Eels have been remotely tracked in their freshwater, brackish and marine habitats for five decades to understand the extent of their migrations and to ensure the conservation of these enigmatic species. Herein we review 105 studies that tracked eels and summarise findings relative to the species, life history stages and habitats studied. In addition, we discuss the need for continued development of telemetry technology and future research directions in eel biology.
Marine and Freshwater Research
Volume 69 Number 2 2018
MF17133Water quality affects the structure of copepod assemblages along the Sfax southern coast (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean Sea)
Copepod species diversity along the southern coastline of Sfax, Tunisia, depends on anthropogenic inputs. Oithona nana, Paracalanus parvus, Harpacticus littoralis and Tisbe battagliai were spread along the coast and were more adapted to coastal anthropogenic inputs. The Shannon–Wiener index, H′, was higher in the southern, less affected, stations than in the northern stations, which were affected by sewage to a greater extent.
MF16290Does the reintroduction of large wood in a large dryland river system benefit fish assemblages at the reach scale?
This study assesses the effect of reintroducing large wood on fish assemblages along the Barwon-Darling River, Australia. Results demonstrate that reintroducing large wood had limited influence on fish. It is hypothesised the lack of a detectable response by fish was because the physical character and position of the reintroduced wood pieces didn’t replicate ‘natural’ reference conditions.
MF17103Role of environmental and spatial processes structuring fish assemblages in streams of the eastern Amazon
The roles of environment and space in stream fish assemblages were evaluated in distinct hydrological periods in the eastern Amazon. The results indicate that spatial and environmental factors play complementary roles, and that diversity was affected by changes in the habitat connectivity experienced in different hydrological periods.
MF17096Response of demersal fish assemblages to an extreme flood event in a freshwater-deprived estuary in South Africa
A large flood (436.6 m3 s–1) that occurred in the freshwater-deprived Kariega Estuary resulted in a normal longitudinal salinity gradient being present throughout the study period (December 2013–November 2014). This resulted in an increase in the abundance of early juvenile estuarine-associated marine fish, particularly in the middle and upper reaches, which was linked to an increase in nutrients and food availability, as well as increased nursery habitats.
MF16388Reproduction and embryo viability of a range-limited tropical freshwater fish exposed to fluctuating hypoxia
Hypoxia can profoundly affect fish reproduction and larval development, but its effects on fish from tropical Australia are not well understood. In the study, the effects of diel fluctuating hypoxia on reproduction were identified for a range-limited tropical freshwater fish. Utchee Creek rainbowfish appear to be more hypoxia tolerant than many temperate species, but are still susceptible to the increasing frequency and intensity of hypoxia that may occur as a result of climate change.
Rezoning of Moreton Bay Marine Park increased the no-take area from 0.5 to 16%, incorporating 10% of each major habitat type. Displacement of fishing effort was 6.3%, demonstrating that science-based conservation and community consultation can protect biodiverse habitats, while maintaining existing uses of a marine park. However, achieving biodiversity conservation must rely on ensuring no-take zones adequately represent ecological processes.
MF17102Importance of free-living and particle-associated bacteria for the growth of the harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum: evidence in culture stages
The present study is the first to investigate the bacterial communities associated with the harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum using a pyrosequencing assay. Throughout the study, particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial communities were significantly associated with the growth phases of P. minimum. Although the FL and PA bacterial communities differed significantly, Roseobacter and Marinobacter clades showed a close association with the growth of P. minimum in both communities.
MF17016Sexual development and demography of the rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis, a protogynous grouper, in the south-west Atlantic
The rock hind is a medium-sized Atlantic reef grouper exploited by fisheries; it represents an important resource for small and medium-scale fisheries along the coast of Brazil. This study reports on the pattern of sexual development and demography of a protogynous species on the north-east coast of Brazil. A lack of fisheries management endangers the future sustainability of fisheries for this and other hermaphroditic species of groupers that otherwise may suffer declines similar to those observed for larger species.
