Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Modelling the influence of soil carbon on net greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures

Rachelle Meyer A B C , Brendan R. Cullen A and Richard J. Eckard A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010, Australia.

B Australian-German College of Climate and Energy Transitions, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: meyerr@student.unimelb.edu.au

Animal Production Science 56(3) 585-593 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15508
Submitted: 29 August 2015  Accepted: 30 November 2015   Published: 9 February 2016

Abstract

Sequestering carbon (C) in soil organic matter in grassland systems is often cited as a major opportunity to offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, these systems are typically grazed by ruminants, leading to uncertainties in the net GHG balance that may be achieved. We used a pasture model to investigate the net balance between methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil C in sheep-grazed pasture systems with two starting amounts of soil C. The net emissions were calculated for four soil types in two rainfall zones over three periods of 19 years. Because of greater pasture productivity, and consequent higher sheep stocking rates, high-rainfall sites were associated with greater GHG emissions that could not be offset by C sequestration. On these high-rainfall sites, the higher rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) increase on low-SOC soils offset an average of 45% of the livestock GHG emissions on the modelled chromosol and 32% on the modelled vertosol. The slow rate of SOC increase on the high-SOC soils only offset 2–4% of CH4 and N2O emissions on these high-rainfall sites. On low-rainfall sites, C sequestration in low-SOC soils more than offset livestock GHG emissions, whereas the modelled high-C soils offset 75–86% of CH4 and N2O emissions. Greater net emissions on high-C soils were due primarily to reduced sequestration potential and greater N2O emissions from nitrogen mineralisation and livestock urine. Annual variation in CH4 and N2O emissions was low, whereas annual SOC change showed high annual variation, which was more strongly correlated with weather variables on the low-rainfall sites compared with the high-rainfall sites. At low-soil C concentrations, with high sequestration potential, there is an initial mitigation benefit that can in some instances offset enteric CH4 and direct and indirect N2O emissions. However, as soil organic matter increases there is a trade-off between diminishing GHG offsets and increasing ecosystem services, including mineralisation and productivity benefits.

Additional keywords: agro-ecosystem, methane, net carbon balance, nitrous oxide, sequestration, services.


References

Aguilera E, Lassaletta L, Gattinger A, Gimeno BS (2013) Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: a meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 168, 25–36.
Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: a meta-analysis.CrossRef |

Aref S, Wander MM (1997) Long-term trends of corn yield and soil organic matter in different crop sequences and soil fertility treatments on the morrow plots. Advances in Agronomy 62, 153–197.
Long-term trends of corn yield and soil organic matter in different crop sequences and soil fertility treatments on the morrow plots.CrossRef |

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2015) ‘Emission Reduction Fund methods. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/emissions-reduction-fund/methods [Verified 3 August 2015]

Baldock J (2009) ‘Building soil carbon for productivity and implications for carbon accounting, Agribuiness Crop Updates.’ Perth, Western Australia, 24–25 February 2009. (Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia and Grains Research and Development Corporation: Perth) Available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.agric.wa.gov.au/ContentPages/10904660.pdf [Verified 10 February 2014]

Baldock J, Sanderman J, Macdonald LM, Allen D, Cowie A, Dalal R, Davy M, Doyle R, Herrmann T, Murphy D, Robertson F (2013) Australian Soil Carbon Research Program. CSIRO Data Access Portal Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.4225/08/5101F31440A36 [Verified 20 November 2014]

Beach RH, DeAngelo BJ, Rose SK, Li C, Salas W, DelGrosso SJ (2008) Mitigation potential and costs for global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural Economics 38, 109–115.
Mitigation potential and costs for global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.CrossRef |

Bell MJ, Eckard RJ, Cullen BR (2012) The effect of future climate scenarios on the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions from sheep grazing systems. Livestock Science 147, 126–138.
The effect of future climate scenarios on the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions from sheep grazing systems.CrossRef |

Benbi DK (2013) Greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soils: sources and mitigation potential. In ‘Combating climate change’. (Eds MS Kang, SS Banga) pp. 73–88. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Biswas WK, Graham J, Kelly K, John MB (2010) Global warming contributions from wheat, sheep meat and wool production in Victoria, Australia – a life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production 18, 1386–1392.
Global warming contributions from wheat, sheep meat and wool production in Victoria, Australia – a life cycle assessment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVamtbvL&md5=66fc1fdc0c72a5757a2b7900cf19104fCAS |

