Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology

Fluoxetine during pregnancy: impact on fetal development

Janna L. Morrison A D , K. Wayne Riggs B and Dan W. Rurak C

A Discipline of Physiology, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, Centre for the Early Origins of Adult Disease, University of Adelaide, Frome Rd, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

B Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

C Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, BC Research Institute for Children’s and Women’s Health, University of British Columbia, 950 West 28th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4H4, Canada.

D Corresponding author. Email:

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 17(6) 641-650
Submitted: 15 March 2005  Accepted: 12 June 2005   Published: 29 July 2005


Women are at greatest risk of suffering from depression during the childbearing years and thus may either become pregnant while taking an antidepressant or may require a prescription for one during pregnancy. The antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), which increases serotonin neurotransmission. Serotonin is involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological systems, including the sleep–wake cycle, circadian rhythms and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Each of these systems also plays an important role in fetal development. Compared with other antidepressant drugs, the SSRIs, such as FX, have fewer side effects. Because of this, they are now frequently prescribed, especially during pregnancy. Clinical studies suggest poor neonatal outcome after exposure to FX in utero. Recent studies in the sheep fetus describe the physiological effects of in utero exposure to FX with an 8 day infusion during late gestation in the sheep. This is a useful model for determining the effects of FX on fetal physiology. The fetus can be studied for weeks in its normal intrauterine environment with serial sampling of blood, thus permitting detailed studies of drug disposition in both mother and fetus combined with monitoring of fetal behavioural state and cardiovascular function. Fluoxetine causes an acute increase in plasma serotonin levels, leading to a transient reduction in uterine blood flow. This, in turn, reduces the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, thereby presenting a mechanism for reducing growth and/or eliciting preterm delivery. Moreover, because FX crosses the placenta, the fetus is exposed directly to FX, as well as to the effects of the drug on the mother. Fluoxetine increases high-voltage/non-rapid eye movement behavioural state in the fetus after both acute and chronic exposure and, thus, may interfere with normal fetal neurodevelopment. Fluoxetine also alters hypothalamic function in the adult and increases the magnitude of the prepartum rise in fetal cortisol concentrations in sheep. Fetal FX exposure does not alter fetal circadian rhythms in melatonin or prolactin. Studies of the effects of FX exposure on fetal development in the sheep are important in defining possible physiological mechanisms that explain human clinical studies of birth outcomes after FX exposure. To date, there have been insufficient longer-term follow-up studies in any precocial species of offspring exposed to SSRIs in utero. Thus, further investigation of the long-term consequences of in utero exposure to FX and other SSRIs, as well as the mechanisms involved, are required for a complete understanding of the impact of these agents on development. This should involve studies in both humans and appropriate animal models.


Addis A.Koren G.2000Safety of fluoxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy: a meta-analytical review of epidemiological studies.Psychol. Med.308994doi:10.1017/S0033291799001270Pubmed Abstract

Alvarez J. C.Gluck N.Arnulf I.Quintin P.Leboyer M.Pecquery R.Launay J. M.Perez-Diaz F.Spreux-Varoquaux O.1999aDecreased platelet serotonin transporter sites and increased platelet inositol triphosphate levels in patients with unipolar depression: effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine.Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.66617624Pubmed Abstract

Alvarez J. C.Sanceaume M.Advenier C.Spreux-Varoquaux O.1999bDifferential changes in brain and platelet 5-HT concentrations after steady-state achievement and repeated administration of antidepressant drugs in mice.Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol.103136doi:10.1016/S0924-977X(99)00048-6Pubmed Abstract

Andersson L.Sundstrom-Poromaa I.Wulff M.Astrom M.Bixo M.2004aImplications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcome.Obstet. Gynecol.104467476Pubmed Abstract

Andersson L.Sundstrom-Poromaa I.Wulff M.Astrom M.Bixo M.2004bNeonatal outcome following maternal antenatal depression and anxiety: a population-based study.Am. J. Epidemiol.159872881doi:10.1093/AJE/KWH122Pubmed Abstract