MF17110Scale deformity descriptions for 23 species of fish, from various geographical areas and habitats
In this study, 63 cases of deformities were reported from 23 fish species collected from five countries. The observed abnormalities are discussed within the framework of contaminated aquatic environments, with a goal of recognising the cause of abnormality. There were 52 cases of slight and 9 of severe scale anomalies. The results of this study should assist in future work on the environmental condition.
MF17195Seasonality, sex ratio, spawning frequency and sexual maturity of the opakapaka Pristipomoides filamentosus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the Main Hawaiian Islands: fundamental input to size-at-retention regulations
Pristipomoides filamentosus, a long-lived deep-water eteline snapper, is an economically important component of commercial and recreational fisheries throughout much of the Indo-Pacific region. This study provides the first sex-specific, histologically validated estimates of size at maturity for P. filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian Islands or elsewhere. Estimates are compared with those previously derived for the species using non-histological methods, and suggestions for re-evaluating minimum legal size regulations for fisheries of the species in Hawaii are included.
MF16355Use of epidermal mucus in elasmobranch stable isotope studies: a pilot study using the giant manta ray (Manta birostris)
This is the first study to investigate mucus as a potential new and useful material in elasmobranch dietary studies using stable isotope analysis. Mucus collected from giant manta rays was indicative of a broader short-term diet during aggregation periods in Ecuador, in comparison to muscle, which suggested long-term diet is more conservative. Both mucus and muscle support that giant manta rays predominately feed on zooplankton at a secondary consumer trophic level.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
MF17250More (or less?) bounce for the ounce: a comparison of environmental DNA and classical approaches for bioassessment
Environmental (e)DNA is increasingly being used for biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems and although it is often touted as being more powerful, yet cheaper, than classical approaches to biomonitoring, empirical evidence is scarce. Herein we use a case study to contrast and compare classical and eDNA methods in terms of information generated balanced with costs and expertise.
MF17252Mangrove response to sea level rise: palaeoecological insights from macrotidal systems in northern Australia
This paper explores coastal wetland response to sea-level rise. It reviews changing mangrove distribution over past millennia determined from cores in macrotidal estuaries of northern Australia. Mangroves retreated on the open coast, but were able to keep pace with gradual sea-level rise in adjacent estuaries. These insights imply that mangrove adjustment in future will vary as a function of local topography and sediment availability.
MF17210Horseshoe crabs as potential sentinel species for coastal health: juvenile haemolymph quality and relationship to habitat conditions
The present study investigated the use of non-lethal sampling of blood from horseshoe crabs to indicate the general status of coastal habitats. Changes in blood composition pattern of two Asian juvenile horseshoe crab species were found to be sensitive to reflect heavy metal and nutrient concentrations of intertidal sediments. Such a non-lethal sampling protocol can be useful for routine monitoring purposes.
MF17125Biological aspects of the associations of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in two saline rivers of the Elton Lake Basin, Russia
We studied species composition, density, biomass and production of biting midges in two saline rivers (Volgograd region, Russia). They are a substantial seasonal food source for birds in this arid region. Average monthly production of biting midges during the study period in the saline rivers was much higher than annual production in some fresh rivers and lakes of world. For the first time, feeding spectra of one of the species of biting midges was studied using fatty acid analyses.
MF17192Embryos of eastern rainbowfish Melanotaenia splendida splendida (Peters, 1866) tolerate fluctuating hypoxia
Low dissolved oxygen concentrations (hypoxia) can profoundly affect larval development in fish, but the effects of hypoxia on freshwater fish from tropical Australia are not well understood. In this study, the effects of daily fluctuations in hypoxia were investigated for embryos of a species that is common in wetlands of tropical Queensland. Eastern rainbowfish embryos appear to be tolerant to fluctuating hypoxia, possibly because eggs are laid predominantly on submerged plants.
