CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>        Online Early    

Genotypic and morphological variation between Galaxiella nigrostriata (Galaxiidae) populations: implications for conservation

David M. Galeotti A , Mark A. Castalanelli B C E , David M. Groth C , Clint McCullough A D and Mark Lund A

A Mine Water and Environment Research Centre (MiWER), School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.
B Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, WA 6986, Australia.
C School of Biomedical Sciences, CHIRI Biosciences Research Precinct, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
D Golder Associates Pty Ltd, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia.
E Corresponding author. Email: mark.castalanelli@museum.wa.gov.au

Marine and Freshwater Research - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13289
Submitted: 4 November 2013  Accepted: 7 May 2014   Published online: 26 November 2014


 
PDF (745 KB) $25
 Supplementary Material
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Galaxiella nigrostriata is a freshwater fish that is endemic to the seasonally dry coastal wetlands of south-west Western Australia and considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as lower risk–near threatened. This small fish (maximum total length <50 mm) aestivates in the sediment over the long, dry Mediterranean summer and its dispersal is limited by lack of habitat connectivity. The objective of this study was to identify the historical and contemporary genetic connectivity between populations of G. nigrostriata and to assess morphological variation between these populations. Results showed that all populations were genetically divergent and no mtDNA haplotypes were shared between populations. In contrast, morphological differentiation between individual populations was weak; however, pooling populations into two broad regions (Swan coastal plain and southern coast) resulted in clear morphological differentiation between these two groups. Based on these results, we postulate G. nigrostriata distribution last expanded in the early Pleistocene ~5.1 million years ago and have since been restricted to remnant wetlands in the immediate area. Galaxiella nigrostriata populations at the northern end of their range are small and are the most vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts are therefore required to ensure the survival of these genetically and morphologically distinctive Swan coastal plain populations.



References

Baber, M. J., Childers, D. L., Babbitt, K. J., and Anderson, D. H. (2002). Controls on fish distribution and abundance in temporary wetlands. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 1441–1450.
CrossRef |

Bamford, M. J., and Bamford, A. R. (2003). Kemerton silica sand fauna monitoring 18th December 2002: progress report. (Bamford Consulting Ecologists: Perth, Western Australia.)

Beatty, S., Morgan, D., and Allen, M. (2009). Freshwater fish and crayfish communities of the Carbunup and Buayanyup rivers: conservation significance and management considerations. (Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University: Perth, Western Australia.)

Benbow, M. C., Alley, N. F., Callen, R. A., and Greenwood, D. R. (1995). Geological history and palaeoclimate. In ‘The Geology of South Australia, Volume 2: The Phanerozoic’. South Australian Geological Survey Bulletin 54. (Eds J. F. Drexel and W. V. Preiss.) pp. 208–217. (SARIG: Adelaide, South Australia.)

Bonnett, M. L., and Sykes, J. R. E. (2002). Habitat preferences of giant kokopu, Galaxias argenteus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36, 13–24.
CrossRef |

Burridge, C. P., Mcdowall, R. M., Craw, D., Wilson, M. V. H., and Waters, J. M. (2012). Marine dispersal as a pre-requisite for Gondwanan vicariance among elements of the galaxiid fish fauna. Journal of Biogeography 39, 306–321.
CrossRef |

Byrne, M., Yeates, D. K., Joseph, L., Kearney, M., Bowler, J., Williams, M. J., Cooper, S., Donnellan, S. C., Keogh, J. S., Leys, R., Melville, J., Murphy, D. J., Porch, N., and Wyrwoll, K. H. (2008). Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota. Molecular Ecology 17, 4398–4417.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Castalanelli, M. A., Severtson, D. L., Brumley, C. J., Szito, A., Foottit, R. G., Grimm, M., Munyard, K., and Groth, D. M. (2010). A rapid non-destructive DNA extraction method for insects and other arthropods. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 13, 243–248.
CrossRef | CAS |

Castalanelli, M. A., Cunningham, R. J., Davis, M. B., Groth, D. M., and Grimm, M. (2013). When genes go wild: highly variable internal transcibed spacer1 and conserved mitochondrial DNA haplotypes used to examine the genetic diversity and dispersal pathways of invasive Hylotrupes bajulus in Western Australia. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 15, 236–244.
CrossRef |

Chen, S. Y., Zhang, R. D., Feng, J. G., Xiao, H., Li, W. X., Zan, R. G., and Zhang, Y. P. (2009). Exploring factors shaping population genetic structure of the freshwater fish Sinocyclocheilus grahami (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Journal of Fish Biology 74, 1774–1786.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Christensen, P. (1982). The distribution of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides and other small fresh-water fishes in the lower southwest of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 65, 131–141.