Arnon J.Shechtman S.Ornoy A.2000The use of psychiatric drugs in pregnancy and lactation.Israel J. Psychiat.37205222Pubmed Abstract

Begg E. J.Duffull S. B.Saunders D. A.Buttimore R. C.Ilett K. F.Hackett L. P.Yapp P.Wilson D. A.1999Paroxetine in human milk.Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.48142147doi:10.1046/J.1365-2125.1999.00992.XPubmed Abstract

Benfield P.Heel R. C.Lewis S. P.1986Fluoxetine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in depressive illness.Drugs32481508Pubmed Abstract

Boddy K.Dawes G. S.Fisher R.Pinter S.Robinson J. S.1974Foetal respiratory movements, electrocortical and cardiovascular responses to hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in sheep.J. Physiol.243599618Pubmed Abstract

Boland R.Joyce B. J.Wallace M. J.Stanton H.Fosang A. J.Pierce R. A.Harding R.Hooper S. B.2004Cortisol enhances structural maturation of the hypoplastic fetal lung in sheep.J. Physiol.554505517doi:10.1113/JPHYSIOL.2003.055111Pubmed Abstract

Byrd R. A.Markham J. K.1994Developmental toxicology studies of fluoxetine hydrochloride administered orally to rats and rabbits.Fund. Appl. Toxicol.22511518doi:10.1006/FAAT.1994.1058Pubmed Abstract

Calvo G.Garcia-Gea C.Luque A.Morte A.Dal-Re R.Barbanoj M.2004Lack of pharmacologic interaction between paroxetine and alprazolam at steady state in healthy volunteers.J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.24268276doi:10.1097/01.JCP.0000125689.05091.C6Pubmed Abstract

Casper R. C.Fleisher B. E.Lee-Ancajas J. C.Gilles A.Gaylor E.DeBattista A.Hoyme H. E.2003Follow-up of children of depressed mothers exposed or not exposed to antidepressant drugs during pregnancy.J. Pediatr.142402408doi:10.1067/MPD.2003.139Pubmed Abstract

Catterson M. L.Preskorn S. H.1996Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: clinical relevance.Pharmacol. Toxicol.78203208Pubmed Abstract

Chambers C. D.Johnson K. A.Dick L. M.Felix R. J.Jones K. L.1996Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine.N. Engl. J. Med.33510101015doi:10.1056/NEJM199610033351402Pubmed Abstract

Chambers C. D.Anderson P. O.Thomas R. G.Dick L. M.Felix R. J.Johnson K. A.Jones K. L.1999Weight gain in infants breastfed by mothers who take fluoxetine.Pediatrics1046166doi:10.1542/PEDS.104.5.E61Pubmed Abstract

Chien C.Morrison J. L.Gruber N.Rurak D.Riggs K. W.1999Chronic exposure and pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine enantiomers in the pregnant ewe and fetus.AAPS PharmSci.1S224

Clapp J. F.3rdSzeto H. H.Abrams R.Larrow R.Mann L. I.1980Physiologic variability and fetal electrocortical activity.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.13610451050
Pubmed Abstract

Clark K. E.Mills E. G.Otte T. E.Stys S. J.1980Effect of serotonin on uterine blood flow in pregnant and nonpregnant sheep.Life Sci.2726552661doi:10.1016/0024-3205(80)90556-1Pubmed Abstract

Cogill S. R.Caplan H. L.Alexandra H.Robson K. M.Kumar R.1986Impact of maternal postnatal depression on cognitive development of young children.Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.)29211651167Pubmed Abstract

Cohen L. S.Rosenbaum J. F.1997Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine.N. Engl. J. Med.336872873doi:10.1056/NEJM199703203361211Pubmed Abstract

Cohen L. S.Heller V. L.Bailey J. W.Grush L.Ablon J. S.Bouffard S. M.2000Birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to fluoxetine.Biol. Psychiatry489961000doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00877-5Pubmed Abstract

Condon J. T.Corkindale C.1997The correlates of antenatal attachment in pregnant women.Br. J. Med. Psychol.70359372Pubmed Abstract

Costei A. M.Kozer E.Ho T.Ito S.Koren G.2002Perinatal outcome following third trimester exposure to paroxetine.Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.15611291132