We examined the effects of beaver impoundments on spatial and temporal variation in fish species composition and size structure. We placed our results in the context of the metacommunity theory. Although local communities changed over time, the main metacommunity characteristics remained constant. Fish must follow environmental changes for their populations and communities to persist in streams inhabited by beavers.
MF17247A sponge of the Cliona viridis complex invades and excavates corals of the Gulf of Mannar, south-eastern India
We observed a dominant brown clionaid bioeroding sponge on south-eastern Indian coral reefs in 5-m water depth. Of all corals present and despite recent coral mortality, the encrusting Cliona sp. infested only live foliose Turbinaria mesenterina, of which ~50% colonies were affected. This infestation frequency is regarded as high, and the sponge should be fully taxonomically identified and monitored in the future.
Nest-building by fishes and its ecological role in reef ecosystems are poorly documented. We described the nest and nest-building behaviour of the endangered Brazilian basslet (Gramma brasiliensis). Males build complex bird-like nests using macroalgae thalli that camouflage nest entrance and form a cushion bed for egg laying. Nesting seems to be a critical aspect of the reproductive strategy of this species.
MF17171Elevated salinity inhibits nitrogen removal by changing the microbial community composition in constructed wetlands during the cold season
The present study reports that although constructed wetlands system planted or not with yellow iris (Iris pseudacorus) can remove nitrogen from saline waste water, elevated salinity inhibits nitrogen removal by suppressing the growth and activity of wetland plants, and by changing the microbe community composition in the substrate during the low-temperature season when the average water temperature is <10°C.
MF17009Assessment of water quality from the Normanby River catchment to coastal flood plumes on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia
Water quality conditions were measured in a semi-pristine catchment in the Far Northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Changes in water quality from upper catchment tributaries to GBR marine waters are assessed over three flood events. Data collected along the salinity gradient in this large northern catchment are compared to the more developed southern catchments.
MF17100Relative importance of environmental variables for the distribution of the invasive marsh species Spartina alterniflora across different spatial scales
The relative importance of elevation, climatic and soil variables for Spartina alterniflora distribution was investigated across global, national and local scales using MaxEnt. The relative importance of different variables, as well as their relationship with species presence, changed across different scales. The decreasing suitable area is controlled by elevation from the global to national scale and by soil variables from the national to regional scale.
MF17242First reports of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Australian native and introduced freshwater fish and crustaceans
Perfluoroalkyl substances were detected in several Australian freshwater species, sampled from waterways near a regional airport and former firefighting training ground. Common carp had the highest perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations, and PFOS concentrations in common carp and Murray cod were above current trigger points. Different foraging habits provide some potential explanations for the differences observed among species.
We re-assessed the origins of the most successful invasive marine species in southern Africa, the intertidal mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA assays was applied. Results did not show southern hemisphere haplotypes, indicating the northern hemisphere as being the sole origin of invasion. Specifically, haplotype and allele frequencies pointed to north-eastern Atlantic shores as the most likely origin throughout the entire invaded range.
MF17127Community structure and distribution patterns of stream macroinvertebrates in the Huai River Basin in China
The community structure and spatial distribution pattern of stream macroinvertebrates can reflect the health of river ecosystems. This study found that Oligochaete and Chironomidae, as representatives of pollution-tolerant species, were the dominant taxa in the study area, whereas species intolerant to polluted areas, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, were rarely found. These results show that the study region is seriously polluted.
This paper reveals the distribution features of carbon storage in Hainan Dongzhaigang mangrove wetlands in China. This study considered not only carbon storage in different communities, but also in different parts of the ecosystems. Over 80% of carbon was stored in wetland soil, and differences in carbon storage between most communities were significant.
MF17146Combined effects of light reduction and ammonia nitrogen enrichment on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans
We investigated the combined effects of low light and high ammonia-N stress on the submerged plant Vallisneria natans. The results suggest that the combination of ammonia-N enrichment and low light has a greater effect on submerged plants than emergent aquatic plants. We also document concentrations of ammonia-N that V. natans tolerates, with or without low light conditions, water ecological restoration.
