CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 34(1)

Wind-driven circulation of Cockburn Sound

RK Steedman and PD Craig

Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34(1) 187 - 212
Published: 1983


The water circulation within the Cockburn Sound embayment in Western Australia is predominantly wind-driven. Observations by moored current meters showed the mean velocities to be less than 0.05 m s-1 within Cockburn Sound and 0.07 m s-1 in the adjacent open coastal waters. Maximum tidal currents were very low, with an amplitude of the order of 0.01 m s-1. The importance of the wind-forcing was evident in the time-history data collected by the wind and current meters, particularly under storm conditions when winds greater than 15 m s-1 produce currents, within the Sound, between 0.10 and 0.25 m s-1. The wind records from Fremantle were examined and recurring patterns, such as sea breeze on and winter storms, were identified and their annual frequency of occurrence was estimated. A time- dependent, vertically integrated wind-driven numerical model was used to simulate the various water circulation patterns of each wind category. The circulation Froude number was shown to be of the order of thus allowing a description in terms of the stream function. Correlation between the data collected by the moored current meters and predicted by the model ranged between 0.05 and 0.76. Profiling data showed that under near calm wind conditions (<2 m s-1), local horizontal density gradients, caused by evaporation and heating, produced currents of up to 0.1 m s-1. This inverse estuary nature of the flow appears to play a significant role in the dynamics at low wind speeds. Under these conditions there was little or no volume exchange with the open sea. By contrast, the wind-driven circulation model showed that under a sea-breeze pattern 1.4 × 107 m3 was typically exchanged diurnally, and a 2-day winter storm may exchange about 1.1 × 108 m3, which is small compared with the volume of the Soand (1.2 × 109 m3). The bathymetry is such that the Sound acts mainly as a closed system.

Full text doi:10.1071/MF9830187

© CSIRO 1983

blank image
Subscriber Login

PDF (974 KB) $40
 Export Citation
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2015