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Exploration Geophysics
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Exploration Geophysics presents case histories, advances in data interpretation, and theoretical developments in applied geophysics. More

Managing Editor: Mark Lackie

 
 
 

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Published online 13 August 2015
An efficient hybrid scheme for fast and accurate inversion of airborne transient electromagnetic data 
Anders Vest Christiansen, Esben Auken, Casper Kirkegaard, Cyril Schamper and Giulio Vignoli

We present a hybrid inversion scheme for airborne TEM data that introduces approximation only in the calculation of partial derivatives. The objective function is evaluated with a full nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) forward model.

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Published online 28 July 2015
Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity 
Devon Parry, Richard S. Smith and Omid Mahmoodi

We investigated the range of sensitivity of five tools for measuring the conductivity or resistivity in drillholes and on drill core. Each tool has a limited range of sensitivity, so one or more tools should be used to cover the range of values expected on a particular project.

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Published online 28 July 2015
The 3D inversion of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data 
Brian Minty and Ross Brodie

A new method is presented for the inversion of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric line data to a regular grid of radioelement concentration estimates on the ground. The method incorporates the height of the aircraft and the topography. It eliminates terrain effects and improves the interpolation between flight lines.

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Published online 22 July 2015
A simple method for depth determination from self-potential anomalies due to two superimposed structures 
El-Sayed M. Abdelrahman, Eid R. Abo-Ezz, Tarek M. El-Araby and Khalid S. Essa

A method to determine the depth to two superimposed sources from a self-potential anomaly profile has been developed. The method uses a relationship between the depths to the two superimposed structures determined from a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the sources’ centre.

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Published online 25 June 2015
Numerical dispersion analysis for three-dimensional Laplace-Fourier-domain scalar wave equation 
Jing-Bo Chen

Based on the phase velocity and attenuation propagation velocity, a method for performing numerical dispersion analysis of three-dimensional Laplace-Fourier-domain scalar wave equation is presented. This method is applied to a 27-point average-derivative optimal scheme and a 27-point finite-element scheme.

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Published online 12 June 2015
Correction of magnetotelluric static shift by analysis of 3D forward modelling and measured test data 
Kun Zhang, Wenbo Wei, Qingtian Lu, Huafeng Wang and Yawei Zhang

A new zero-cost method of correcting static shift in magnetotelluric data is proposed based on 3D forward modelling and field tests. The method has been verified using synthetic and real data.

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Published online 15 May 2015
A comparison of binary and multiclass support vector machine models for volcanic lithology estimation using geophysical log data from Liaohe Basin, China 
Dan Mou and Zhu-Wen Wang

This paper describes the use of binary and multiclass support vector machine models with geophysical log data to estimate the volcanic lithology of the Liaohe Basin in China. A comparison between predicted data and actual data from four wells indicates that binary and multiclass support vector machine models are effective methods for classifying volcanic lithology.

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Published online 15 May 2015
Time–quefrency analysis of overlapping similar microseismic events 
Koji Nagano

This paper describes a cepstrum analysis using window functions to determine the interval between P-waves in similar, overlapping microseismic events. The window functions isolate the two P-waves and suppress the second S-wave. Applications of the method to both synthetic and field data show that it can identify the P-wave interval.

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Published online 08 May 2015
Denoising time-domain induced polarisation data using wavelet techniques 
Ravin N. Deo and James P. Cull

We have conducted the first application of wavelet-based denoising techniques for processing raw TDIP data. Our investigation included laboratory and field measurements to better understand the advantages and limitations of these techniques. It was found that distortions arising from conventional filtering can be significantly avoided with wavelet-based methods.

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Published online 01 May 2015
The distortion tensor of magnetotellurics: a tutorial on some properties 
Frederick E. M. Lilley

The magnetotelluric distortion tensor is analysed by two methods of linear algebra: eigenvalue analysis and singular value decomposition. Mohr diagrams display the results, and emphasise important characteristics of the distortion. Examples compare traditional Groom-Bailey decomposition with singular value decomposition.