DeVane C. L.1999Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.19443466
doi:10.1023/A:1006934807375Pubmed Abstract

DiPietro J. A.Costigan K. A.Pressman E. K.2002Fetal state concordance predicts infant state regulation.Early Hum. Dev.68113doi:10.1016/S0378-3782(02)00006-3Pubmed Abstract

Dole N.Savitz D. A.Hertz-Picciotto I.Siega-Riz A. M.McMahon M. J.Buekens P.2003Maternal stress and preterm birth.Am. J. Epidemiol.1571424doi:10.1093/AJE/KWF176Pubmed Abstract

Edwards L. J.McMillen I. C.2002Impact of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period, fetal number, and fetal sex on the development of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis in sheep during late gestation.Biol. Reprod.6615621569Pubmed Abstract

Emslie G.Judge R.2000Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: use during pregnancy, in children/adolescents and in the elderly.Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl.4032634Pubmed Abstract

Ener R. A.Meglathery S. B.Van Decker W. A.Gallagher R. M.2003Serotonin syndrome and other serotonergic disorders.Pain Med.46374doi:10.1046/J.1526-4637.2003.03005.XPubmed Abstract

Epperson N.Jatlow P. I.Czarkowski K.Anderson G. M.2003Maternal fluoxetine treatment in the postpartum period: effects on platelet serotonin and plasma drug levels in breastfeeding mother–infant pairs.Pediatrics112425429doi:10.1542/PEDS.112.5.E425

Ericson A.Kallen B.Wiholm B.1999Delivery outcome after the use of antidepressants in early pregnancy.Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.55503508doi:10.1007/S002280050664Pubmed Abstract

Fletcher D. J.Hanson M. A.Moore P. J.Nijhuis J. G.Parkes M. J.1988Stimulation of breathing movements by l-5-hydroxytryptophan in fetal sheep during normoxia and hypoxia.J. Physiol.404575589Pubmed Abstract

Giussani D. A., Fletcher A. J. W., Fowden A. L., and Gardner D. S. (2001). Ovine fetal cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine response to hypoxaemia: difference between male and female fetuses. In ‘28th Annual Meeting of the Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society, Auckland, New Zealand’. p. 102. (Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society.)

Goldstein D. J.1995Effects of third trimester fluoxetine exposure on the newborn.J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.15417420doi:10.1097/00004714-199512000-00005Pubmed Abstract

Goldstein D. J.Sundell K. L.Corbin L. A.1997Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine.N. Engl. J. Med.336872873Pubmed Abstract

Gupta S.Banfield C.Kantesaria B.Flannery B.Herron J.2004Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of desloratadine and fluoxetine in healthy volunteers.J. Clin. Pharmacol.4412521259doi:10.1177/0091270004269518Pubmed Abstract

Heikkinen T.Ekblad U.Palo P.Laine K.2003Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in pregnancy and lactation.Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.73330337doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(02)17634-XPubmed Abstract

Hendrick V.Smith L. M.Hwang S.Altshuler L. L.Haynes D.2003aWeight gain in breastfed infants of mothers taking antidepressant medications.J. Clin. Psychiatry64410412Pubmed Abstract

Hendrick V.Smith L. M.Suri R.Hwang S.Haynes D.Altshuler L.2003bBirth outcomes after prenatal exposure to antidepressant medication.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.188812815doi:10.1067/MOB.2003.172Pubmed Abstract

Hendrick V.Stowe Z. N.Altshuler L. L.Hwang S.Lee E.Haynes D.Heikkinen T.Ekblad U.Palo P.Laine K.2003cPlacental passage of antidepressant medications: pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in pregnancy and lactation.Am. J. Psychiatry160993996doi:10.1176/APPI.AJP.160.5.993Pubmed Abstract

Hiemke C.Hartter S.2000Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Pharmacol. Ther.851128doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(99)00048-0Pubmed Abstract

Hoffman S.Hatch M. C.1996Stress, social support and pregnancy outcome: a reassessment based on recent research.Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.10380405Pubmed Abstract

