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Exploration Geophysics
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  The Journal of the Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists
 
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Exploration Geophysics presents case histories, advances in data interpretation, and theoretical developments in applied geophysics. More

Managing Editor: Mark Lackie

 
 
 

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Published online 22 April 2014
Memoryless quasi-Newton (MLQN) method for 2D acoustic full waveform inversion 
Cai Liu, Fengxia Gao, Xuan Feng, Yang Liu and Qianci Ren

In this paper, a memoryless quasi-Newton (MLQN) method is applied in full waveform inversion to invert velocity from surface seismic data for the first time. This method can attain acceptable results with low computation cost and small memory storage requirements. Synthetic model tests show that the MLQN method is feasible and reliable.

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Published online 16 April 2014
Comparison of numerical dispersion in acoustic finite-difference algorithms 
Wen-Quan Liang, Yan-Fei Wang and Chang-Chun Yang

Different methods were developed to suppress the grid dispersion in numerical simulation of the acoustic wave equation. This paper compares the performance of these methods in the space and time–space domains. Dispersion analysis and numerical simulation indicate that a linear method without iteration performs comparably to the optimised methods.

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Published online 09 April 2014
Iterative reweighted least M-estimate AVO inversion 
Yang Liu, Jiashu Zhang and Guangmin Hu

In this paper, an IRLM algorithm which uses Hampel’s three-part redescending M-estimate function as the misfit measure is proposed for robust AVO inversion. By combining the advantages of the Huber norm and biweight norm, the proposed IRLM algorithm performs better in the complex noise environment.

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Published online 24 March 2014
Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data 
Alireza Almasi, Alireza Jafarirad, Hasan Kheyrollahi, Mana Rahimi and Peyman Afzal

This paper introduces exploration clues for orogenic gold prospecting in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, north-west Iran. These are derived based on processing and interpreting airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to identify favourable host rocks, and surface and subsurface structures.

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Published online 18 March 2014
Gaussian beam prestack depth migration in heterogeneous transversely isotropic media 
Jianguang Han and Yun Wang

Based on anisotropic kinematic and dynamic ray tracing systems, an anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration method for P-wave data in transversely isotropic media is presented in this paper. Tests of synthetic and field seismic data demonstrate that the method is accurate and efficient.

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Published online 17 March 2014
Mapping pollution and coastal hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements 
Niels B. Christensen and Max Halkjær

We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted site with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the coastal hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities.

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Published online 12 March 2014
Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems 
Terence Kratzer and James Macnae

Limitations to conductive target detection in AEM systems come from the high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth’s magnetic field. We use rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors.

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Published online 11 March 2014
Perfectly matched layer on curvilinear grid for the second-order seismic acoustic wave equation 
Sanyi Yuan, Shangxu Wang, Wenju Sun, Lina Miao and Zhenhua Li

Theoretical expressions and analysis of curvilinear-grid PML are presented. PML model 1 with symmetric form and PML model 2 with asymmetric form are derived from the same acoustic wave equation. The examples given show that the symmetric-form PML yields better modelling results than the asymmetric-form PML.

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Published online 07 March 2014
Identifying damaged areas inside a masonry monument using a combined interpretation of resistivity and ground-penetrating radar data 
Kyosuke Onishi, Tomochika Tokunaga, Yoshihiro Sugimoto, Naoyuki Yamada, Mohamed Metwaly, Katsuro Mogi, Ichita Shimoda and Yoshinori Iwasaki

This study shows results of ground-penetrating radar and electrical exploration surveys, and an interpreted section of the internal structure and moisture distribution in the Bayon Complex in the Angkor heritage site, Cambodia. Rainwater penetrates into the monument through gaps between stone blocks and drains from vertical walls through cavities in the top part.

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Published online 03 March 2014
Seismic-while-drilling data processing with seismic interferometry in the Daqing Oilfield experiment 
Hongtao Liu, Weichuan Huang and Yuquan Li

This paper discusses the methods and applications of seismic interferometry in seismic-while-drilling (SWD) experiments. The results show that the deconvolution method can suppress the source effects and enhance the resolution of the results.

