Sexual Health Sexual Health Society
Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Adolescent and sexual history factors influencing reproductive control among women aged 18–44

Brianna M. Magnusson A B , Saba W. Masho A and Kate L. Lapane A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980212, Richmond, VA 23298-0212, USA.

B Corresponding author. Email: magnussonbm@mymail.vcu.edu

Sexual Health 8(1) 95-101 https://doi.org/10.1071/SH10007
Submitted: 26 January 2010  Accepted: 15 March 2010   Published: 24 January 2011

Abstract

Background: Reproductive control refers to the ability of a man or woman to control his or her own reproduction. Unintended pregnancy is a commonly used proxy measure for reproductive control. Methods: Using heterosexually active women participating in the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6 (n = 4521), we evaluated unintended pregnancy as a proxy measure for reproductive control. We identified four categories of women by self-reported pregnancy intention: (1) women reporting one unintended pregnancy, (2) women reporting two or more unintended pregnancies, (3) women reporting intentionally having no pregnancies and (4) women who reported that all pregnancies were intended (reference category). Polytomous logistic regression, weighted for the complex sampling design, provided estimates of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Fifty-one percent of women who reported having one unintended pregnancy went on to experience at least one additional unintended pregnancy. Being black, Hispanic, born to a mother who was <18 years at first birth, having multiple partners and age of first sexual debut (consensual or non-consensual) were significant predictors of multiple unintended pregnancies. Relative to sexual debut after 18 years of age, women reporting a sexual debut at less than 15 years were at increased risk of multiple unintended pregnancies (adjusted OR (reported as consensual): 6.96; 95% CI: 4.26 to 11.39; adjusted OR (reported as non-consensual: 27.10; 95% CI: 11.03–66.57)). Conclusions: Efforts to delay sexual debut and to protect girls from non-consensual sex are sorely needed to prevent a lifelong trajectory of lack of reproductive control.

Graphical Abstract Image

Additional keywords: contraception, pregnancy.


References


[1] Henshaw SK. Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Fam Plann Perspect 1998; 30 24–9, 46.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[2] Finer LB,  Henshaw SK. Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2006; 38 90–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[3] Trussell J. The cost of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Contraception 2007; 75 168–70.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[4] Foster DG,  Bley J,  Mikanda J,  Induni M,  Arons A,  Baumrind N, et al. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California. Contraception 2004; 70 31–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[5] Todd CS,  Mountvarner G,  Lichenstein R. Unintended pregnancy risk in an emergency department population. Contraception 2005; 71 35–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[6] D’Angelo DV,  Gilbert BC,  Rochat RW,  Santelli JS,  Herold JM. Differences between mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among women who have live births. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2004; 36 192–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[7] Kost K,  Landry DJ,  Darroch JE. Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: does intention status matter? Fam Plann Perspect 1998; 30 79–88.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[8] Than LC,  Honein MA,  Watkins ML,  Yoon PW,  Daniel KL,  Correa A. Intent to become pregnant as a predictor of exposures during pregnancy: is there a relation? J Reprod Med 2005; 50 389–96.
PubMed |

[9] Cheng D,  Schwarz EB,  Douglas E,  Horon I. Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors. Contraception 2009; 79 194–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[10] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unintended pregnancy. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2008 Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/UnintendedPregnancy [verified October 2009].

[11] Gazmararian JA,  Adams MM,  Saltzman LE,  Johnson CH,  Bruce C,  Marks JS, et al. The relationship between pregnancy intendedness and physical violence in mothers of newborns. The PRAMS Working Group. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 85 1031–8.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[12] Kost K,  Landry DJ,  Darroch JE. The effects of pregnancy planning status on birth outcomes and infant care. Fam Plann Perspect 1998; 30 223–30.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[13] Orr ST,  Miller CA,  James SA,  Babones S. Unintended pregnancy and preterm birth. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2000; 14 309–13.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[14] Mohllajee AP,  Curtis KM,  Morrow B,  Marchbanks PA. Pregnancy intention and its relationship to birth and maternal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109 678–86.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[15] Zuravin SJ. Unplanned childbearing and family size: their relationship to child neglect and abuse. Fam Plann Perspect 1991; 23 155–61.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[16] Bhutta AT,  Cleves MA,  Casey PH,  Cradock MM,  Anand KJ. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288 728–37.
CrossRef |