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Published online 29 April 2015
Microtremor response of the Cheongcheon dam in Korea 
Ki Young Kim and Young-Gyu Park

Microtremors were analysed using the H/H and H/V methods to estimate site effects of the Cheongcheon earthen dam in Korea. The peak near 3 Hz may correspond to depth to the bedrock, whereas the other peaks at higher frequencies may reflect the geometrical effect of the dam or overtone responses.

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Published online 07 April 2015
High lateral resolution exploration using surface waves from noise records 
Francisco José Chávez-García and Toshiaki Yokoi

We use seismic interferometry to process ambient noise recorded in measurement lines. The Rayleigh wave component of the Green’s Functions is obtained with a high S/N ratio. Using CMPCC analysis, we can identify lateral variations of phase velocity inside the seismic line with higher resolution compared to conventional analysis.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Benefits of using multi-component transmitter–receiver systems for determining geometrical parameters of a dipole conductor from single-line anomalies 
Jacques K. Desmarais and Richard S. Smith

We show the advantages of using multi-component transmitter–receiver systems for determining the geometry of a dipole conductor. We find that single transmitter systems are unable to resolve the orientation of an axially symmetric conductor and subsequently determine which measurements from a multi-component transmitter–receiver system are critical to address this problem.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Decomposing the electromagnetic response of magnetic dipoles to determine the geometric parameters of a dipole conductor 
Jacques K. Desmarais and Richard S. Smith

A novel automatic data interpretation algorithm is presented for modelling airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data acquired over resistive environments, using a single-component transmitter, where the position and orientation of a dipole conductor is allowed to vary in three dimensions. This algorithm is tested on both synthetic and field data.

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Published online 13 March 2015
Frequency-wavenumber implementation for P- and S-wave separation from multi-component seismic data 
Zhiyuan Li, Xiaona Ma, Chao Fu, Bingluo Gu and Guanghe Liang

This paper presents a modified separation equation of P- and S-waves for multi-component seismic data in the frequency-wavenumber domain. The equation can be applied to the seismic data which are recorded on the laterally heterogeneous free surface.

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Published online 26 February 2015
Depth and shape solutions from second moving average residual magnetic anomalies 
El-Sayed M. Abdelrahman, Khalid S. Essa, Tarek M. El-Araby and Eid R. Abo-Ezz

We have developed an efficient method to simultaneously determine the depth and shape of a buried structure from second moving average residual magnetic anomalies. The method is based on computing the standard deviation of the depths for each shape factor, and was applied to synthetic and field data.

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Published online 24 February 2015
Monitoring CO2 drainage and imbibition in a heterogeneous sandstone using both seismic velocity and electrical resistivity measurements 
Jongwook Kim, Myung Jin Nam and Toshifumi Matsuoka

Seismic velocity and electrical resistivity were measured simultaneously to monitor the behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) during CO2 drainage and imbibition within a heterogeneous, clay-containing Tako sandstone sample. Employing Archie’s equation and the Gassmann fluid-substitution equation, electrical resistivities and P-wave velocities were analysed respectively and interpreted to evaluate CO2 saturation.

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Published online 24 February 2015
3D unconstrained and geologically constrained stochastic inversion of airborne vertical gravity gradient data 
Euloge Budet Tchikaya, Michel Chouteau, Pierre Keating and Pejman Shamsipour

This article presents an inversion tool for airborne gravity gradient data that yields a 3D density model using stochastic methods i.e. cokriging and conditional simulation. This method uses geostatistical properties of the measured gravity gradient to estimate a 3D density model. Applications to modelled and survey data demonstrate the performance of the method.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Drill-rig noise suppression using the Karhunen-Loéve transform for seismic-while-drilling experiment at Brukunga, South Australia 
Baichun Sun, Andrej Bóna, Binzhong Zhou, Andrew King, Christian Dupuis and Anton Kepic

To overcome the challenge of surface wave interference generated from drill rigs for seismic-while-drilling, we compare two wavefield separation methods: (1) the Karhunen-Loéve (KL) transform and (2) the fk filter. The results show that drill-rig noise can be effectively suppressed in the correlation domain.

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Published online 30 January 2015
Calculation of gravity due to a vertical cylinder using a spherical harmonic series and numerical integration 
Sung-Ho Na, Hyoungrea Rim, Young-Hong Shin, Mutaek Lim and Yeong-Sue Park

In this paper, the spherical harmonic series of the gravitational potential and its gravity field due to a right vertical cylinder was developed. This series can be used at far and intermediate regions, and it is fast and accurate, using only a few terms.