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Published online 27 February 2014
A description of seismic amplitude techniques 
James Shadlow

Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) and amplitude variation with offset (AVO) can be instrumental in identifying the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion converts seismic data into acoustic impedance, which can be used to estimate geological properties. This paper reviews the literature and commonly used techniques for seismic amplitude analysis.

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Published online 25 February 2014
Site characterisation in north-western Turkey based on SPAC and HVSR analysis of microtremor noise 
Michael W. Asten, Aysegul Askan, E. Ezgi Ekincioglu, F. Nurten Sisman and Beliz Ugurhan

Microtremor (passive seismic) array data were used to study sediment thickness in two pull-apart basins located at Düzce and Bolu on the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey). SPAC processing of array data allows estimation of shear-wave velocity in upper layers about 5 m thick (Vs < 200 m/s), and to depths of about 100 m. Inclusion of HVSR data extends the useful frequency range by an order of magnitude and allows resolution of two interfaces of moderate Vs contrast in soft Miocene and Eocene sediments.

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Published online 24 February 2014
Least squares staggered-grid finite-difference for elastic wave modelling 
Lei Yang, Hongyong Yan and Hong Liu

In this paper, we derive the staggered-grid finite-difference coefficients of arbitrary even-order accuracy for the first-order spatial derivatives by the dispersion relation and the least squares method, which can satisfy the specific numerical solution accuracy of the derivative on a wide frequency zone for elastic wave numerical modelling.

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Published online 20 February 2014
Optimised edge detection filters in the interpretation of potential field data 
Lili Li, Danian Huang, Liguo Han and Guoqing Ma

A new format of edge detection filter, called the optimised edge detection filter, is presented, which produces maximum values only when the horizontal derivative is a maximum and the vertical derivative is zero. These new filters will not produce spurious edges like those in other methods.

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Published online 17 February 2014
The use of GPR attributes to map a weak zone in a river dike 
Henryk Marcak and Tomislaw Golebiowski

In degraded dikes, the crack permeability is increased and damp patches can build up. GPR signal attributes and spectra of GPR traces allow us to locate the more permeable sections of the dike. This has been proven in the interpretation of GPR measurements after the May 2010 flood in Cracow.

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Published online 21 January 2014
Numerical simulation using a Hamiltonian particle method for effective elastic properties in cracked media 
Junichi Takekawa, Hitoshi Mikada and Tada-nori Goto

We apply a Hamiltonian particle method (HPM) to simulate seismic wave propagation in a cracked medium. The calculated effective elastic moduli of the cracked medium using the HPM showed good agreement with the modified self-consistent theory.

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Published online 20 January 2014
Converted-wave imaging technology and application for complex structures 
Pu Wang, Junfeng Liu, Ying Chen and Tianyue Hu

Most existing multi-component surveys are deployed in areas with geologically simple structures due to processing challenges. This paper presents a case study of a 3D3C seismic survey with complex structures and faults. We hope that this workflow will provide a technical guide or reference for multi-component exploration with complex structures.

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Published online 08 January 2014
Discovery of a surface wave velocity anomaly in the West Sea of South Korea 
Kwang Hyun Cho

Our study shows that a fracture zone concerning the Permo-Triassic collision exists below the north-eastern sea of the HUK station in South Korea. Recent studies regarding ambient noise tomography in hydro-carbon fields show that the anomaly might have resulted from the hydro-carbon reservoir. In the near future, the ambient noise tomography (ANT) method can replace seismic survey dominantly using body waves to find oil and gas reservoirs.

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Published online 28 November 2013
A combinatorial filtering method for magnetotelluric time-series based on Hilbert–Huang transform 
Jianhua Cai

Magnetotelluric (MT) time-series are often contaminated with noise from natural or man-made processes. A combinatorial method is described for filtering of MT time-series based on the Hilbert–Huang transform that requires a minimum of human intervention and leaves good data sections unchanged.