The stomach contents of bigeye tuna in the western North Pacific were observed to infer feeding habits. The highest %IRI (percentage index of relative importance) prey species was Eucleoteuthis luminosa, followed by Gonatopsis makko and Magnisudis atlantica. The %IRI of E. luminosa decreased and that of M. atlantica increased with increasing bigeye tuna body length, and the results indicate ontogenetic shifts in the feeding habits.
MF17149Headwater–river gradient: trait-based approaches show functional dissimilarities among tropical fish assemblages
In the present study, we investigated how fish functional traits respond to the headwater–river gradient. Our findings showed that not only do the physical variables proposed in classical theory follow the headwater–river gradient in structuring fish assemblages, but s do also physicochemical variables. The present study also provided a perspective on what kind of fish species and functional traits to expect in each habitat type.
MF17099Effects of Pleistocene glaciation on the phylogeographic and demographic histories of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the north-western Pacific
In this study, we evaluated the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on phylogeographic and demographic histories of chub mackerel in the north-western Pacific. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region revealed two distinct lineages that originated in vicariance during the Middle Pleistocene. Both lineages experienced Late Pleistocene population expansion. However, a high degree of genetic homogeneity was detected among populations. These results indicate that the interplay between historical and contemporary processes shaped present-day patterns of genetic differentiation in chub mackerel.
MF17253Can bioturbation be responsible for thicker freshwater lenses than expected in littoral environments?
We studied the hydrolithological characteristics that enable the development of freshwater lenses in littoral ridges underneath clayey sediments of the coastal plain. Herein, we discuss the importance of the crustacean burrows that create an interconnected system of galleries and tunnels filled with sandy-silt material that favours seepage, promoting bigger freshwater lenses in coastal environments, thus increasing water reserves.
MF17193Spatiotemporal variation in the structure of reef fish and macroalgal assemblages in a north-east Atlantic kelp forest ecosystem: implications for the management of temperate rocky reefs
This study analysed ecological interactions between algae and rocky reef fish, largely unknown in the north-east Atlantic, in Spain. The seascape is dominated by kelp forests and fish assemblages are dominated by gadids, labrids and sparids. Fish and algae show different spatial preferences and respond primarily to seasonality, wave exposure and depth. Labrus bergylta, a very abundant fish, could be a good indicator species of ecosystem health.
MF17163Life history characteristics of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis from the central west Pacific
There is growing conservation concern for silky sharks because of their high levels of incidental capture in tropical tuna fisheries. In the our study, we aged individuals by vertebral analysis and used a multimodel approach to estimate growth parameters. We found that silky sharks in the central west Pacific have slow growth and a late age of sexual maturity compared with other regions.
MF17161Post-release survival of two elasmobranchs, the eastern shovelnose ray (Aptychotrema rostrata) and the common stingaree (Trygonoptera testacea), discarded from a prawn trawl fishery in southern Queensland, Australia
A field-based study was used to assess the post-trawl survival of two elasmobranchs, namely the eastern shovelnose ray (Aptychotrema rostrate) and the common stingaree (Trygonoptera testacea). The results indicate that the size of an individual and time on deck are important predictors of survival. Increasing trawl duration reduced the survival of A. rostrata, whereas female T. testacea were more resilient to capture and release than male T. testacea.
MF17087Stock structure of Lethrinus laticaudis (Lethrinidae) across northern Australia determined using genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasite assemblage composition
The present study evaluated the stock structure of the grass emperor (Lethrinus laticaudis) across northern Australia using a combination of microsatellite markers, otolith microchemistry and parasite assemblages. Genetic analyses indicated at least four distinct populations. Otolith and parasite analyses, however, indicated restricted connection between populations at small spatial scales. These results show that grass emperors are vulnerable to localised depletion in areas where fishing effort is concentrated and that location-specific management arrangements may need to be considered by fisheries managers.
