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Article     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 19(4)

Review of the systematics of Scrophulariaceae s.l. and their current disposition

David C. Tank A, Paul M. Beardsley B, Scot A. Kelchner B, Richard G. Olmstead A C

A Department of Biology, Box 355325, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5325, USA.
B Department of Biological Sciences, Box 8007, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007, USA.
C Corresponding author. Email: olmstead@u.washington.edu
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Recent molecular phylogenetic studies in Lamiales have shown that the large group traditionally recognised as Scrophulariaceae is not monophyletic. Efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of this large clade and to revise its classification to reflect that phylogeny have resulted in seven monophyletic groups, comprised mostly of members of Scrophulariaceae s.l., recognised as families in recent angiosperm classifications. These are Scrophulariaceae s.s., Orobanchaceae, Veronicaceae (cf. Plantaginaceae), Phrymaceae, Calceolariaceae, Linderniaceae, and Stilbaceae. Sampling completeness at the genus level varies from group to group, but is quite good for many. A few individual genera formerly assigned to Scrophulariaceae do not fit into any existing clade recognised at family rank and are left, at present, unassigned to family. In addition to the recognition of several clades comprised primarily of former members of Scrophulariaceae s.l., several groups previously recognised as families are now included within some of these clades. For example, Scrophulariaceae s.s. includes Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae, and Veronicaceae includes Callitrichaceae, Globulariaceae, Hippuridaceae, and Plantaginaceae. The clades now recognised as families often are not easily diagnosed, but in many cases are more consistent with certain functional traits and geographical patterns. Examples include Orobanchaceae, which comprises all of the parasitic plants (hemiparasites and holoparasites) and Scrophulariaceae s.s., which is predominantly a southern hemisphere group.

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