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Published online 15 January 2015
Direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a focal mechanism algorithm 
Asep Nur Rachman, Tae Woong Chung, Kazuo Yoshimoto and Sukyoung Yun

To simulate the observation of the radiation pattern of an earthquake, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is modified by implanting a focal mechanism algorithm. The modified method shows more reliable results compared to those of the original one, for events with more than 12 recorded stations.

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Published online 13 January 2015
Imaging tilted transversely isotropic media with a generalised screen propagator 
Sung-Il Shin, Joongmoo Byun and Soon Jee Seol

We expand the vertical transversely isotropic generalised screen propagator into a tilted transversely isotropic generalised screen propagator (TTI-GSP) by adopting tilted coordinates. The validity of the developed algorithm has been tested by increasing the accuracy of wide-angle propagation in TTI-GSP with high-order expansion of the velocity perturbation.

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Published online 05 January 2015
Identification of leachate from livestock mortality burial using electrical resistivity and small-loop EM survey: case history 
Sung-Ho Song, In-Ky Cho and Kwang-Jun Choi

A small-loop EM survey and electrical resistivity survey were applied to a carcass disposal site to delineate the burial shape and extent of leachate arising from the burial. The small-loop EM survey was adequate for a reconnaissance survey of the burial zone and the resistivity survey was useful for quantitatively interpreting the pathway of leachate flows in the site.

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Published online 24 December 2014
Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation 
Camilla C. Sørensen, Tim Munday and Graham Heinson

Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic data can be challenging, but spatially coherent resistivity-depth images of the ground can assist geological interpretations. We use ground EM data to standardise AEM data so as to be able to combine overlapping AEM datasets acquired with different systems.

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Published online 19 December 2014
A modified excitation amplitude imaging condition for prestack reverse time migration 
Bingluo Gu, Youshan Liu, Xiaona Ma, Zhiyuan Li and Guanghe Liang

We propose a process to effectively use the modified shortest path method for extracting the maximum amplitude around the first-arrival events. Then, the excitation amplitude imaging condition is applied to obtain a continuous and clear migration image. Numerical tests show that the improvement is feasible and effective in complex-structure media.

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Published online 18 December 2014
Kirchhoff prestack migration using the suppressed wave equation estimation of traveltime (SWEET) algorithm in VTI media 
Ho Seuk Bae, Wookeen Chung, Jiho Ha and Changsoo Shin

This paper examines anisotropic prestack Kirchhoff migration using the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) medium. Both amplitudes and traveltimes were calculated efficiently for migration using the suppressed wave equation estimation of traveltime (SWEET) algorithm.

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Published online 15 December 2014
Case studies of geophysical imaging for road foundation design on soft soils and embankment risk assessment 
Robert J. Whiteley, Richard B. Kelly and Simon B. Stewart

The application of both geophysical imaging and geotechnical testing in road foundation design is a cost-effective enhancement for site characterisation of soft soils and for risk assessment of potentially unstable embankments. The incorporation of geophysics allows concentration on fewer but higher quality soil probings and geotechnical boreholes.

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Published online 08 December 2014
Laboratory modelling of self-potential anomalies due to spherical bodies 
Mohamad Sadegh Roudsari and Ali Beitollahi

This paper presents the experimental design and modelling of self-potential anomalies produced by a sphere-shaped copper–zinc source using a water tank and polarising electrodes. Self-potentials were measured by placing the sphere at a given depth in a rectangular glass tank filled with water.

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Published online 25 November 2014
Deblending using a space-varying median filter 
Yangkang Chen

In this paper, I propose to use a space-varying median filter (SVMF) to remove blending noise. I demonstrate that this filtering method preserves more useful seismic reflection than does the conventional version of a median filter (MF). SVMF can be regionally adaptive, instead of rigidly using a constant window length through the whole profile for filtering.