MF17179Visual cues from an underwater illusion increase relative abundance of highly reef-associated fish on an artificial reef
We conducted a field experiment to test whether visual cues influenced the relative abundance of fish on an artificial reef. Visual cues from an illusion created by a mirror installed on the reef increased the relative abundance of highly reef-associated fish. Our finding demonstrates that visual cues play a decisive role in enhancing local fish abundance on artificial reefs.
MF17178Ontogenetic changes in DNA and RNA content of laboratory-reared Prochilodus lineatus larvae: use of RNA/DNA ratios as indicators of nutritional condition
The ontogenetic performance of DNA and RNA content and the nutritional condition of Prochilodus lineatus were studied in larvae reared under different feeding treatments. The availability of food following a period of starvation seemed to trigger larval metabolism and cellular division. The ratio of RNA/DNA promptly reflected changes in larval feeding conditions and could be used to assess the nutritional condition of both wild and cultured P. lineatus larvae.
MF17144Inter- and intra-regional patterns of stable isotopes in Dosidicus gigas beak: biological, geographical and environmental effects
Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) have been widely used to investigate marine-predator movement and foraging ecology. In the present study, intra-regional range of isotope values indicated that squid off Ecuador feed at the same trophic level with similar primary production, whereas squid off Chile, especially Peru, migrate over a large geographic range and occupy a wide range of trophic levels.
MF17122Patterns of infaunal macromollusc assemblages in a subtropical marine park: implications for management
In the absence of biological data, marine conservation planning is often based on environmental characteristics as surrogates for biodiversity. This study demonstrated that depth categories effectively represent soft sediment mollusc assemblages in the Cape Byron Marine Park. Biotic patterns were also correlated with sediment characteristics, suggesting that inclusion of both depth and sediment type in habitat classifications systems may improve representation for infaunal molluscs.
Estimates of global wetland area have increased progressively since the 1980s because of improvements in remote sensing and mapping technologies. It is not a real increase, because natural wetlands have continued to be converted and lost over the same period. The most recent estimate of global wetland area is in excess of 12.1 × 106 km2, but is still likely to be an underestimate.
MF17215Experimental evaluation of predation of stocked salmon by riparian wildlife: effects of prey size and predator behaviours
How many hatchery fish survive after release? In outdoor predation experiments using camera trapping, we found that the size of fish at release and the predators’ feeding style and behaviour had significant effects on the survival of fish. The results indicate the importance of not only optimising the size of released fish, but also understanding the local predators for successful fish stocking.
MF17114Seasonal and diurnal methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the littoral area of the Miyun Reservoir in Beijing, China
This study assessed greenhouse gas flux (methane and carbon dioxide) in the littoral area of a temperate reservoir. The eulittoral zone had the highest methane flux and the supralittoral zone had the highest carbon dioxide flux. The results provide suggestions for monitoring and management activities to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs where changes in littoral areas are occurring.
Mangrove overgrowth could decrease biodiversity and increase flooding risk. Mangrove thinning has been proposed as a managerial action to solve this problem. This study found that medium thinning is the optimal strategy to meet the demand of reducing the loss of carbon sequestration capacity for mangrove management.
The reproductive characteristics of three commercially important small-bodied cuttlefish (Sepia opipara, S. plangon and S. rozella) from subtropical Australia are described for the first time. All species showed year-round spawning, but differed in seasonality, reproductive mode, size at sexual maturity, mature oocyte and spermatophore sizes and potential fecundity. The findings of this study highlight the variable nature of cuttlefish life histories and the need for species-specific information for fisheries and conservation management.
The excessive presence of dams in river ecosystems causes a series of ecological problems. The present study explored the combined effects of multiple dams on macroinvertebrate metacommunity structure and found that the direct effects of dam by limiting dispersal were greater than the indirect effects by changing environmental conditions. The results provide a theoretical basis for biodiversity conservation in river ecosystems.