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Published online 01 October 2013
Fault and dyke detectability in high resolution seismic surveys for coal: a view from numerical modelling 
Binzhong Zhou and Peter Hatherly

We use numerical modelling in an ideal noise-free environment and homogeneous layering to investigate the detectability of small faults by seismic reflection surveying. It is shown that the detection of faults relates not only to the seismic wave frequencies and wavelengths, but also to the presence of background structures.

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Published online 24 September 2013
Prestack time imaging algorithm with simultaneous velocity estimation in hard rock environments 
Konstantin Tertyshnikov, Andrej Bóna and Roman Pevzner

This paper describes prestack time migration with simultaneous velocity estimation. The approach is based on an estimation of horizontal slownesses and a subsequent calculation of the migration attributes to obtain a migrated image. The potential application of the method to hard rock seismic exploration is demonstrated on synthetic models.

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Published online 07 June 2013
Pre-stack depth migration for improved imaging under seafloor canyons: 2D case study of Browse Basin, Australia 
Helen Debenham and Shane Westlake

Complex seafloor topography causes problems with seismic imaging related to complex ray paths and sharp lateral changes in velocity. This paper describes the reasons for some of these problems and a selection of imaging techniques, with their pros and cons, in the presence of seafloor canyons.

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Published online 15 March 2013
Application of high resolution airborne geophysical data in geological modelling of Mohar Cauldron Complex, Bundelkhand Massif, central India: implications for uranium exploration 
A. Markandeyulu, A. K. Chaturvedi, B. V. S. N. Raju, P. S. Parihar, Roger Miller and Glenn Gooch

High resolution airborne geophysical data were acquired by Fugro Airborne’s GEOTEM system over the Mohar Cauldron Complex (MCC). Advanced processing and interpretation mapped the major geological domains and indicated the presence of three felsic intrusive bodies. The boundary of the sediments within the MCC and subsurface distribution of conductivities are accurately mapped.

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blank image Exploration Geophysics
Volume 45 Number 1 2014
Airborne Surveys and Monitoring of the Earth - Application to the Mitigation of Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards

 
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Table of Contents 
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Airborne surveys and monitoring of the Earth – application to the mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards 
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Shigeo Okuma
pp. 1-2

Airborne surveys are highly useful for their capacity to map, monitor, and forecast natural and anthropogenic hazards safely and efficiently from the air, and for understanding the Earth’s global structures. This special issue is based on papers presented at a session of the Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2012 which was held on 23 May 2012 in Chiba, Japan.

 
 

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Radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter in the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant 
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Yukihisa Sanada, Atsuya Kondo, Takeshi Sugita, Yukiyasu Nishizawa, Youichi Yuuki, Kazutaka Ikeda, Yasunori Shoji and Tatsuo Torii
pp. 3-7

We developed a radiation monitoring system using unmanned helicopters. We then measured the radiation level by using unmanned helicopters in areas where the soil had been contaminated by radioactive caesium emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to evaluate the ambient dose rate distribution around the site.

 
  
 

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Precipitation correction of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data using monitoring profiles: methodology and case study 
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Andreas Ahl, Klaus Motschka and Peter Slapansky
pp. 8-15

Variations of soil moisture content caused by precipitation often complicate the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data. Based on repeated survey flights over a monitoring profile, which is representative for the survey area in terms of weather and soil conditions, the effect of precipitation can be observed and sufficiently corrected.

 
  
 

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Aeromagnetic 3D subsurface imaging with effective source volume minimisation and its application to data from the Otoge cauldron, Shitara, Central Japan 
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Tadashi Nakatsuka and Shigeo Okuma
pp. 16-23

Aeromagnetic 3D subsurface imaging in rugged terrain using the conjugate gradient solution is discussed. Based on the examinations of parameter scaling and regularisation methods, the compact regularisation method for the variable-volume elements model was successfully applied to the data of the Otoge cauldron, Central Japan.

