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Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 25(3)

Phylogeny of Polycentropodidae Ulmer, 1903 (Trichoptera : Annulipalpia : Psychomyioidea) inferred from larval, pupal and adult characters

Maria Lourdes Chamorro A B C and Ralph W. Holzenthal A

A University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology, 1980 Folwell Avenue, 219 Hodson Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
B National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Entomology, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA.
C Corresponding author. Email: lourdes.chamorro@gmail.com

Invertebrate Systematics 25(3) 219-253 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IS10024
Submitted: 26 August 2010  Accepted: 20 June 2011   Published: 18 November 2011

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Phylogeny of Polycentropodidae Ulmer is inferred based on data from immature and adult stages. Larval information is unknown for 61% of the taxa included in this study. To understand the effects of including characters with large sets of missing data, three alternative datasets were analysed using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Five outgroup taxa, including the four families in Psychomyioidea and the single family in Hydropsychoidea, were used in all datasets. Monophyly of Polycentropodidae, as currently defined, was rejected and the monophyly of the three largest cosmopolitan genera, Polycentropus, Polyplectropus and Nyctiophylax, was not confirmed. Monophyly of Pseudoneureclipsinae, including the genera Antillopsyche and Pseudoneureclipsis, was supported in all analyses. The placement of Pseudoneureclipsis within Dipseudopsidae was rejected. Monophyly of Kambaitipsychinae was supported, but its placement within Polycentropodidae was not confirmed. Analyses were sensitive to either inclusion or exclusion of characters from immature stages. Based on the results of these analyses, the following taxonomic changes are established: Kambaitipsychidae, stat. nov. and Pseudoneureclipsidae, stat. nov. are elevated to family status. North American Polycentropus species originally described in either Plectrocnemia or Holocentropus are returned to their original combinations and North American species described in Polycentropus post-1944 are transferred to either Holocentropus or Plectrocnemia. The following new or reinstated combinations are proposed: Plectrocnemia albipuncta Banks, comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia aureola Banks, comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia cinerea (Hagen), comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia clinei Milne, comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia crassicornis (Walker), comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia jenula (Denning) comb. nov.; Plectrocnemia icula (Ross), comb. nov.; Plectrocnemia nascotia (Ross), comb. nov.; Plectrocnemia remota (Banks), comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia sabulosa (Leonard & Leonard), comb. nov.; Plectrocnemia smithae (Denning), comb. nov.; Plectrocnemia vigilatrix Navás, comb. rev.; Plectrocnemia weedi (Blickle & Morse), comb. nov.; Holocentropus chellus (Denning), comb. nov.; Holocentropus flavus Banks, comb. nov.; Holocentropus glacialis Ross, comb. rev.; Holocentropus grellus Milne, comb. rev.; Holocentropus interruptus Banks, comb. rev.; Holocentropus melanae Ross, comb. rev.; Holocentropus milaca (Etnier), comb. nov.; and Holocentropus picicornis (Stephens), comb. rev.

Additional keywords: Bayesian, caddisflies, classification, missing data, morphology, parsimony, systematics.


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