MF17123Assessing the hazards of trace metals in different land use types around a coastal wetland nature reserve in China
An understanding of trace metal pollution due to reclamation activities is important for coastal resource utilisation and management. In the present study, although the pollution status around Yancheng National Nature Reserve was not so serious, the potential hazards may pose big threat to coastal ecosystems. Robust monitoring and sustainable land reclamation practices should be considered in coastal areas.
MF17006A multiscale, hierarchical, ecoregional and floristic classification of arid and semi-arid ephemeral wetlands in New South Wales, Australia
Using a two-step statistically based, hierarchical, multiscaled approach to the floristic classification of ephemeral wetlands within western New South Wales, Australia, we define three ecoregions and 18 vegetation groups. Our approach shows that a consistent objective classification can be derived for vegetation systems with good data within regions that are otherwise poorly sampled.
Dissolved oxygen depletion is a rising concern in global aquatic ecosystems. In this study we used high-resolution, multiyear observations of a coastal environment to show prolonged periods of anoxia, with rare re-oxygenation events being caused by unusual combinations of climatic and oceanographic conditions. These findings highlight that dissolved oxygen dynamics in coastal habitats may be modified by climate-driven environmental change.
MF17130Examining trends in abundance of an overexploited elasmobranch species in a nursery area closure
This study compared recent and historic longline catch rates to determine whether juvenile school shark (Galeorhinus galeus) continue to use nursery areas closed to fishing in south-eastern Australia, following overfishing during the 1940s and 1950s. Our data suggest that abundances in the nursery areas may have increased, or at least remained stable, since the 1990s, which may be indicative of some stock recovery.
Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal, although the mechanisms underlying its toxicity are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the physiological responses of giant reed Arundo donax to Tl accumulation in a simulated wetland. The giant reed had strong tolerance to Tl pollution, and this can probably be attributed to its root rejection and amelioration of oxidative stress, which are involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity.
MF17226Have droughts and increased water extraction from the Murray River (Australia) reduced coastal ocean productivity?
The study investigated the effect of Murray River outflows on the coastal ocean productivity beyond the Murray Mouth. Using historical flow records and satellite-imagery products, our findings suggested that declining river flows have greatly reduced coastal ocean primary productivity. There are likely to be negative consequences of this on coastal ecosystems and fisheries, and the effects of outflows warrant improved consideration in river-management plans.
Mangroves in Kakadu National Park in Australia’s Northern Territory have undergone significant changes, occupying much of the lowlands c. 6000 years ago, but are now confined to the river margins and islands. Recent observations from satellite and aircraft have indicated that fluctuations in sea level exert a significant effect on the distribution of mangroves, with a drop in the sea level from 2015 to 2016 contributing to unprecedented dieback on the landward margins.
MF17233Reef fish at a remote tropical island (Principe Island, Gulf of Guinea): disentangling taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity patterns with depth
Biodiversity is a multifaceted concept. Patterns of the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of fish were studied across a depth gradient from 3 to 31 m. The results demonstrated decays in biodiversity, from different perspectives, of reef fish with depth, which are connected with shifts in fish traits, in particular their shape and trophic mode.
MF17135Sex-specific differences in growth, mortality and migration support population resilience in the heavily exploited migratory marine teleost Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus 1758)
The sea mullet Mugil cephalus is a commercially important species globally and within Australia. The eastern Australian stock of sea mullet has a long history of heavy exploitation during its annual northerly spawning migration, yet the fishery is sustainable. Here we propose a model whereby sex-specific differences in life history and biological parameters contribute to population resilience and so support a sustainable commercial fishery.
MF17118Wetlands in the Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage site of south-west China: classification and recent changes
Identification and understanding of human-induced wetland changes is critical for wise wetland use. This study investigated wetland changes in a rare wetland system in a popular tourist destination visited by >5 million people per year. The high number of tourists and their movement in buses have probably caused water-related changes. Determining the appropriate number of visitors is crucial for the wise use of wetlands that are tourist destinations.