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blank image Exploration Geophysics
Volume 46 Number 3 2015

 
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Table of Contents 
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An overview of a highly versatile forward and stable inverse algorithm for airborne, ground-based and borehole electromagnetic and electric data 
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Esben Auken , Anders Vest Christiansen , Casper Kirkegaard , Gianluca Fiandaca , Cyril Schamper , Ahmad Ali Behroozmand , Andrew Binley , Emil Nielsen , Flemming Effersø , Niels Bøie Christensen , Kurt Sørensen , Nikolaj Foged and Giulio Vignoli
pp. 223-235

We present an overview of a mature and general algorithm for inversion of most electromagnetic and geoelectrical data, ground-based and airborne. The implementation uses a 1D formulation for electromagnetics and MRS responses, geoelectric responses are 1D and 2D, and the 3D sheet’s response implements an overburden of varying thickness and resistivity.

 
  
 

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mCSEM inversion for CO2 sequestration monitoring at a deep brine aquifer in a shallow sea 
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Seogi Kang , Kyubo Noh , Soon Jee Seol and Joongmoo Byun
pp. 236-252

We developed an efficient 2.5D mCSEM inversion algorithm based on an accurate forward modelling algorithm and the judicious incorporation of a priori information into our inversion scheme. We demonstrated the successful recovery of resistivity distributions of the injected CO2 from the deep brine aquifer model in the shallow sea.

 
  
 

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Accelerating seismic interpolation with a gradient projection method based on tight frame property of curvelet 
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Jingjie Cao , Yanfei Wang and Benfeng Wang
pp. 253-260

A gradient projection method for seismic interpolation based on the tight frame property of curvelet transform is proposed. Some smooth L1 norm functions were analysed, and the Huber function was chosen to replace the L1 norm. The tight frame property of the curvelet transform is utilised to improve the computational efficiency.

 
  
 

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Inverse AVO problem for a stack of layers 
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Liliya Malovichko
pp. 261-266

The problem of estimating thin layered model parameters by amplitude variation with offset (AVO) inversion of prestack seismic data has been studied. An algorithm for solving the prestack inverse AVO problem in the case of multilayered media has been derived. Numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

 
  
 

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Estimation of surface-wave phase velocity from microtremor observation using an array with a reference station 
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Hiroaki Yamanaka , Kei Kato , Kosuke Chimoto and Seiji Tsuno
pp. 267-275

An interferometric procedure for Rayleigh wave phase velocities from cross correlations of microtremors in an array with a reference station is investigated in this study. After identifying dispersive Rayleigh waves, semblance analysis of the cross correlations was carried out to estimate phase velocities for fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves.

 
  
 

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Edge enhancement of potential field data using an enhanced tilt angle 
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Xu Zhang , Peng Yu , Rui Tang , Yang Xiang and Chong-Jin Zhao
pp. 276-283

An edge-detection technique for the enhancement of potential field data, which is based on the tilt angle of the first order vertical derivative of the total horizontal gradient, is presented. The new filter clearly enhances the edges of superimposed sources sharply and generates more subtle detail.

 
  
 

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Magnetic depths to basalts: extension of spectral depths method 
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Roger Clifton
pp. 284-296

By assuming that anomalies in a TMI grid arise from thin magnetic layers, spectral depth estimates to one or more equivalent magnetic layers may be obtained repeatedly across large areas. A general formula is derived for the purpose and demonstrated on the TMI grid of the Northern Territory.

 
  
 

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First application of airborne gravity to oil exploration in the Shengli oil province, eastern China 
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Wenyong Li , Jianxin Zhou , Yanxu Liu and Jianchun Xu
pp. 297-307

An airborne gravity survey was successfully conducted over the onshore and offshore regions of the south-west Bohai Sea. The derived Bouguer gravity data and inversed results correlate well with features such as known faults, swells, sags, and oilfields identified by earlier seismic survey and drilling data.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EG15081  Accepted 30 August 2015
    Acquisition, processing, and interpretation of high-resolution seismic data using a small-scale multi-channel system: an example from the Korea Strait inner-shelf, southeast Korea
    Nam-Hyung Koo, Dong-Geun Yoo, Ho-Young Lee, Byoung-Yeop Kim, Young-Jun Kim, Cheong snons
    Abstract