Browne NA, Eckard RJ, Behrendt R, Kingwell RS (2011) A comparative analysis of on-farm greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural enterprises in south eastern Australia. Animal Feed Science and Technology 166–167, 641–652.
A comparative analysis of on-farm greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural enterprises in south eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogée J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Bernhofer C, Carrara A (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 529–533.
Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVajs7rL&md5=3e40c0c52e77296a431d1d71ec7156f0CAS | 16177786PubMed |

Conant RT, Paustian K, Elliott ET (2001) Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications 11, 343–355.
Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon.CrossRef |

Conant RT, Paustian K, Del Grosso SJ, Parton WJ (2005) Nitrogen pools and fluxes in grassland soils sequestering carbon. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 71, 239–248.
Nitrogen pools and fluxes in grassland soils sequestering carbon.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXksl2gs7Y%3D&md5=d0fbad83b7e655f885bb06592affe765CAS |

Crush J, Waller J, Care D (2005) Root distribution and nitrate interception in eleven temperate forage grasses. Grass and Forage Science 60, 385–392.
Root distribution and nitrate interception in eleven temperate forage grasses.CrossRef |

Cullen B, Eckard R, Callow M, Johnson I, Chapman D, Rawnsley R, Garcia S, White T, Snow V (2008) Simulating pasture growth rates in Australian and New Zealand grazing systems. Crop and Pasture Science 59, 761–768.
Simulating pasture growth rates in Australian and New Zealand grazing systems.CrossRef |

Dalal R, Wang W, Robertson GP, Parton WJ (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 165–195.
Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXktFKisr8%3D&md5=498c42b5dc296c33f73cd52ca7928fceCAS |

Dendooven L, Patino-Zuniga L, Verhulst N, Boden K, Garcia-Gaytan A, Luna-Guido M, Govaerts B (2013) Greenhouse gas emissions from nontilled, permanant raised, and conventionally tilled beds in the central highlands of Mexico. In ‘Combating climate change: an agricultural perspective’. (Eds MS Kang, SS Banga) pp. 283–304. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (2012) National Inventory Report 2010: the Australian Government Submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change April 2012. Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement/publications/national-inventory-report-2010 [Verified 28 January 2015]

Eckard RJ, Cullen BR (2011) Impacts of future climate scenarios on nitrous oxide emissions from pasture based dairy systems in south eastern Australia. Animal Feed Science and Technology 166–167, 736–748.
Impacts of future climate scenarios on nitrous oxide emissions from pasture based dairy systems in south eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Eckard R, Johnson I, Chapman D (2006) Modelling nitrous oxide abatement strategies in intensive pasture systems. International Congress Series 1293, 76–85.
Modelling nitrous oxide abatement strategies in intensive pasture systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhs1amsLc%3D&md5=46aee55c2f56420288b091efd4d4dcfeCAS |

Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Dorland RV (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In ‘Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’. (Eds S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, KB Averyt, M Tignor, HL Miller) pp. 129–234. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY)

Gilmanov TG, Soussana JF, Aires L, Allard V, Ammann C, Balzarolo M, Barcza Z, Bernhofer C, Campbell CL, Cernusca A, Cescatti A, Clifton-Brown J, Dirks BOM, Dore S, Eugster W, Fuhrer J, Gimeno C, Gruenwald T, Haszpra L, Hensen A, Ibrom A, Jacobs AFG, Jones MB, Lanigan G, Laurila T, Lohila A, Manca G, Marcolla B, Nagy Z, Pilegaard K, Pinter K, Pio C, Raschi A, Rogiers N, Sanz MJ, Stefani P, Sutton M, Tuba Z, Valentini R, Williams ML, Wohlfahrt G (2007) Partitioning European grassland net ecosystem CO2 exchange into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration using light response function analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 121, 93–120.
Partitioning European grassland net ecosystem CO2 exchange into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration using light response function analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXisVSqt78%3D&md5=e21d89e99f44f752314d23a01c4e12dfCAS |

Graham J, Robertson F, Skjemstad J (2005) Greenhouse emissions in the broad scale grazing industries – effect of different pasture systems on soil carbon sequestration. (Meat and Livestock Australia Limited: Sydney)

Gregorich E, Janzen HH, Helgason B, Ellert B (2015) Nitrogenous gas emissions from soils and greenhouse gas effects. In ‘Advances in agronomy’. Vol. 132. (Ed. D Sparks) pp. 39–74. (Academic Press: Waltham, MA)

