Australian Systematic Botany Australian Systematic Botany Society
Taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of plants

A phylogeny of Pouteria (Sapotaceae) from Malesia and Australasia

Teguh Triono A B C , Anthony H. D. Brown A , Judy G. West A and Michael D. Crisp B D

A Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B School of Botany and Zoology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

C Present address: Herbarium, Herbarium Bogoriense, Jalan Raya Juanda 22, Bogor 16122, Indonesia.

D Corresponding author. Email:

Australian Systematic Botany 20(2) 107-118
Submitted: 13 April 2006  Accepted: 20 February 2007   Published: 26 April 2007


The genus Pouteria Aublet is a pantropical group and many of its species produce high-quality timber and edible fruit. In 1991, on the basis of morphological characters, Pennington combined the genus Planchonella Pierre with Pouteria, expanding the latter genus to nine sections and 325 species. However, many Planchonella species were not included in his account and doubt remains about the generic limits of Pouteria sensu Pennington. This paper re-assesses the generic delimitation of Pouteria and its affinities with Planchonella from molecular data generated from the nuclear-encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The analysis includes 22 Planchonella species and three Pouteria species sensu van Royen collected from Malesia and Australia, and seven additional Planchonella species from New Caledonia with molecular data available from GenBank. Other genera from Sapotaceae included in the analysis were Chrysophyllum, Niemeyera, Pichonia, Pycnandra and Xantolis (tribe Chrysophylleae) and Mimusops, Palaquium and Manilkara (outgroups from other tribes). The resulting ITS cladograms from both Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses indicated that Malesian and Australasian Pouteria species are not monophyletic and comprise three separate lineages, therefore providing evidence against the broad circumscription of this genus by Pennington. Tertiary leaf venation type (reticulate, parallel or ramified), when mapped onto the phylogeny, correlated with these groupings, indicating that this character is taxonomically informative.


Alvarez I Wendel JF 2003 Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 417 434 doi:doi: 10.1016/S1055–7903(03)00208–2

Anderberg AA Swenson U 2003 Evolutionary lineages in Sapotaceae (Ericales), a cladistic analysis based on ndhF sequence data. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 763 773 doi:doi: 10.1086/376818

Anderberg AA Peng C-I Trift I Källersjö M 2001 The Stimpsonia problem: evidence from DNA sequences of plastid genes atpB, ndhF and rbcL. Botanische Jahrbucher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 123 369 376

Anderberg AA Rydin C Källersjö M 2002 Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.l.: analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany 89 677 687

Aubréville A 1964 Les Sapotacées: taxonomie et phytogéographie. Adansonia Memoires 1 1 157

Aubréville A (1967) ‘Flore de la Nouvelle Calédonie et Dépendances. 1. Sapotaceae.’ (Museum Natural History: Paris)

Baehni C 1938 Mémoires sur les Sapotacées. Candollea 7 394 508

Baehni C 1942 Mémoires sur les Sapotacées. 2. Le genre Pouteria. Candollea 9 147 476

Baehni C 1965 Mémoires sur les Sapotacées. 3. Inventaire des genres. Boissiera 11 1 262

Bartish IV Swenson U Munzinger J Anderberg AA 2005 Phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian Sapotaceae (Ericales): molecular evidence for generic polyphyly and repeated dispersal. American Journal of Botany 92 667 673

Bremer B Bremer K Heidari N Erixon P Olmstead RG Anderberg AA Källersjö M Barkhordarian E 2002 Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24 274 300.
doi:doi: 10.1016/S1055–7903(02)00240–3

Buckler ES Ippolito A Holtsford TP 1997 The evolution of ribosomal DNA: divergent paralogues and phylogenetic implications. Genetics 145 821 832

Chase MW Hills HH 1991 Silica gel: an ideal material for field preservation of leaf samples for DNA studies. Taxon 40 215 220.
doi:doi: 10.2307/1222975

Cross EW Quinn CJ Wagstaff SJ 2002 Molecular evidence for the polyphyly of Olearia (Astereae: Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 235 99 120. doi:doi: 10.1007/s00606–002–0198–9

Doyle JJ Doyle JL 1987 A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemistry Bulletin 19 11 15

Farmer SB Schilling EE 2002 Phylogenetic analysis of Trilliaceae. Systematic Botany 27 674 692

Farris JS Albert VA Källersjö M Lipscomb D Kluge AG 1996 Parsimony jackknifing outperforms neighbor-joining. Cladistics 12 99 124.
doi:doi: 10.1111/j.1096–0031.1996.tb00196.x

Felsenstein J (2004) ‘Inferring phylogenies.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA)

Green PS 1990 Notes relating to the floras of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, II. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 67 109 122