Isbister G. K.Dawson A.Whyte I. M.Prior F. H.Clancy C.Smith A. J.2001Neonatal paroxetine withdrawal syndrome or actually serotonin syndrome?Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.85F147F148Pubmed Abstract

Kallen B.2004Neonate characteristics after maternal use of antidepressants in late pregnancy.Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.158312316doi:10.1001/ARCHPEDI.158.4.312Pubmed Abstract

Kent L. S.Laidlaw J. D.1995Suspected congenital sertraline dependence.Br. J. Psychiatry167412413Pubmed Abstract

Kessler R. C.McGonagle K. A.Swartz M.Blazer D. G.Nelson C. B.1993Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. I: lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence.J. Affect. Disord.298596doi:10.1016/0165-0327(93)90026-GPubmed Abstract

Kim J.Axelson J. E.Kearns G. L.Yin W.Rurak D.1995Stereoselcetive determination of fluoxetine and norfluxoetine with mass-selective detection (GC/MSD).Pharm. Res.12s22

Kim J.Riggs K. W.Rurak D. W.2004Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine enantiomers in pregnant sheep.Drug Metab. Dispos.32212221
doi:10.1124/DMD.32.2.212Pubmed Abstract

Koren G.2002SSRIs in pregnancy: are they safe?Pediatr. Res.51424425Pubmed Abstract

Koren G.2004Discontinuation syndrome following late pregnancy exposure to antidepressants.Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.158307308doi:10.1001/ARCHPEDI.158.4.307Pubmed Abstract

Koren G.Nulman I.Addis A.1998Outcome of children exposed in utero to fluoxetine: a critical review.Depress. Anxiety8Suppl. 12731doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6394(1998)8:1+<27::AID-DA5>3.0.CO;2-KPubmed Abstract

Kotzailias N.Marker M.Jilma B.2004Early effects of paroxetine on serotonin storage, plasma levels, and urinary excretion: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.24536539doi:10.1097/01.JCP.0000138765.08235.46Pubmed Abstract

Kristensen J. H.Ilett K. F.Dusci L. J.Hackett L. P.Yapp P.Wojnar-Horton R. E.Roberts M. J.Paech M.1998Distribution and excretion of sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline in human milk.Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.45453457doi:10.1046/J.1365-2125.1998.00705.XPubmed Abstract

Kristensen J. H.Ilett K. F.Hackett L. P.Yapp P.Paech M.Begg E. J.1999Distribution and excretion of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk.Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.48521527doi:10.1046/J.1365-2125.1999.00040.XPubmed Abstract

Laine K.Heikkinen T.Ekblad U.Kero P.2003Effects of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy on serotonergic symptoms in newborns and cord blood monoamine and prolactin concentrations.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry60720726doi:10.1001/ARCHPSYC.60.7.720Pubmed Abstract

Larsson C.Sydsjo G.Josefsson A.2004Health, sociodemographic data, and pregnancy outcome in women with antepartum depressive symptoms.Obstet. Gynecol.104459466Pubmed Abstract

Lawrenson R. A.Tyrer F.Newson R. B.Farmer R. D.2000The treatment of depression in UK general practice: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants compared.J. Affect. Disord.59149157doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00147-0Pubmed Abstract

Ledward R. S.1996Drugs in pregnancy.Prog. Obstet. Gynecol.121946

Marcus S. M.Flynn H. A.Blow F. C.Barry K. L.2003Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings.J. Womens Health12373380
Pubmed Abstract

Martin J. A.Hamilton B. E.Ventura S. J.Menacker F.Park M. M.Sutton P. D.2002Births: final data for 2001.Natl Vital Stat. Rep.511102Pubmed Abstract

McCormick M. C.Brooks-Gunn J.Shorter T.Holmes J. H.Wallace C. Y.Heagarty M. C.1990Factors associated with smoking in low-income pregnant women: relationship to birth weight, stressful life events, social support, health behaviors and mental distress.J. Clin. Epidemiol.43441448doi:10.1016/0895-4356(90)90132-9Pubmed Abstract