    EG15013  Accepted 30 August 2015
    Initialising Reservoir Models for History Matching using Pre-production 3D Seismic Data: Constraining Methods and Uncertainties
    Mohammad Emami Niri, David Lumley
    Abstract


    EG14074  Accepted 23 August 2015
    Joint elastic and petrophysical inversion using prestack seismic and well log data
    Zhiyong Li, Beibei Song, Jiashu Zhang, Guangmin Hu
    Abstract


    EG14050  Accepted 08 June 2014
    Errata for Clark, D.A., 2012. New methods for interpretation of magnetic vector and gradient tensor data I: eigenvector analysis and the normalised source strength. Exploration Geophysics, 43, 267–282, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EG12020.
    David Clark
    Abstract


4


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Rank Paper Details
1. Published 28 November 2014
Methods for determining remanent and total magnetisations of magnetic sources – a review

David A. Clark

2. Published 1 September 2015
Edge enhancement of potential field data using an enhanced tilt angle

Xu Zhang, Peng Yu, Rui Tang, Yang Xiang and Chong-Jin Zhao

3. Published 5 September 2014
Optimised edge detection filters in the interpretation of potential field data

Lili Li, Danian Huang, Liguo Han and Guoqing Ma

4. Published 25 February 2015
Airborne electromagnetic modelling options and their consequences in target definition

Alan Yusen Ley-Cooper, Andrea Viezzoli, Julien Guillemoteau, Giulio Vignoli, James Macnae, Leif Cox and Tim Munday

5. Published 25 February 2015
3D-spectral CDIs: a fast alternative to 3D inversion?

James Macnae

6. Published 1 September 2015
Magnetic depths to basalts: extension of spectral depths method

Roger Clifton

7. Published 25 February 2015
Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

Peter K. Fullagar, Glenn A. Pears, James E. Reid and Ralf Schaa

8. Published 5 September 2014
Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems

Terence Kratzer and James Macnae

9. Published 26 May 2015
Memoryless quasi-Newton (MLQN) method for 2D acoustic full waveform inversion

Cai Liu, Fengxia Gao, Xuan Feng, Yang Liu and Qianci Ren

10. Published 25 February 2015
MULTIPULSE – high resolution and high power in one TDEM system

Tianyou Chen, Greg Hodges and Philip Miles

11. Published 25 February 2015
Helicopter EM (ZTEM–VTEM) survey results over the Nuqrah copper–lead–zinc–gold SEDEX massive sulphide deposit in the Western Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Jean M. Legault, Carlos Izarra, Alexander Prikhodko, Shengkai Zhao and Emad M. Saadawi

12. Published 25 February 2015
Modelling an arbitrarily oriented magnetic dipole over a homogeneous half-space for a rapid topographic correction of airborne EM data

Julien Guillemoteau, Pascal Sailhac and Mickael Behaegel

13. Published 1 September 2015
An overview of a highly versatile forward and stable inverse algorithm for airborne, ground-based and borehole electromagnetic and electric data

Esben Auken, Anders Vest Christiansen, Casper Kirkegaard, Gianluca Fiandaca, Cyril Schamper, Ahmad Ali Behroozmand, Andrew Binley, Emil Nielsen, Flemming Effersø, Niels Bøie Christensen, Kurt Sørensen, Nikolaj Foged and Giulio Vignoli

14. Published 28 November 2014
Practical considerations: making measurements of susceptibility, remanence and Q in the field

Phillip W. Schmidt and Mark A. Lackie

15. Published 5 September 2014
Bathymetry, electromagnetic streamlines and the marine controlled source electromagnetic method

Andrew Pethick and Brett Harris

16. Published 5 September 2014
A description of seismic amplitude techniques

James Shadlow

17. Published 25 February 2015
New developments in AEM discrete conductor modelling and inversion

Marc A. Vallée

18. Published 25 February 2015
Developing an efficient modelling and data presentation strategy for ATDEM system comparison and survey design

Magdel Combrinck

19. Published 25 February 2015
The analysis of ZTEM data across the Humble magnetic anomaly, Alaska

Daniel Sattel and Ken Witherly

20. Published 28 November 2014
Remote remanence estimation (RRE)

David A. Pratt, K. Blair McKenzie and Tony S. White


      
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