CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review Article
Referee Guidelines
Early Career Referee Mentoring
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(3)

Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin: freshwater ecosystem conservation options in an era of climate change

Jamie Pittock A C and C. Max Finlayson B

A Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
B Institute for Land, Water & Society, Charles Sturt University, PO Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: Jamie.pittock@anu.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 62(3) 232-243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF09319
Submitted: 29 December 2009  Accepted: 16 September 2010   Published: 18 March 2011


 
 Full Text
 PDF (276 KB)
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

River flows in the Murray–Darling Basin, as in many regions in the world, are vulnerable to climate change, anticipated to exacerbate current, substantial losses of freshwater biodiversity. Additional declines in water quantity and quality will have an adverse impact on existing freshwater ecosystems. We critique current river-management programs, including the proposed 2011 Basin Plan for Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin, focusing primarily on implementing environmental flows. River management programs generally ignore other important conservation and adaptation measures, such as strategically located freshwater-protected areas. Whereas most river-basin restoration techniques help build resilience of freshwater ecosystems to climate change impacts, different measures to enhance resilience and reoperate water infrastructure are also required, depending on the degree of disturbance of particular rivers on a spectrum from free-flowing to highly regulated. A crucial step is the conservation of free-flowing river ecosystems where maintenance of ecological processes enhances their capacity to resist climate change impacts, and where adaptation may be maximised. Systematic alteration of the operation of existing water infrastructure may also counter major climate impacts on regulated rivers.

Additional keywords: biodiversity, environmental flows, free-flowing, infrastructure, regulated, rivers, water, wetlands.


References

Abell, R., Allan, J. D., and Lehner, B. (2007). Unlocking the potential for protected areas in conserving freshwaters. Biological Conservation 134, 48–63.
CrossRef |

ABS, ABARE, and BRS (2009). Socio-economic context for the Murray–Darling Basin – descriptive report. MDBA publication no. 34/09. Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

Arthington, A., and Pusey, B. J. (2003). Flow restoration and protection in Australian rivers. River Research and Applications 19, 377–395.
CrossRef |

Bailey, P. C. E., Boon, P. I., Blinn, D. W., and Williams, W. D. (2006). Salinisation as an ecological perturbation to rivers, streams and wetlands of arid and semi-arid regions. In ‘Ecology of Desert Rivers’. (Ed. R. Kingsford.) pp. 280–314. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Baldwin, D. S., and Fraser, M. (2009). Rehabilitation options for inland waterways impacted by sulfidic sediments – a synthesis. Journal of Environmental Management 91, 311–319.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Barnett, J., and O’Neill, S. (2010). Maladaptation. Global Environmental Change 20, 211–213.
CrossRef |

Barrett, J. (Ed.) (2008). Native Fish Strategy. The sea to Hume Dam: restoring fish passage in the Murray River. MDBC Publication No. 32/08 Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Bates, B. C., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S., and Palutikof, J. P. (Eds) (2008). ‘Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.’ (IPCC Secretariat: Geneva.)

Bednarek, A. T. (2001). Undamming rivers: a review of the ecological impacts of dam removal. Environmental Management 27, 803–814.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bond, N. R., Lake, P. S., and Arthington, A. H. (2008). The impacts of drought on freshwater ecosystems: an Australian perspective. Hydrobiologia 600, 3–16.
CrossRef |

Bowling, L., and Baker, P. (1996). Major cyanobacterial bloom in the Barwon–Darling River, Australia, in 1991, and underlying limnological conditions. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 643–657.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cai, W., and Cowan, T. (2008). Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L07701 [online].
CrossRef |

Chartres, C., and Williams, J. (2006). Can Australia overcome its water scarcity problems? Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture 1, 17–24..

Chiew, F. H. S., Teng, J., Kirono, D., Frost, A. J., Bathols, J. M., et al. (2008). Climate data for hydrologic scenario modelling across the Murray–Darling Basin. CSIRO, Canberra.

COAG (2008). Agreement on Murray–Darling Basin Reform. Council of Australian Governments, Canberra. Available at http://www.coag.gov.au/coag_meeting_outcomes/2008-07-03/docs/Murray_Darling_IGA.pdf [accessed 7 November 2008].