Guo LB, Gifford RM (2002) Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Global Change Biology 8, 345–360.
Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis.CrossRef |

Harrison MT, Jackson T, Cullen BR, Rawnsley RP, Ho C, Cummins L, Eckard RJ (2014) Increasing ewe genetic fecundity improves whole-farm production and reduces greenhouse gas emissions intensities: 1. Sheep production and emissions intensities. Agricultural Systems 131, 23–33.
Increasing ewe genetic fecundity improves whole-farm production and reduces greenhouse gas emissions intensities: 1. Sheep production and emissions intensities.CrossRef |

Harvey CA, Chacón M, Donatti CI, Garen E, Hannah L, Andrade A, Bede L, Brown D, Calle A, Chará J (2014) Climate-smart landscapes: opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture. Conservation Letters 7, 77–90.
Climate-smart landscapes: opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture.CrossRef |

Howden SM, Soussana JF, Tubiello FN, Chhetri N, Dunlop M, Meinke H (2007) Adapting agriculture to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 19691–19696.
Adapting agriculture to climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXitFSltg%3D%3D&md5=e9f9ca5950c6933f1c7e5acf9af67d05CAS | 18077402PubMed |

Hudson BD (1994) Soil organic matter and available water capacity. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 49, 189–194.

Hunt JE, Kelliher FM, McSeveny TM, Ross DJ, Whitehead D (2004) Long-term carbon exchange in a sparse, seasonally dry tussock grassland. Global Change Biology 10, 1785–1800.
Long-term carbon exchange in a sparse, seasonally dry tussock grassland.CrossRef |

Jeffrey SJ, Carter JO, Moodie KB, Beswick AR (2001) Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data. Environmental Modelling & Software 16, 309–330.
Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data.CrossRef |

Johnson I (2013) DairyMod and the SGS Pasture Model: a mathematical description of the biophysical model structure. (IMJ Consultants: Dorrigo, NSW) Available at http://imj.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/DM_SGS_documentation.pdf [Verified 11 December 2015]

Johnson I, Lodge G, White R (2003) The sustainable grazing systems pasture model: description, philosophy and application to the SGS National Experiment. Animal Production Science 43, 711–728.
The sustainable grazing systems pasture model: description, philosophy and application to the SGS National Experiment.CrossRef |

Johnston AE, Poulton PR, Coleman K (2009) Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes. Advances in Agronomy 101, 1–57.
Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes.CrossRef |

Kato E, Nkonya E, Place F, Mwanjalolo M (2010) An econometric investigation of impacts of sustainable land management practices on soil carbon and yield risk: a potential for climate change mitigation. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1038. (International Food Policy and Research Institute: Washington, DC) Available at http://www.ifpri.org/publication/econometric-investigation-impacts-sustainable-land-management-practices-soil-carbon-and [Verified 11 December 2015]

Kirkby CA, Kirkegaard JA, Richardson AE, Wade LJ, Blandchard C, Batten G (2011) Stable soil organic matter: a comparison ofC : N:P:S ratios in Australian and other world soils. Geoderma 163, 197–208.
Stable soil organic matter: a comparison ofC : N:P:S ratios in Australian and other world soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnt1amsr0%3D&md5=9c9105b8e629169c60a3483d90d2bc52CAS |

Lam S, Chen D, Norton R, Armstrong R, Mosier A (2013a) Influence of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and supplementary irrigation on greenhouse gas emissions from a spring wheat crop in southern Australia. The Journal of Agricultural Science 151, 201–208.
Influence of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and supplementary irrigation on greenhouse gas emissions from a spring wheat crop in southern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXjvVaqtr4%3D&md5=dfd2ca34b1f93fa1476006ff10434a38CAS |

Lam SK, Chen D, Mosier AR, Roush R (2013b) The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited. Scientific Reports 3, 2179
The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited.CrossRef | 23846398PubMed |

Liebig M, Gross J, Kronberg S, Phillips R (2010) Grazing management contributions to net global warming potential: a long-term evaluation in the Northern Great Plains. Journal of Environmental Quality 39, 799–809.
Grazing management contributions to net global warming potential: a long-term evaluation in the Northern Great Plains.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXls1anu7c%3D&md5=d9a87184916dd42ac11339b2c28ee4f7CAS | 20400576PubMed |