Clarke, K. R., and Warwick, R. M. (2001). ‘Change in Marine Communities: an Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation.’ (Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Plymouth.)

Driscoll, D. A. (1998). Genetic structure of the frogs Geocrinia lutea and Geocrinia rosea reflects extreme population divergence and range changes, not dispersal barriers. Evolution 52, 1147–1157.
CrossRef |

Drummond, A. J., and Rambaut, A. (2007). BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7, 214.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Edgar, R. C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32, 1792–1797.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Galeotti, D. M., McCullough, C. D., and Lund, M. A. (2010). Black-stripe minnow Galaxiella nigrostriata (Shipway 1953) (Pisces: Galaxiidae), a review and discussion. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 93, 13–20.

Gill, H. S., and Morgan, D. L. (1996). Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxiella nigrostriata (Shipway, 1953) (Galaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 47, 344.
CrossRef |

Gill, H. S., and Neira, F. J. (1994). Larval descriptions of three galaxiid fishes endemic to south-western Australia: Galaxias occidentalis, Galaxiella munda and Galaxiella nigrostriata (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 45, 1307–1317.
CrossRef |

Gouws, G., and Stewart, B. (2007). From genetic structure to wetland conservation: a freshwater isopod Paramphisopus palustris (Phreatoicidea: Amphisopidae) from the Swan coastal plain, Western Australia. Hydrobiologia 589, 249–263.
CrossRef | CAS |

Gouws, G., Stewart, B. A., and Daniels, S. R. (2006). Phylogeographic structure of a freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Parastacidae: Cherax preissii) in south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 837–848.
CrossRef | CAS |

Gouws, G., Stewart, B. A., and Daniels, S. R. (2010). Phylogeographic structure in the gilgie (Decapoda: Parastacidae: Cherax quinquecarinatus): a south-western Australian freshwater crayfish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 101, 385–402.
CrossRef |

Haag-Liautard, C., Coffey, N., Houle, D., Lynch, M., Charlesworth, B., and Keightley, P. (2008). Direct estimation of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Biology 6, e204.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Hardie, S. A., White, R. W. G., and Barmuta, L. A. (2007). Reproductive biology of the threatened golden galaxias Galaxias auratus Johnston and the influence of lake hydrology. Journal of Fish Biology 71, 1820–1840.
CrossRef |

Hopper, S. D., and Gioia, P. (2004). The southwest Australian floristic region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35, 623–650.
CrossRef |

Horwitz, P., Bradshaw, D., Hopper, S., Davies, P. M., Froend, R., and Bradshaw, F. (2008). Hydrological change escalates risk of ecosystem stress in Australia’s threatened biodiversity hotspot. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91, 1–11.

Kocher, T. D., Thomas, W. K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S. V., Pääbo, S., Villablanca, F. X., and Wilson, A. C. (1989). Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, 6196–6200.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lambeck, K., and Nakada, M. (1990). Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change along the Australian coast. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 89, 143–176.
CrossRef |

Lawver, L. A., and Gahagan, L. M. (2003). Evolution of Cenozoic seaways in the circum-Antarctic region. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198, 11–37.
CrossRef |

Ling, N., and Gleeson, D. M. (2001). A new species of mudfish, Neochanna (Teleostei: Galaxiidae), from northern New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31, 385–392.
CrossRef |

Malcolm, J., Liu, C., Neilson, R., Hansen, L., and Hannah, L. (2006). Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conservation Biology 20, 538–548.
CrossRef | PubMed |

McArthur, W. M., and Bettenay, E. (1960). ‘The Development and Distribution of the Soils of the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia.’ (CSIRO Soil Publication: Melbourne, Australia.)

McCullough, C. D., and Hicks, B. J. (2002). Estimating the abundance of banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus Gray) in small streams by nocturnal counts under spotlight illumination. New Zealand Natural Sciences 27, 1–14.