MF17177Interspecific correlation between exotic and native plants under artificial wetland forests on the Dianchi lakeside, south-west China
Interspecific relationships were analysed using the Chi-Square test, Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Ward’s method of hierarchical clustering on field data collected from 4 plots and 160 quadrats. The results imply that exotic species can coexist with native species and become a common species composition when they have existed for a sufficient period of time in artificial wetland forests.
Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in freshwater environments are rising, but very little information is available regarding the accumulation and toxicity of REEs. Aquatic plants are known to accumulate and bioconcentrate metals. The aim of the present study was to explore the molecular distribution and assess the toxicity of yttrium in Elodea canadensis. The results indicate that Y accumulation occurred along a gradient, with the highest accumulation in cell walls, and that Y accumulation destroyed organelles and damaged the antioxidant system. This work suggests that metabolic parameters appear to be promising biomonitors of Y toxicity in aquatic plants.
MF17120Carbon sequestration and its controlling factors in the temperate wetland communities along the Bohai Sea, China
Carbon sequestration rates (CSRs) and their controlling factors were determined in the Yellow River delta (YRD) and Liaohe delta (LHD) wetlands. Organic CSRs at sites above mean sea level were virtually identical in the two wetlands, but organic CSRs were much more sensitive to changes in sediment accumulation rates in the LHD wetlands than in the YRD wetlands.
MF17119Wetlands classification and assessment of Ramsar sites in China based on time series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery
Satellite image time series (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) data collected in 2001 and 2013 were used to monitor the long-term environmental changes in 20 Ramsar sites in China. The tremendous efforts of the Chinese government contributed to effective protection for most reserves. However, unfavourable environmental conditions for some reserves still existed, primarily due to increasing water requirements outside the reserves. Therefore, a balance between economic development and ecological protection will be important in the future.
MF17079Variation in climate determines differences in the effects of abiotic variables on the phytoplankton community in tropical ecosystems
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of abiotic variables on phytoplankton in tropical and semi-arid climates. Climate was found to determine the effects of abiotic variables on the phytoplankton community in both an independent and synergistic manner. Phytoplankton in tropical and semi-arid reservoirs are mostly regulated by nutrients, the effects of which vary according to climate.
MF17104Quantitative prediction and typical factor effects of phosphorus adsorption on the surface sediments from the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta, China
This study systematically investigated the characteristics of P adsorption on the sediments of the intertidal zones in the Yellow River Delta. Salinity, pH and oxidation–reduction potential significantly affected the adsorption rate and amount of P adsorbed on the sediments in these zones. In addition, a predictive model for the P-adsorption capacity of sediments was developed. Together, the results could contribute to the restoration and management of intertidal zones.
MF17140Reconstructing Western Australian white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) catches based on interviews with fishers
Historical and contemporary levels of white shark bycatch are unknown. Based on interviews with commercial fishers, the catch of white sharks off Western Australia was reconstructed, with the results suggesting that the catch peaked in the late 1980s. Fishers expressed doubts about the accuracy of self-reported white shark catch data, a requirement of current legislation. Efforts to accurately record this information should be improved.
MF17043An integrated risk-assessment framework for multiple threats to floodplain values in the Kakadu Region, Australia, under a changing climate
The floodplains of the Kakadu Region, world-renowned for their natural and cultural values, are threatened by invasive species and future sea-level rise. A risk assessment that integrates both threats to multiple values out to 2100 was undertaken, and suggested that floodplains will likely transform to marine-dominated ecosystems that cannot be managed back to previous conditions. The study highlighted the importance of freshwater refugia because both their value and vulnerability will increase over time.
This study provides insights into nekton communities as possible indicators of habitat functionality in planted mangroves. The community structure of nekton was compared between planted and natural mangrove stands (as a reference trajectory). Nekton assemblage in general (especially fish species) is not a reliable restoration indicator because it is not entirely dependent on mangroves. Crustaceans demonstrated more dependency on habitat structural complexity and food offered by mangroves.