Lucas RE, Holtman JB, Connor LJ (1977) Soil carbon dynamics and cropping practices. In ‘Agriculture and energy’. (Ed. W Lockeretz) pp. 333–351. (Academic Press: New York)

Machmuller MB, Kramer MG, Cyle TK, Hill N, Hancock D, Thompson A (2015) Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter. Nature Communications 6, 6995
Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtFylt7vI&md5=a804d1815245a0e5d95930f7cea57f2bCAS | 25925997PubMed |

Marland G, West TO, Schlamadinger B, Canella L (2003) Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55, 613–621.
Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions.CrossRef |

Marusteri M, Bacarea V (2010) Comparing groups for statistical differences: how to choose the right statistical test? Biochemia Medica 20, 15–32.
Comparing groups for statistical differences: how to choose the right statistical test?CrossRef |

Meyer R, Cullen BR, Johnson IR, Eckard RJ (2015) Process modelling to assess the sequestration and productivity benefits of soil carbon for pasture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 213, 272–280.
Process modelling to assess the sequestration and productivity benefits of soil carbon for pasture.CrossRef |

Ministry of Agriculture, Agrifood and Forestry (2015) Join the 4/1000 initiative: soils for food security and climate. Ministry of Agriculture, Agrifood and Forestry, Paris. Available at http://newsroom.unfccc.int/media/408539/4-per-1000-initiative.pdf [Verified 11 December 2015]

Moore AD, Eckard RJ, Thorburn PJ, Grace PR, Wang E, Chen D (2014) Mathematical modeling for improved greenhouse gas balances, agro-ecosystems, and policy development: lessons from the Australian experience. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 5, 735–752.
Mathematical modeling for improved greenhouse gas balances, agro-ecosystems, and policy development: lessons from the Australian experience.CrossRef |

Negassa W, Price RF, Basir A, Snapp SS, Kravchenko A (2015) Cover crop and tillage systems effect on soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in contrasting topographic positions. Soil & Tillage Research 154, 64–74.
Cover crop and tillage systems effect on soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in contrasting topographic positions.CrossRef |

Nijdam D, Rood T, Westhoek H (2012) The price of protein: review of land use and carbon footprints from life cycle assessments of animal food products and their substitutes. Food Policy 37, 760–770.
The price of protein: review of land use and carbon footprints from life cycle assessments of animal food products and their substitutes.CrossRef |

Ozkan S, Eckard RJ (2012) Sheep Greenhouse Accounting Framework (GAF). V6. Available at http://www.greenhouse.unimelb.edu.au/Tools.htm [Verified 12 March 2015]

Peters GM, Rowley HV, Wiedemann S, Tucker R, Short MD, Schulz M (2010) Red meat production in Australia: life cycle assessment and comparison with overseas studies. Environmental Science & Technology 44, 1327–1332.
Red meat production in Australia: life cycle assessment and comparison with overseas studies.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXkt1agug%3D%3D&md5=65db28af46e91931bc8d32c5c1c6519bCAS |

Powlson D, Whitmore A, Goulding K (2011) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: a critical re-examination to identify the true and the false. European Journal of Soil Science 62, 42–55.
Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: a critical re-examination to identify the true and the false.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXisVGgtrk%3D&md5=0598399d80f55fb48021356af55fa446CAS |

Regaert D, Aubinet M, Moureaux C (2015) Mitigating N2O emissions from agriculture: a review of the current knowledge on soil system modelling, environmental factors and management practices influencing emissions. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 6, 178–186.
Mitigating N2O emissions from agriculture: a review of the current knowledge on soil system modelling, environmental factors and management practices influencing emissions.CrossRef |

Robertson F, Nash D (2013) Limited potential for soil carbon accumulation using current cropping practices in Victoria, Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 165, 130–140.
Limited potential for soil carbon accumulation using current cropping practices in Victoria, Australia.CrossRef |

Robertson GP, Paul EA, Harwood RR (2000) Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289, 1922–1925.
Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXms1als78%3D&md5=5357ad3b9672410c193fb3a183bb2b2eCAS | 10988070PubMed |

Rutledge S, Mudge PL, Campbell DI, Woodward SL, Goodrich JP, Wall AM, Kirschbaum MUF, Schipper LA (2015) Carbon balance of an intensively grazed temperate dairy pasture over four years. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 206, 10–20.
Carbon balance of an intensively grazed temperate dairy pasture over four years.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXksV2isb0%3D&md5=2dceffe51b08bd60242a7229601b2990CAS |