Connell, D. (2007). ‘Water Politics in the Murray–Darling Basin.’ (The Federation Press: Leichardt, NSW.)

CSIRO (2008). Water availability in the Murray–Darling Basin. Report from CSIRO to the Australian Government. CSIRO, Canberra. Available at http://www.csiro.au/files/files/po0n.pdf [accessed 15 April 2009].

Cunningham, S., Mac Nally, R., White, M., Read, J., Baker, P., et al. (2007). Mapping the current condition of river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) stands along the Victorian Murray River floodplain. Report to the northern Victorian Catchment Management Authorities and the Department of Sustainability and Environment. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.

Cunningham, S., Mac Nally, R., Griffioen, P., and White, M. (2009). Mapping the condition of river red gum and black box stands in The Living Murray icon sites. MDBA Publication No. 51/10, Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

Davies, P. E., Harris, J. H., Hillman, T. J., and Walker, K. F. (2010). The sustainable rivers audit: assessing river ecosystem health in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 764–777.
CrossRef | CAS |

Davis, J., and Koop, K. (2006). Eutrophication in Australian rivers, reservoirs and estuaries – A southern hemisphere perspective on the science and its implications. Hydrobiologia 559, 23–76.
CrossRef | CAS |

DEWHA (2009). Australian Ramsar wetlands. Department of Environment Heritage Water and the Arts, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/wetlands/alphablist.pl [accessed on 17 December 2009].

DEWHA (2010). Purchases secured under the Restoring the Balance in the Murray–Darling Basin program as at 30 June 2010. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/water/policy-programs/entitlement-purchasing/2008-09.html [accessed on 26 July 2010].

Dunlop, M., and Brown, P. R. (2008). Implications of climate change for Australia’s National Reserve System: a preliminary assessment. Report to the Department of Climate Change, Canberra.

DWR (1993). Water resources of the Gwydir Valley. Department of Water Resources, Sydney.

Faragher, R. A., and Harris, J. H. (1994). The historical and current status of freshwater fish in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 29, 166–176..

Foerster, A. (2008). Managing and protecting environmental water: lessons from the Gwydir for ecologically sustainable water management in the Murray Darling Basin. Environmental Planning and Law Journal 25, 130–153..

Fowler, J., Day, E., and Brown, C. (2000). IFR starter document (vol. 1): introduction, social aspects, water quality and biology. Assessment of the instream flow requirements for the Palmiet River and the freshwater requirements for the Palmiet Estuary. Southern Waters Ecological Research and Consulting, Freshwater Research Unit, University of Cape Town and Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Cape Town.

Fredericksen, J., Fredericksen, C., Osbrough, S., and Sisson, J. (2010). Causes of changing southern hemisphere weather systems. In ‘Managing Climate Change: Papers from the Greenhouse 2009 Conference’. (Eds I. Jubb, P. Holper and W. Cai.) pp. 85–98. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Garnaut, R. (2008). ‘The Garnaut Climate Change Review: Final Report.’ (Cambridge University Press: Melbourne.)

Gehrke, P. C., and Harris, J. H. (2001). Regional-scale effects of flow regulation on lowland riverine fish communities in New South Wales, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 17, 369–391.
CrossRef |

Gehrke, P. C., Brown, P., Schiller, C. B., Moffatt, D. B., and Bruce, A. M. (1995). River regulation and fish communities in the Murray–Darling river system, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 11, 363–375.
CrossRef |

Ghassemi, F., and White, I. (2007). ‘Inter-basin Water Transfer: Case Studies from Australia, United States, Canada, China and India.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Goss, K. F. (2003). Environmental flows, river salinity and biodiversity conservation: managing trade-offs in the Murray–Darling Basin. Australian Journal of Botany 51, 619–625.
CrossRef |

Growns, I. (2008). The influence of changes to river hydrology on freshwater fish in regulated rivers of the Murray–Darling Basin. Hydrobiologia 596, 203–211.
CrossRef |

Hall, K. C., Baldwin, D. S., Rees, G. N., and Richardson, A. J. (2006). Distribution of inland wetlands with sulfidic sediments in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. The Science of the Total Environment 370, 235–244.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hansen, L. J., Hoffman, J. R., and Biringer, J. L. (2003). ‘Buying Time: A User’s Manual to Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems.’ (WWF: Gland, Switzerland.)

