. Harper, John Healy, Gisele Y. Kawauchi, Prashant P. Sharma, Sid Staubach, Ellen E. Strong, John D. Taylor, Ilya Tëmkin, John D. Zardus, Stephanie Clark, Alejandra Guzmán, Erin McIntyre, Paul Sharp and Gonzalo Giribet

2. Published 20 December 2013
More on snails and islands: molecular systematics and taxonomic revision of Setobaudinia Iredale (Gastropoda : Camaenidae) from the Kimberley, Western Australia, with description of new taxa

Francesco Criscione and Frank Köhler

3. Published 20 December 2013
Chiton phylogeny (Mollusca : Polyplacophora) and the placement of the enigmatic species Choriplax grayi (H. Adams & Angas)

Julia D. Sigwart, Isabella Stoeger, Thomas Knebelsberger and Enrico Schwabe

4. Published 12 September 2014
The first phylogenetic analysis of Palpigradi (Arachnida) – the most enigmatic arthropod order

Gonzalo Giribet, Erin McIntyre, Erhard Christian, Luis Espinasa, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Óscar F. Francke, Mark S. Harvey, Marco Isaia, Ĺubomír Kováč, Lynn McCutchen, Maysa F. V. R. Souza and Maja Zagmajster

5. Published 12 September 2014
Barcoding of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae : Mygalomorphae) in the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia reveals a highly diverse biota

Mark A. Castalanelli, Roy Teale, Michael G. Rix, W. Jason Kennington and Mark S. Harvey

6. Published 20 March 2014
Systematics and biology of the aberrant intertidal parasitoid wasp Echthrodesis lamorali Masner (Hymenoptera : Platygastridae s.l.): a parasitoid of spider eggs

Simon van Noort, Lubomir Masner, Ovidiu Popovici, Alejandro A. Valerio, Charuwat Taekul, Norman F. Johnson, Nicholas P. Murphy and Andrew D. Austin

7. Published 20 March 2014
Recognition of two new species of freshwater crabs from the Seychelles based on molecular evidence (Potamoidea : Potamonautidae)

Neil Cumberlidge and Savel R. Daniels

8. Published 20 December 2013
Systematics, phylogeny and host associations of the Australian endemic monaloniine genus Rayieria Odhiambo (Insecta : Heteroptera : Miridae : Bryocorinae)

Anna A. Namyatova and Gerasimos Cassis

9. Published 20 December 2013
A preliminary molecular analysis of phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of New Zealand Thomisidae (Araneae) using a multi-locus approach

Philip J. Sirvid, Nicole E. Moore, Geoffrey K. Chambers and Kelly Prendergast

10. Published 12 September 2014
Phylogeography and species delimitation in the New Zealand endemic, genetically hypervariable harvestman species, Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi)

Rosa Fernández and Gonzalo Giribet

11. Published 30 May 2014
Molecular and morphological systematics of neustonic nudibranchs (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Glaucidae : Glaucus), with descriptions of three new cryptic species

Celia K. C. Churchill, Ángel Valdés and Diarmaid Ó Foighil

12. Published 30 June 2014
New insights into the phylogeny, systematics and DNA barcoding of Nemertea

Sebastian Kvist, Christopher E. Laumer, Juan Junoy and Gonzalo Giribet

13. Published 30 June 2014
Phylogeny, historical biogeography and divergence time estimates of the genus Colophon Gray (Coleoptera : Lucanidae)

Angelika K. Switala, Catherine L. Sole and Clarke H. Scholtz

14. Published 12 September 2014
Molecular phylogenetics of Caribbean Micrathena (Araneae : Araneidae) suggests multiple colonisation events and single island endemism

Anne McHugh, Carol Yablonsky, Greta Binford and Ingi Agnarsson

15. Published 30 June 2014
The ‘giant phyllosoma’ are larval stages of Parribacus antarcticus (Decapoda : Scyllaridae)

Ferran Palero, Guillermo Guerao, Michael Hall, Tin Yam Chan and Paul F. Clark

16. Published 12 September 2014
Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Western Australian troglobitic chthoniid pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones : Chthoniidae) points to multiple independent subterranean clades

Sophie E. Harrison, Michelle T. Guzik and Andrew D. Austin

17. Published 20 December 2013
A distinct phoronid larva: morphological and molecular evidence

Elena N. Temereva and Tatiana V. Neretina

18. Published 30 June 2014
An enigmatic new tapeworm, Litobothrium aenigmaticum, sp. nov. (Platyhelminthes : Cestoda : Litobothriidea), from the pelagic thresher shark with comments on development of known Litobothrium species

J. N. Caira, K. Jensen, A. Waeschenbach and D. T. J. Littlewood

19. Published 30 June 2014
Molecular phylogenetics of the land snail genus Quistrachia (Gastropoda : Camaenidae) in northern Western Australia

Caitlin O'Neill, Michael S. Johnson, Zoë R. Hamilton and Roy J. Teale

20. Published 30 May 2014
Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic reanalysis of the family Mithracidae MacLeay (Decapoda : Brachyura : Majoidea)

Amanda M. Windsor and Darryl L. Felder

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