 
  
 

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Aeromagnetic constraints on the subsurface structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan 
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Shigeo Okuma, Tadashi Nakatsuka and Yoshihiro Ishizuka
pp. 24-36

We conducted 3D imaging of magnetic anomalies of Usu Volcano, Japan, observed right after the 2000 eruption. However, no information about magmas intruded during the recent eruptions was obtained. Perhaps the intruded magmas had not cooled enough to become strongly magnetised by the time the survey was conducted.

 
  
 

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Aeromagnetic survey using an unmanned autonomous helicopter over Tarumae Volcano, northern Japan 
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Takeshi Hashimoto, Takao Koyama, Takayuki Kaneko, Takao Ohminato, Takatoshi Yanagisawa, Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto and Eiichi Suzuki
pp. 37-42

We conducted an aeromagnetic survey over a volcano using an unmanned autonomous helicopter. With its high accuracy of positioning control in autonomous flight and small field gradient in the air, detection of temporal changes of an order of 10 nT may be feasible through a direct comparison between separate surveys.

 
  
 

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Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM) survey of Aso Volcano, Japan 
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Hisatoshi Ito, Hideshi Kaieda, Toru Mogi, Akira Jomori and Youichi Yuuki
pp. 43-48

GREATEM, a type of semi-airborne electromagnetics, was used to examine Aso Volcano to verify its applicability to surveying deep subsurface resistivity structures. Comparison of the GREATEM results with those of ground-based TEM and repeated GREATEM surveys indicated that GREATEM can successfully identify underground structures as deep as ~800 m.

 
  
 

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Three-dimensional resistivity modelling of grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey data from the Nojima Fault, Awaji Island, south-east Japan 
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Sabry Abd Allah, Toru Mogi, Hisatoshi Ito, Akira Jymori, Youichi Yuuki, Elena Fomenko, Kenzo Kiho, Hideshi Kaieda, Koichi Suzuki and Kazuhiro Tsukuda
pp. 49-61

A GREATEM system survey was conducted over the Nojima Fault on Awaji Island, Japan, to assess GREATEM survey applicability for studying coastal areas with complex topographic features. 1D inversion results were not reasonable in that the horizontal resistivity values were greatly changed. To circumvent this problem, we performed numerical forward modelling to generate a 3D resistivity structure model from the GREATEM data of the Nojima Fault area.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EG14013  Accepted 22 April 2014
    Methods for determining remanent and total magnetisations of magnetic sources - a review
    David Clark
    Abstract


    EG12041  Accepted 09 April 2014
    Airborne electromagnetic detection of shallow seafloor topographic features including resolution of multiple sub-parallel seafloor ridges
    Julian Vrbancich, Graham Boyd
    Abstract


    EG13091  Accepted 20 December 2013
    COMMENT on: Christensen, N. and Lawrie, K., 2012. Resolution analyses for selecting an appropriate airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system, Exploration Geophysics, 43, 213–227
    Adam Smiarowski, Shane Mulè
    Abstract


    EG13037  Accepted 26 March 2014
    CHANGES IN P-WAVE VELOCITY WITH DIFFERENT FULL WAVEFORM SONIC TRANSMITTER CENTRE FREQUENCY
    Majed AlMalki, Brett Harris, Christian Dupuis
    Abstract


    EG13057  Accepted 23 March 2014
    Radiowave imaging (RIM) for determining the electrical conductivity of the rock in borehole section OL-KR4–OL-KR10 at Olkiluoto, 2005
    Arto Korpisalo, Eero Heikkinen
    Abstract


    EG14019  Accepted 21 March 2014
    PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS: MAKING MEASUREMENTS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY, REMANENCE AND Q IN THE FIELD
    Phillip Schmidt, Mark Lackie
    Abstract