Govaerts R , Frodin DG , Pennington TD (2001) ‘World checklist and bibliography of Sapotaceae.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: London)

Hall TA 1999 BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41 95 98

Hamilton MB Braverman JM Soria-Hernanz DF 2003 Patterns and relative rates of nucleotide and insertion/deletion evolution at six chloroplast intergenic regions in new world species of the Lecythidaceae. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20 1710 1721.
doi:doi: 10.1093/molbev/msg190

Herrmann-Erlee MPM van Royen P 1957 Revision of the Sapotaceae of the Malaysian Area in a wider sense. IX. Pouteria Aublet. Blumea 8 452 509

Hickey LJ 1973 Classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. American Journal of Botany 60 17 33.
doi:doi: 10.2307/2441319

Huelsenbeck JP Ronquist F 2001 MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 17 754 755. doi:doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

Jessup LW 2001 New combinations and a new name in Australian Sapotaceae. Austrobaileya 6 161 163

Källersjö M Bergqvist G Anderberg AA 2000 Generic realignment in primuloid families of the Ericales s.l.: a phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology. American Journal of Botany 87 1325 1341.
doi:doi: 10.2307/2656725

Lam HJ 1925 The Sapotaceae, Sarcospermaceae and Boerlagellaceae of the Dutch East Indies and surrounding countries. Bulletin Jardin du Botanique Buitenzorg, Series III 7 1 289

Lam HJ 1927 Further studies of Malayan Sapotaceae. 1. Bulletin Jardin du Botanique Buitenzorg, Series III 8 354 493

Lam HJ 1939 On the system of the Sapotaceae, with some remarks on taxonomical methods. Recueil des Travavx Botaniques Neerlandais 36 509 525

Lam HJ Varossieau WW 1938 Revision of the Sarcospermataceae. Blumea 3 183 200

Larget B Simon DL 1999 Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16 750 759

Maddison WP 1997 Gene trees in species trees. Systematic Biology 46 523 536.
doi:doi: 10.2307/2413694

Mort ME Soltis PS Soltis DE Mabry ML 2000 Comparison of three methods for estimating internal support on phylogenetic trees. Systematic Biology 49 160 171. doi:doi: 10.1080/10635150050207456

Morton CM Mori SA Prance GT Karol KG Chase MW 1997 Phylogenetic relationships of Lecythidaceae: a cladistic analysis using rbcL sequence and morphological data. American Journal of Botany 84 530 540. doi:doi: 10.2307/2446029

Pennington TD (1990) ‘Flora Neotropica, vol. 52. Sapotaceae.’ pp. 1–41. (New York Botanical Garden: New York)

Pennington TD (1991). ‘The genera of Sapotaceae.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: London)

Pfeil BE Brubaker CL Craven LA Crisp MD 2004 Paralogy and orthology in the Malvaceae rpb2 gene family: investigation of gene duplication in Hibiscus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 1428 1437. doi:doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh144

Poke FS Martin DP Steane DA Vaillancourt RE Reid JB 2006 The impact of intragenic recombination on phylogenetic reconstruction at the sectional level in Eucalyptus when using a single copy nuclear gene (cinnamoyl CoA reductase). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 160 170. doi:doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.11.016

Posada D Crandall KA 1998 Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 14 817 818. doi:doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817

Rogstad SH 1992 Saturated NaCl-CTAB solution as a means of field preservation of leaves for DNA analyses. Taxon 41 701 708. doi:doi: 10.2307/1222395

van Royen P 1957 Revision of the Sapotaceae of the Malaysian area in a wider sense. VII. Planchonella Pierre. Blumea 8 235 444

Savolainen V Chase MW Hoot SB Morton CM Soltis DE Bayer C Fay MF de Bruijn AY Sullivan S Qiu YL 2000 Phylogenetics of flowering plants based on combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL gene sequences. Systematic Biology 49 306 362.
doi:doi: 10.1080/10635159950173861

Sun Y Skinner DZ Liang GH Hulbert SH 1994 Phylogenetic analysis of Sorghum and related taxa using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 89 26 32. doi:doi: 10.1007/BF00226978

Swenson U Anderberg AA 2005 Phylogeny, character evolution, and classification of Sapotaceae (Ericales). Cladistics 21 101 130. doi:doi: 10.1111/j.1096–0031.2005.00056.x

Swofford DL (2002) ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA)

Vink W 2002 Some Malesian species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae). Blumea 47 95 147

White TJ , Bruns T , Lee S , Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In ‘PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications’. (Eds MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, TJ White) pp. 315–322. (Academic Press: San Diego)

Export Citation Cited By (13)