Herron, N., Davis, R., and Jones, R. (2002). The effects of large-scale afforestation and climate change on water allocation in the Macquarie River catchment, NSW, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 65, 369–381..
| PubMed |

Jenkins, K. M., and Boulton, A. J. (2007). Detecting impacts and setting restoration targets in arid-zone rivers: aquatic micro-invertebrate responses to reduced floodplain inundation. Journal of Applied Ecology 44, 823–832.
CrossRef |

Jolly, I. D., Williamson, D. R., Gilfedder, M., Walker, G. R., Morton, R., et al. (2001). Historical stream salinity trends and catchment salt balances in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 52, 53–63.
CrossRef |

Jones, R., and Page, C. M. (2001). Assessing the risk of climate change on the water resources of the Macquarie River catchment. In ‘Integrating Models for Natural Resources Managment Across Disciplines, Issues and Scales. International Congress on Modelling and Simulation Proceedings’. pp. 673–678. (Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand: Canberra.)

Jones, G., Hillman, T., Kingsford, R., McMahon, T., Walker, K., et al. (2002). Independent report of the Expert Reference Panel on environmental flows and water quality requirements for the River Murray system. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Canberra.

Kingsford, R. T. (2000). Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral Ecology 25, 109–127..

Kingsford, R. T., and Auld, K. M. (2005). Waterbird breeding and environmental flow management in the Macquarie Marshes, arid Australia. River Research and Applications 21, 187–200.
CrossRef |

Kingsford, R. T., and Thomas, R. F. (2004). Destruction of wetlands and waterbird populations by dams and irrigation on the Murrumbidgee River in arid Australia. Environmental Management 34, 383–396.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kingsford, R. T., Brandis, K., Thomas, R. F., Crighton, P., Knowles, E., et al. (2004a). Classifying landform at broad spatial scales: the distribution and conservation of wetlands in New South Wales, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 55, 17–31.
CrossRef |

Kingsford, R. T., Jenkins, K. M., and Porter, J. L. (2004b). Imposed hydrological stability on lakes in arid Australia and effects on waterbirds. Ecology 85, 2478–2492.
CrossRef |

Kingsford, R. T., Walker, K. F., Lester, R. E., Young, W. J., Fairweather, P. G., et al. (2011). A Ramsar wetland in crisis – the Coorong Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 255–265.
CrossRef |

Krchnak, K., Richter, B., and Thomas, G. (2009). Integrating environmental flows into hydropower dam planning, design, and operations. Water Working Notes, Note No. 22. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.

Leblanc, M. J., Tregoning, P., Ramillien, G., Tweed, S. O., and Fakes, A. (2009). Basin-scale, integrated observations of the early 21st century multiyear drought in southeast Australia. Water Resources Research 45, W04408 [online].
CrossRef |

Maheshwari, B. L., Walker, K. F., and McMahon, T. A. (1995). Effects of regulation on the flow regime of the river Murray, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 10, 15–38.
CrossRef |

MDBA (2009a). River Murray system drought update. Murray Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

MDBA (2009b). The Basin Plan: a concept statement. Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

MDBA (2009c). Issues paper: development of sustainable diversion limits for the Murray–Darling Basin, November 2009. MDBA Publication No. 48/09. Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.

MDBC (2007). The Living Murray icon site condition report October 2007. Murray–Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

MDBMC (2003). Murray Darling Basin Ministerial Council communique 14 November 2003. Murray–Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Nel, J. L., Roux, D. J., Maree, G., Kleynhans, C. J., Moolman, J., et al. (2007). Rivers in peril inside and outside protected areas: a systematic approach to conservation assessment of river ecosystems. Diversity & Distributions 13, 341–352.
CrossRef |

Nelson, K. C., Palmer, M. A., Pizzuto, J. E., Moglen, G. E., Angermeier, P. L., et al. (2009). Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options. Journal of Applied Ecology 46, 154–163.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Nevill, J. (2007). Policy failure: Australian freshwater protected area networks. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 14, 35–47..