McElhatton P. R.Garbis H. M.Elefant E.Vial T.Bellemin al.1996The outcome of pregnancy in 689 women exposed to therapeutic doses of antidepressants. A collaborative study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS).Reprod. Toxicol.10285294doi:10.1016/0890-6238(96)00057-3Pubmed Abstract

McIntosh G. H.Baghurst K. I.Potter B. J.Hetzel B. S.1979Foetal brain development in the sheep.Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.5103114Pubmed Abstract

Morin L. P.1999Serotonin and the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythmicity.Ann. Med.311233Pubmed Abstract

Morrison J. L.Carmichael L.Homan J.Richardson B. S.1997The effects of ‘sleep promoting agents’ on behavioural state in the ovine fetus.Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res.10318doi:10.1016/S0165-3806(97)00093-XPubmed Abstract

Morrison J. L.Chien C.Gruber N.Rurak D.Riggs W.2001Fetal behavioural state changes following maternal fluoxetine infusion in sheep.Dev. Brain Res.1314756doi:10.1016/S0165-3806(01)00255-3

Morrison J. L.Chien C.Riggs K. W.Gruber N.Rurak D.2002Effect of maternal fluoxetine administration on uterine blood flow, fetal blood gas status, and growth.Pediatr. Res.51433442Pubmed Abstract

Morrison J. L.Riggs K. W.Chien C.Gruber N.McMillen I. C.Rurak D. W.2004Chronic maternal fluoxetine infusion in pregnant sheep: effects on the maternal and fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axes.Pediatr. Res.564046doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000128981.38670.28Pubmed Abstract

Morrison J. L.Rurak D.Chien C.Kennaway D. J.Gruber N.McMillen I. C.Riggs K. W.2005Maternal fluoxetine infusion does not alter fetal endocrine and biophysical circadian rhythms in pregnant sheep.J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig.12356364

Mourilhe P.Stokes P. E.1998Risks and benefits of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of depression.Drug Saf.185782
Pubmed Abstract

Newnham J. P.Moss T. J.Nitsos I.Sloboda D. M.2002Antenatal corticosteroids: the good, the bad and the unknown.Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.14607612doi:10.1097/00001703-200212000-00006Pubmed Abstract

Noble R. E.2005Depression in women.Metabolism544952doi:10.1016/J.METABOL.2005.01.014Pubmed Abstract

Nordeng H.Lindemann R.Perminov K. V.Reikvam A.2001Neonatal withdrawal syndrome after in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Acta Paediatr.90288291doi:10.1080/080352501300067596Pubmed Abstract

Nulman I.Rovet J.Stewart D. E.Wolpin J.Gardner H. A.Theis J. G.Kulin N.Koren G.1997Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to antidepressant drugs.N. Engl. J. Med.336258262doi:10.1056/NEJM199701233360404Pubmed Abstract

Nulman I.Rovet J.Stewart D. E.Wolpin J.Pace-Asciak P.Shuhaiber S.Koren G.2002Child development following exposure to tricyclic antidepressants or fluoxetine throughout fetal life: a prospective, controlled study.Am. J. Psychiatry15918891895doi:10.1176/APPI.AJP.159.11.1889Pubmed Abstract

Oberlander T. F.Grunau R. E.Fitzgerald C.Ellwood E. L.Misri S.Rurak D.Riggs K. W.2002Prolonged prenatal psychotropic medication exposure alters neonatal acute pain response.Pediatr. Res.51443453Pubmed Abstract

Oberlander T. F.Grunau R. E.Fitzgerald C.Papsdorf M.Rurak D.Riggs W.2005Pain reactivity in 2-month-old infants after prenatal and postnatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure.Pediatrics115411425doi:10.1542/PEDS.2004-0420Pubmed Abstract

O’Hara M. W.Neunaber D. J.Zekoski E. M.1984Prospective study of postpartum depression: prevalence, course, and predictive factors.J. Abnorm. Psychol.93158171doi:10.1037//0021-843X.93.2.158Pubmed Abstract

Orr S. T.Miller C. A.1995Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Review of the literature and preliminary findings.Epidemiol. Rev.17165171Pubmed Abstract