MF17156Nitrogen removal during the cold season by constructed floating wetlands planted with Oenanthe javanica
The present study shows that a constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) system planted with Chinese celery (Oenanthe javanica) is a viable option for nitrogen removal from waste water during the low-temperature season (mean water temperature <10°C) and that nitrogen removal is better from CFW systems with vesuvianite as a substrate than from those without a substrate.
This paper provides a description and evaluation of a retrieval pod that can be attached to remote release underwater telemetric or oceanographic devices to facilitate the retrieval of moorings. The system was successfully tested in an estuary after consecutive 6-month deployments. The pods are a convenient and low-cost option for the retrieval of moorings deployed with remote release systems.
MF16166Understanding climate-change adaptation on Kakadu National Park, using a combined diagnostic and modelling framework: a case study at Yellow Water wetland
We have developed an approach to assess sea-level rise effects on socio-ecological systems, using Yellow Water wetland on Kakadu National Park as a case study. Sea-level rise will cause profound changes in the Park, but it may also provide an opportunity to bring together Indigenous and non-Indigenous knowledge towards a commonly perceived threat. Strategies that facilitate Indigenous people’s participation in research and monitoring programs are needed to improve understanding of impacts and enhance adaptive capacity.
MF16118Seasonal habitats, decadal trends in abundance and cultural values of magpie geese (Anseranus semipalmata) on coastal floodplains in the Kakadu Region, northern Australia
The magpie goose is an iconic tropical species highly valued as a conservation asset and by Aboriginal people as a cultural resource. Their spatial and temporal dynamics in the Kakadu Region of Northern Australia are characterised at seasonal and decadal time scales using long-term aerial survey data. The customary harvesting practices of geese and their eggs in the region show that their cultural value extends beyond consumption of bush-food.
Sediment fluxes and sinks based on total sediment load for Magela Creek in the Australian wet–dry tropics have been constructed from detailed measurements of turbidity, suspended sand and bedload for the 10-year period from 2001–2002 to 2010–2011. The present work showed that the sediment-trap efficiency of the vegetated wetlands on lower Magela is high at ~89.5%.
MF16175Vulnerability of fish and macroinvertebrates to key threats in streams of the Kakadu region, northern Australia: assemblage dynamics, existing assessments and knowledge needs
Key stream fauna in Kakadu National Park face severe threats in 100+ years associated with climate change, invasive species, and mine-site rehabilitation. Sea level rise will salt the coastal floodplains and the fauna must then rely on reduced upstream refuges vulnerable to strong swings between more intense El Niños and La Niñas. Rates and extremes of future climate change appear unprecedented, making predictions associated with past climate change unreliable.
MF16148Dynamics of plant communities and the impact of saltwater intrusion on the floodplains of Kakadu National Park
On the Kakadu floodplains, the distribution of different plant communities varies yearly, related to flooding duration and water depth. Because these floodplains are close to the coast, they are vulnerable to saltwater intrusion as the sea levels rise. The most obvious effect of this will be the transformation from freshwater vegetation to salt-tolerant plants in susceptible areas.
Sea-level rise associated with global warming will increase across Kakadu causing widespread saltwater intrusion. We aimed to understand how soil bacteria might respond to these impacts, by sampling transects in different river zones. We found diverse bacterial communities that were sensitive to soil variables, suggesting that saltwater intrusion may affect bacterial contributions to the dynamic floodplain ecosystems of Kakadu.
MF16049Assessing sea level-rise risks to coastal floodplains in the Kakadu Region, northern Australia, using a tidally driven hydrodynamic model
The coastal floodplains of the Kakadu Region of northern Australia are highly vulnerable to future sea level rise (SLR) and extreme weather events. A hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the frequency and extent of saltwater inundation of future SLR scenarios from 2013 to 2100 (1.1 m above mean sea level), and was used to assess potential risk to freshwater floodplains.
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