Nielsen, D. L., and Brock, M. A. (2009). Modified water regime and salinity as a consequence of climate change: prospects for wetlands of southern Australia. Climatic Change 95, 523–533.
CrossRef | CAS |

Nilsson, C. (1996). Remediating river margin vegetation along fragmented and regulated rivers in the north: what is possible? Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 12, 415–431.
CrossRef |

Nilsson, C., Reidy, C. A., Dynesius, M., and Revenga, C. (2005). Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science 308, 405–408.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

NRC (2009). Final assessment report. Riverina bioregion regional forest assessment river red gums and woodland forests. NSW Natural Resources Commission, Sydney.

NSW DPI (2006). The assessment and modification of barriers to fish passage in the Namoi catchment. Report to the Namoi Catchment Management Authority. Department of Primary Industries, Tamworth, NSW.

NWC (2009). Australian water reform 2009: second biennial assessment of progress in implementation of the National Water Initiative, September 2009. National Water Commission, Canberra.

Olden, J. D., and Naiman, R. J. (2010). Incorporating thermal regimes into environmental flows assessments: modifying dam operations to restore freshwater ecosystem integrity. Freshwater Biology 55, 86–107.
CrossRef |

Palmer, M. A., Bernhardt, E. S., Allan, J. D., Lake, P. S., Alexander, G., et al. (2005). Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology 42, 208–217.
CrossRef |

Palmer, M. A., Reidy Liermann, C. A., Nilsson, C., Florke, M., Alcamo, J., et al. (2008). Climate change and the world’s river basins: anticipating management options. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6, 81–89.
CrossRef |

Phillips, W., and Muller, K. (2006). Ecological character of the Coorong, Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Wetland of International Importance. Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide.

Pittock, A. B. (1980). Towards a warm Earth scenario for Australia. In ‘Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Australian Research’. (Ed. G. I. Pearman.) pp. 197–209. (Australian Academy of Science: Canberra.)

Pittock, J. (2008). Freshwater biodiversity conservation through protected areas: international obligations and lessons for Australia. In ‘APAC08 Proceedings – Australian Protected Areas Congress, Protected Areas in the Century of Change, 24–28 November 2008, Twin Waters, Queensland’. pp. 217–220. (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management: Brisbane.)

Pittock, A. B. (2009). ‘Climate Change: the Science, Impacts and Solutions.’ 2nd edn. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Pittock, J., and Hartmann, J. (2011). Taking a second look: climate change, periodic relicensing and improved management of dams. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 312–320.
CrossRef |

Pittock, J., and Lankford, B. A. (2010). Environmental water requirements: demand management in an era of water scarcity. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7, 75–93.
CrossRef |

Pittock, J., Hansen, L. J., and Abell, R. (2008). Running dry: freshwater biodiversity, protected areas and climate change. Biodiversity 9, 30–38.

Poff, N. L., Richter, B. D., Arthington, A., Bunn, S. E., Naiman, R. J., et al. (2010). The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): a new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards. Freshwater Biology 55, 147–170.
CrossRef |

Poole, G. C., and Berman, C. H. (2001). An ecological perspective on in-stream temperature: natural heat dynamics and mechanisms of human-caused thermal degradation. Environmental Management 27, 787–802.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Powell, J. L. (2008). ‘Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming and the Future of Water in the West.’ (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA.)

Preece, R. (2004). Cold water pollution below dams in New South Wales. A desktop assessment. Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

Preece, R. M., and Jones, H. A. (2002). The effect of Keepit Dam on the temperature regime of the Namoi River, Australia. River Research and Applications 18, 397–414.
CrossRef |

Productivity Commission (2010). Market mechanisms for recovering water in the Murray–Darling Basin. Final report, March. Productivity Commission, Canberra.

Robertson, A. I., Bunn, S. E., Boon, P. I., and Walker, K. F. (1999). Sources, sinks and transformations of organic carbon in Australian floodplain rivers. Marine and Freshwater Research 50, 813–829.
CrossRef | CAS |

Rood, S. B., Samuelson, G. M., Braatne, J. H., Gourley, C. R., Hughes, F. M., et al. (2005). Managing river flows to restore floodplain forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3, 193–201.
CrossRef |

Schreider, S. Y., Jakeman, A. J., Whetton, P. H., and Pittock, A. B. (1997). Estimation of climate impact on water availability and extreme events for snow-free and snow-affected catchments of the Murray–Darling Basin. Australian Journal of Water Resources 2, 35–46..