Orr S. T.James S. A.Blackmore Prince C.2002Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm births among African–American women in Baltimore, Maryland.Am. J. Epidemiol.156797802doi:10.1093/AJE/KWF131Pubmed Abstract

Ortiz J.Artigas F.1992Effects of monoamine uptake inhibitors on extracellular and platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat blood: different effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine.Br. J. Pharmacol.105941946Pubmed Abstract

Palmer S. K.Zamudio S.Coffin C.Parker S.Stamm E.Moore L. G.1992Quantitative estimation of human uterine artery blood flow and pelvic blood flow redistribution in pregnancy.Obstet. Gynecol.8010001006Pubmed Abstract

Pastuszak A.Schick-Boschetto B.Zuber C.Feldkamp M.Pinelli al.1993Pregnancy outcome following first-trimester exposure to fluoxetine (Prozac).JAMA26922462248doi:10.1001/JAMA.269.17.2246Pubmed Abstract

Peacock J. L.Bland J. M.Anderson H. R.1995Preterm delivery: effects of socioeconomic factors, psychological stress, smoking, alcohol, and caffeine.BMJ311531535Pubmed Abstract

Philipps L. H.O’Hara M. W.1991Prospective study of postpartum depression: 4½-year follow-up of women and children.J. Abnorm. Psychol.100151155doi:10.1037//0021-843X.100.2.151Pubmed Abstract

Pillai M.James D.1990Development of human fetal behavior: a review.Fetal Diagn. Ther.51532Pubmed Abstract

Prosser R. A.2000Serotonergic actions and interactions on the SCN circadian pacemaker: in vitro investigations.Biol. Rhythm Res.31315339doi:10.1076/0929-1016(200007)31:3;1-K;FT315

Quilligan E. J.Clewlow F.Johnston B. M.Walker D. W.1981Effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan on electrocortical activity and breathing movements of fetal sheep.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.141271275Pubmed Abstract

Rampono J.Kristensen J. H.Hackett L. P.Paech M.Kohan R.Ilett K. F.2000Citalopram and demethylcitalopram in human milk: distribution, excretion and effects in breast fed infants.Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.50263268doi:10.1046/J.1365-2125.2000.00253.XPubmed Abstract

Rampono J.Proud S.Hackett L. P.Kristensen J. H.Ilett K. F.2004A pilot study of newer antidepressant concentrations in cord and maternal serum and possible effects in the neonate.Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.7329334doi:10.1017/S1461145704004286Pubmed Abstract

Rementeria J. L.Bhatt K.1977Withdrawal symptoms in neonates from intrauterine exposure to diazepam.J. Pediatr.90123126Pubmed Abstract

Richardson B. S. (1994). Ontogeny of behavioural states in the fetus. In ‘Textbook of Fetal Physiology’. (Eds G. D. Thornburn and R. Harding.) pp. 322–328. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.)

Robert E.1996Treating depression in pregnancy.N. Engl. J. Med.33510561058doi:10.1056/NEJM199610033351411Pubmed Abstract

Roberts C. L.Lancaster P. A.1999Australian national birthweight percentiles by gestational age.Med. J. Aust.170114118Pubmed Abstract

Roffwarg H. P.Muzio J. N.Dement W. C.1966Ontogenetic development of the human sleep–dream cycle.Science152604619

Rossi A.Barraco A.Donda P.2004Fluoxetine: a review on evidence based medicine.Ann. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry329
doi:10.1186/1475-2832-3-2Pubmed Abstract

Sanz E. J.De-las-Cuevas C.Kiuru A.Bate A.Edwards R.2005Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women and neonatal withdrawal syndrome: a database analysis.Lancet365482487Pubmed Abstract

Scharf A.Seppelt M.Sohn C.2003Doppler flow velocity to measure the redistribution of fetal cardiac output in fetal stress.Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.110S119S126doi:10.1016/S0301-2115(03)00182-9Pubmed Abstract

Schwartz J.McMillen I. C.2001Fetal hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis on the road to parturition.Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.28108112doi:10.1046/J.1440-1681.2001.03412.XPubmed Abstract