[17] Goto A,  Yasumura S,  Reich MR,  Fukao A. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Yamagata, Japan. Soc Sci Med 2002; 54 1065–79.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[18] Kuroki LM,  Allsworth JE,  Redding CA,  Blume JD,  Peipert JF. Is a previous unplanned pregnancy a risk factor for a subsequent unplanned pregnancy? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 517 e.1–7.


[19] Groves RM , Benson G , Mosher WD , Rosenbaum J , Granda P , Axinn W et al Plan and operation of cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 1(42). Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 2005.

[20] Lepkowski JM , Mosher WD , Davis KE , Groves RM , van Hoewyk J , Willem J . National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 6: Sample design, weighting, imputation, and variance estimation. Vital Health Stat 2(142). Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 2006.

[21] Postlethwaite D,  Armstrong MA,  Hung YY,  Shaber R. Pregnancy outcomes by pregnancy intention in a managed care setting. Matern Child Health J 2010; 14 227–34.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[22] Pallitto CC,  O’Campo P. The relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: analysis of a national sample from Columbia. Int Fam Plann Perspect 2004; 30 165–73.
CrossRef |

[23] Williams CM,  Brett KM,  Abma JC. Coercive first intercourse and unintended first births. Violence Vict. 2009; 24 351–63.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[24] Manlove J, Romano-Papillo A, Ikramullah E. Not yet: programs to delay first sex among teens. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy; 2004.

[25] Manlove J , Franzetta K , McKinney K , Romano-Papillo A , Terry-Humen E . No time to waste: programs to reduce teen pregnancy among middle school-aged youth. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy; 2004.

[26] O’Connor ML. Women who were born to teenage mothers have nearly double the risk of early child bearing. Fam Plann Perspect 1997; 29 243–4.
CrossRef |

[27] Resnick MD,  Bearman PS,  Blum RW,  Bauman KE,  Harris KM,  Jones L, et al. Protecting adolescents from harm: findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health. JAMA 1997; 278 823–32.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[28] Research Triangle Institute. SUDAAN user’s manual, release 9.0. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2004.

[29] Kutner MH , Nachtsheim CJ , Neter J , Li W . Applied linear statistical models, Fifth edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin; 2005.

[30] Rickert VI,  Sanghvi R,  Wiemann CM. Is lack of sexual assertiveness among adolescent and young adult women a cause for concern? Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2002; 34 178–83.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[31] National Center for Health Statistics. National survey of family growth cycle V. 1995 user’s guide. Hyattsville Maryland: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics; 1997.

[32] Boardman LA,  Weitzen S,  Lapane KL. Context of care and contraceptive method use. Womens Health Issues 2004; 14 51–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[33] Malat J. Racial differences in Norplant use in the United States. Soc Sci Med 2000; 50 1297–308.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[34] Guttmacher Institute. Contraceptive insurance coverage has improved dramatically. New York: Guttmacher Institute Media Center; 2004. Available online at: http://www.guttmacher.org/media/nr/2004/06/15/index.html [verified October 2009].

[35] Guttmacher Institute. State policies in brief: insurance coverage of contraceptives. New York: Guttmacher Institute Media Center; 2009. Available online at: http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ICC.pdf/ [verified November 2009].

[36] Howard DE,  Min QW. Psychosocial correlates of U.S. adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse. J Adolesc Health 2005; 36 372–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[37] Walsh JF,  Foshee V. Self-efficacy, self determination and victim blaming as predictors of adolescent sexual victimization. Health Educ Res 1998; 13 139–44.
CrossRef |

[38] Irwin CE,  Rickert VI. Coercive sexual experiences during adolescence and young adulthood: a public health problem. J Adolesc Health 2005; 36 359–61.
CrossRef | PubMed |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (11)

View Altmetrics