    EG14030  Accepted 19 March 2014
    IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE EDGE-PRESERVING SMOOTHING REGULARIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-FREQUENCY FULL WAVEFORM INVERSION
    Yunhui Park, Sukjoon Pyun
    Abstract




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Rank Paper Details
1. Published 14 March 2014
Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM) survey of Aso Volcano, Japan

Hisatoshi Ito, Hideshi Kaieda, Toru Mogi, Akira Jomori and Youichi Yuuki

2. Published 4 June 2013
New methods for interpretation of magnetic vector and gradient tensor data II: application to the Mount Leyshon anomaly, Queensland, Australia

David A. Clark

3. Published 3 September 2013
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion using a heterogeneous smoothness-constrained least-squares method

Tateyuki Negi, Hideki Mizunaga, Koichi Asamori and Koji Umeda

4. Published 3 September 2013
A 21-point finite difference scheme for 2D frequency-domain elastic wave modelling

Bingluo Gu, Guanghe Liang and Zhiyuan Li

5. Published 29 November 2013
The ratio of B-field and dB/dt time constants from time-domain electromagnetic data: a new tool for estimating size and conductivity of mineral deposits

Kun Guo, James E. Mungall and Richard S. Smith

6. Published 4 June 2013
Improved edge detection tools in the interpretation of potential field data

Lili Li

7. Published 4 June 2013
Heat flow data from the southeast of South Australia: distribution and implications for the relationship between current heat flow and the Newer Volcanics Province

Chris Matthews, Graeme Beardsmore, Jim Driscoll and Nicky Pollington

8. Published 4 June 2013
Towards AEM bathymetry and conductivity estimation in very shallow hypersaline waters of the Coorong, South Australia

Julian Vrbancich

9. Published 14 March 2014
Three-dimensional resistivity modelling of grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey data from the Nojima Fault, Awaji Island, south-east Japan

Sabry Abd Allah, Toru Mogi, Hisatoshi Ito, Akira Jymori, Youichi Yuuki, Elena Fomenko, Kenzo Kiho, Hideshi Kaieda, Koichi Suzuki and Kazuhiro Tsukuda

10. Published 3 September 2013
Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

Supri Soengkono, Chris Bromley, Robert Reeves, Stewart Bennie and Duncan Graham

11. Published 4 June 2013
Quality assurance of aeromagnetic data using lineament analysis

Madeline Lee and William Morris

12. Published 3 September 2013
Radiogenic heat generation in the Darling Range, Western Australia

Mike F. Middleton

13. Published 4 June 2013
Prestack reverse-time migration with a time-space domain adaptive high-order staggered-grid finite-difference method

Hongyong Yan, Yang Liu and Hao Zhang

14. Published 29 November 2013
A wavelet-based baseline drift correction method for grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signals

Yuan Wang, Yanju Ji, Suyi Li, Jun Lin, Fengdao Zhou and Guihong Yang

15. Published 4 June 2013
A random layer-stripping method for seismic reflectivity inversion

Ehsan Jamali Hondori, Hitoshi Mikada, Tada-nori Goto and Junichi Takekawa

16. Published 29 November 2013
Alternative local wavenumber methods to estimate magnetic source parameters

Guoqing Ma and Lili Li

17. Published 14 March 2014
Aeromagnetic 3D subsurface imaging with effective source volume minimisation and its application to data from the Otoge cauldron, Shitara, Central Japan

Tadashi Nakatsuka and Shigeo Okuma

18. Published 4 June 2013
Reliability measurement of joint seismic inversion based on seismic-to-well correlation

Nan Qin and Li-Yun Fu

19. Published 3 September 2013
A new approach to semi-infinite thin slab depth determination from second moving average residual gravity anomalies

El-Sayed M. Abdelrahman and Khalid S. Essa

20. Published 3 September 2013
The application of Monte Carlo modelling to downhole total-count logging of uranium: part II – high grade mineralisation

Bruce Dickson and Geoff Beckitt


      
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