McCullough, C. D., and Horwitz, P. (2010). Vulnerability of organic acid tolerant wetland biota to the effects of inorganic acidification. Science of the Total Environment 408, 1868–1877.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

McLure, N., and Horwitz, P. (2009). ‘An Investigation of Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Occurrence and Water Quality at Lake Chandala, Western Australia.’ (Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University: Perth, Western Australia.)

Meyer, A., Kocher, T. D., Basasibwaki, P., and Wilson, A. C. (1990). Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Nature 347, 550–553.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Morgan, D., Gill, H. S., and Potter, I. C. (1998a). Distribution, identification and biology of freshwater fishes in south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 56, 97 pp.

Morgan, D. L., Gill, H. S., and Potter, I. C. (1998b). Distribution, identification and biology of freshwater fishes in south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 56, 97 pp.

Munch, S., and Conover, D. (2002). Accounting for local physiological adaptation in bioenergetic models: testing hypotheses for growth rate evolution by virtual transplant experiments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 393–403.
CrossRef |

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R., Mittermeier, C., Da Fonseca, G., and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Nagy, Z. T. (2010). A hands-on overview of tissue preservation methods for molecular genetic analyses. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 10, 91–105.
CrossRef |

O’Hara, R. B., and Kotze, D. J. (2010). Do not log-transform count data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1, 118–122.
CrossRef |

O’Reilly, K. M., and Horn, M. H. (2004). Phenotypic variation among populations of Atherinops affinis (Atherinopsidae) with insights froma geometric morphometric analysis. Journal of Fish Biology 64, 1117–1135.
CrossRef |

Pääbo, S. (1990). Amplifying ancient DNA. In ‘PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications’. (Eds M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky and T. J. White.) pp. 159–166. (Academic Press: San Diego, USA.)

Playford, P. E., Cockbain, A. E., and Low, G. H. (1976). ‘Geology of the Perth Basin Western Australia.’ Geological Survey of Western Australia.

R Development Core Team (2011). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. (R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria.)

Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, N., Mendibil, I., Álvarez, P., and Cotano, U. (2013). Effect of fish sampling and tissue storage conditions in DNA quality: considerations for genomic studies. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 20, 77–87.

Scalici, M., and Gibertini, G. (2009). Freshwater goby life history in a Mediterranean stream. Hydrobiologia 628, 177–189.
CrossRef |

Shipway, B. (1953). Additional records of fishes occurring in the freshwaters of Western Australia. The Western Australian Naturalist 3, 173–177.

Smith, K. D., Knott, B., and Jasinska, E. J. (2002). Biology of the black-stripe minnow Galaxiella nigrostriata (Galaxiidae) in an acidic, black-water lake in Melaleuca Park near Perth, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 21, 277–284.

SPSS (2008). SPSS 17.0.0. (SPSS Inc.: Chicago, IL.)

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. (2011). MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28, 2731–2739.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Tseng, M. C., Jean, C. T., Tsai, W. L., and Chen, N. C. (2009). Distinguishing between two sympatric Acanthopagrus species from Dapeng Bay, Taiwan, using morphometric and genetic characters. Journal of Fish Biology 74, 357–376.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Unmack, P. J. (2001). Biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography 28, 1053–1089.
CrossRef |

Unmack, P. J., Bagley, J. C., Adams, M., Hammer, M. P., and Johnson, J. B. (2012). Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla). PLoS ONE 7, e38433.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Vrijenhoek, R. C. (1996). Conservation genetics of North American desert fishes. In ‘Conservation Genetics: Case Histories From Nature’. (Eds J. C. Avise and J. L. Hamrick) pp. 394–412. (Chapman and Hall: New York, NY.)

Wardell-Johnson, G., and Roberts, J. D. (1993). Biogeographic barriers in a subdued landscape: the distribution of the Geocrinia rosea (Anura: Myobatrachidae) complex in south-western Australia. Journal of Biogeography 20, 95–108.
CrossRef |

Waters, J. M., Andrés López, J., and Wallis, G. P. (2000). Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of galaxiid fishes (Osteichthyes: Galaxiidae): dispersal, vicariance, and the position of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides. Systematic Biology 49, 777–795.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Watts, R. J., Storey, A. W., Hebbert, D. R., and Edward, D. H. D. (1995). Genetic and morphological differences between populations of the western minnow, Galaxias occidentalis, from two river systems in south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 46, 769–777.
CrossRef | CAS |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014