Saggar S, Hedley C, Giltrap D, Lambie S (2007) Measured and modelled estimates of nitrous oxide emission and methane consumption from a sheep-grazed pasture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 122, 357–365.
Measured and modelled estimates of nitrous oxide emission and methane consumption from a sheep-grazed pasture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXmsFKhtro%3D&md5=a07a3f65fc6071880f3f7e03485df858CAS |

Schönbach P, Wolf B, Dickhöfer U, Wiesmeier M, Chen W, Wan H, Gierus M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kögel-Knabner I, Susenbeth A, Zheng X, Taube F (2012) Grazing effects on the greenhouse gas balance of a temperate steppe ecosystem. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93, 357–371.
Grazing effects on the greenhouse gas balance of a temperate steppe ecosystem.CrossRef |

Smith P (2014) Do grasslands act as a perpetual sink for carbon? Global Change Biology 20, 2708–2711.
Do grasslands act as a perpetual sink for carbon?CrossRef | 24604749PubMed |

Smith P, Wollenberg E (2012) Achieving mitigation through synergies with adaptation. In ‘Climate change mitigation and agriculture’. (Eds E Wollenberg, A Nihart, ML TapioBistrom, M GriegGran) pp. 50–57. (Earthscan: London)

Soussana JF, Tallec T, Blanfort V (2010) Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands. Animal 4, 334–350.
Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhslWgs70%3D&md5=dc07c51e8146da8bceb7f3e19e3b4039CAS | 22443939PubMed |

Sparling GP, Wheeler D, Vesely ET, Schipper LA (2006) What is soil organic matter worth? Journal of Environmental Quality 35, 548–557.
What is soil organic matter worth?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XisFKrurw%3D&md5=99616ad65321eff89337d53ca2c63127CAS | 16510699PubMed |

Srivastava P, Raghubanshi AS, Singh R, Tripathi SN (2015) Soil carbon efflux and sequestration as a function of relative availability of inorganic N pools in dry tropical agroecosystem. Applied Soil Ecology 96, 1–6.
Soil carbon efflux and sequestration as a function of relative availability of inorganic N pools in dry tropical agroecosystem.CrossRef |

Stevenson FJ, Cole MA (1999) ‘Cycles of soils: carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients.’ (John Wiley & Sons: New York)

Stockmann U, Adams MA, Crawford JW, Field DJ, Henakaarchchi N, Jenkins M, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Courcelles VdRd, Singh K, Wheeler I, Abbott L, Angers DA, Baldock J, Bird M, Brookes PC, Chenu C, Jastrow JD, Lal R, Lehmann J, O’Donnell AG, Parton WJ, Whitehead D, Zimmermann M (2013) The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 164, 80–99.
The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXnvFGltQ%3D%3D&md5=2c7c1a3257e1c1be737ffe1f3ea5d8adCAS |

Stokes C, Howden M (2010) ‘Adapting agriculture to climate change: preparing Australian agriculture, forestry, and fisheries for the future.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Torres CMME, Kohmann MM, Fraisse CW (2015) Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions for carbon neutral farming in the Southeastern USA. Agricultural Systems 137, 64–75.
Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions for carbon neutral farming in the Southeastern USA.CrossRef |

Verified Carbon Standard (2011) New methodology: VM0017 sustainable agricultural land management. Available at http://www.v-c-s.org/SALM_methodology_approved [Verified 15 November 2015]

Victorian Resources Online (2008) Soils of the Glenelg-Hopkins region. Available at http://vro.depi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/glenregn.nsf/pages/glenelg_soils_regional [Verified 9 Feburary 2014]

Victorian Resources Online (2009) Soils of the Birchip region. Available at http://vro.depi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/malregn.nsf/pages/mallee_soil_index [Verified 9 February 2014]

Wander M, Nissen T (2004) Value of soil organic carbon in agricultural lands. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 9, 417–431.
Value of soil organic carbon in agricultural lands.CrossRef |

White T, Johnson I, Snow V (2008) Comparison of outputs of a biophysical simulation model for pasture growth and composition with measured data under dryland and irrigated conditions in New Zealand. Grass and Forage Science 63, 339–349.
Comparison of outputs of a biophysical simulation model for pasture growth and composition with measured data under dryland and irrigated conditions in New Zealand.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (2)