Shader R. I.1992aDoes continuous use of fluoxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy present a high risk for malformation or abnormal development to the exposed fetus?J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.12441Pubmed Abstract

Shader R. I.1992bA patient of mine missed a period while taking fluoxetine; it turned out that she was not pregnant. However, the question arose about the safety of fluoxetine during pregnancy. What is known?J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.12213Pubmed Abstract

Silvestri R.Pace-Schott E. F.Gersh T.Stickgold R.Salzman C.Hobson J. A.2001Effects of fluvoxamine and paroxetine on sleep structure in normal subjects: a home-based nightcap evaluation during drug administration and withdrawal.J. Clin. Psychiatry62642652Pubmed Abstract

Simon G. E.Cunningham M. L.Davis R. L.2002Outcomes of prenatal antidepressant exposure.Am. J. Psychiatry15920552061doi:10.1176/APPI.AJP.159.12.2055Pubmed Abstract

Speight A. N.1977Floppy-infant syndrome and maternal diazepam and/or nitrazepam.Lancet310878doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(77)90817-0Pubmed Abstract

Spencer M. J.1993Fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac) toxicity in a neonate.Pediatrics92721722Pubmed Abstract

Stanford M. S.Patton J. H.1993In utero exposure to fluoxetine HCl increases hematoma frequency at birth.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.45959962doi:10.1016/0091-3057(93)90147-LPubmed Abstract

Steer R. A.Scholl T. O.Hediger M. L.Fischer R. L.1992Self-reported depression and negative pregnancy outcomes.J. Clin. Epidemiol.4510931099doi:10.1016/0895-4356(92)90149-HPubmed Abstract

Stiskal J. A.Kulin N.Koren G.Ho T.Ito S.2001Neonatal paroxetine withdrawal syndrome.Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.84F134F135doi:10.1136/FN.84.2.F134Pubmed Abstract

Stokes P. E.Holtz A.1997Fluoxetine tenth anniversary update: the progress continues.Clin. Ther.1911351250doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(97)80066-5Pubmed Abstract

Suri R.Altshuler L.Hendrick V.Rasgon N.Lee E.Mintz J.2004The impact of depression and fluoxetine treatment on obstetrical outcome.Arch. Women Ment. Health7193200Pubmed Abstract

Tabor B. L.Lewis J. F.Ikegami M.Polk D.Jobe A. H.1994Corticosteroids and fetal intervention interact to alter lung maturation in preterm lambs.Pediatr. Res.35479483Pubmed Abstract

Thase M. E.1998Depression, sleep, and antidepressants.J. Clin. Psychiatry595565Pubmed Abstract

Ursin R.2002Serotonin and sleep.Sleep Med. Rev.65569doi:10.1053/SMRV.2001.0174Pubmed Abstract

Vorhees C. V.Acuff-Smith K. D.Schilling M. A.Fisher J. E.Moran M. S.Buelke-Sam J.1994A developmental neurotoxicity evaluation of the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine in rats.Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.23194205doi:10.1006/FAAT.1994.1098Pubmed Abstract

Weissman M. M.Olfson M.1995Depression in women: implications for health care research.Science269799801Pubmed Abstract

Wen S. W.Walker M.2004The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Can.26819822Pubmed Abstract

Wood C. E. (1994). The function of the fetal pituitary–adrenal system. In ‘Textbook of Fetal Physiology’. (Eds G. D. Thornburn and R. Harding.) pp. 351–358. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.)

Yoshioka T.Inomata K.Sugioka K.Nakamura K.1980Ultrastructural study on myelination in rat spinal cord during the early postnatal stage.Brain Dev.2337343Pubmed Abstract

Zemdegs I. Z.McMillen I. C.Walker D. W.Thorburn G. D.Nowak R.1988Diurnal rhythms in plasma melatonin concentrations in the fetal sheep and pregnant ewe during late gestation.Endocrinology123284289Pubmed Abstract

Zeskind P. S.Stephens L. E.2004Maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior.Pediatrics113368375doi:10.1542/PEDS.113.2.368Pubmed Abstract

Export Citation