Sheldon, F., Bunn, S. E., Hughes, J. M., Arthington, A. H., Balcombe, S. R., et al. (2010). Ecological roles and threats to aquatic refugia in arid landscapes: dryland river waterholes. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 885–895.
CrossRef | CAS |

Sherman, B. (2000). Scoping options for mitigating cold water discharges from dams. CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra.

Sherman, B., Todd, C. R., Koehn, J. D., and Ryan, T. (2007). Modelling the impact and potential mitigation of cold water pollution on Murray cod populations downstream of Hume Dam, Australia. River Research and Applications 23, 377–389.
CrossRef |

Thieme, M., Lehner, B., Abell, R., Hamilton, S. K., Kellndorfer, J., et al. (2007). Freshwater conservation planning in data-poor areas: an example from a remote Amazonian basin (Madre de Dios River, Peru and Bolivia). Biological Conservation 135, 484–501.
CrossRef |

Thomas, R. F., Kingsford, R. T., Yi, L., and Hunter, S. J. (in press). Landsat mapping of inundation (1979–2006) of the Macquarie Marshes in semi-arid Australia. International Journal of Remote Sensing , .
CrossRef |

Timbal, B. (2009). The continuing decline in South-East Australian rainfall – update to May 2009. CAWCR (Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research) Research Letters 2, 4–11..

Timbal, B., and Jones, D. A. (2008). Future projections of winter rainfall in southeast Australia using a statistical downscaling technique. Climatic Change 86, 165–187.
CrossRef |

van Dijk, A. I. J. M., and Keenan, R. J. (2007). Planted forests and water in perspective. Forest Ecology and Management 251, 1–9.
CrossRef |

van Dijk, A., Evans, R., Hairsine, P., Khan, S., Nathan, R., et al. (2006). Risks to the shared water resources of the Murray–Darling Basin. Murray–Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

VEAC (2008). River red gum forests investigation. Final report. Victorian Environmental Assessment Council, Melbourne.

Viers, J., and Rheinheimer, D. (2011). A review of freshwater conservation options in California’s Sierra Nevada with climate warming. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 266–278.
CrossRef |

Walker, K. F. (1985). A review of the ecological effects of river regulation in Australia. Hydrobiologia 125, 111–129.
CrossRef |

Walker, K. F. (2006). Serial weirs, cumulative effects: the Lower River Murray, Australia. In ‘Ecology of Desert Rivers’. (Ed. R. T. Kingsford.) pp. 248–279. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Walker, K. F., and Thoms, M. C. (1993). Environmental effects of flow regulation on the lower river Murray, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 8, 103–119.
CrossRef |

Watts, R. J., Richter, B. D., Opperman, J. J., and Bowmer, K. H. (2011). Dam reoperation in an era of climate change. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 321–327.
CrossRef |

WCMA (2008). Prepare for the next drought: an incentives program. Training & works guidelines and application form. Western Catchment Management Authority, Cobar, NSW.

WGCS (2010). Sustainable diversions in the Murray–Darling Basin. An analysis of the options for achieving a sustainable diversion limit in the Murray–Darling Basin. Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Sydney.

Wilson, G., Spencer, J., and Heagney, E. (2010). Responses of fish and waterbirds to flow variability in the Gwydir wetlands. In ‘Ecosystem Response Modelling in the Murray–Darling Basin’. (Eds N. Saintilan and I. Overton.) pp. 103–118. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Wishart, M. J. (2006). Water scarcity: politics, populations and ecology. In ‘Ecology of Desert Rivers’. (Ed. R. T. Kingsford.) pp. 315–335. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Wong, P. (2008). Rudd Government to invest $12.9 billion in water. Media release of the Minister for Climate Change and Water, 29 April 2008. Minister for Climate Change and Water, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/wong/2008/pubs/mr20080429.pdf [accessed 2 December 2008].

Young, M. D. (2010). Environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of water use in agriculture: the experience of and lessons from the Australian water reform programme. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.

Young, M., and McColl, J. (2008). A future-proofed basin. A new water management regime for the Murray–Darling Basin. The University of Adelaide, Adelaide.


   
 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014